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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (January 1903)"

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California Stale Library 



CALIFORNIA 

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CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY 
SACRAMENTO 

This book is due on the hist date stamped below. 

Books may be renewed if not requested by other 
borrowers. 

Failure to return books promptly may result in 
withdrawal of borrowing privileges. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

^^i3G63 INDEX, VOL. XII. JANUARY — DECEMBER, J 90 3. 



Number of 



Pla 



es. 



Freedlander, J. H. 



PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS.— HALF TONE. 

Architect. Building and Location. 

Babb, Cook & Willard House, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Babb, Cook & Willard House, Bayville, L. I 

Benson &: Brockway House, Syracuse, N. Y 

Boring & Tilton Casin.o, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Boring & Tilton House, Lloyd's Neck, L. I 

Burnham, D. H. & Co Railway Station, Richmond, Ind 

Carrere cS^- Hastings House, Providence, R. I 

Casey, Edward Pearce House, Lakewood, N. J 

Casey, Edward Pearce Dining Hall, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, N. H 

Clinton & Russell Medbury Hall, Dormitory, HobA-t College, Geneva, N. Y. . . 

Clinton & Russell Coxe Memorial Hall, Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y 

Field, Horace House, Huntley, England 

I Plans, Hospital Group, National Soldiers' Home, 
[ Johnson City, Tenn 

Frost & Granger House, Chicago, 111 

Herts & Tallant House, New York City 

Howard & Waid Library, Montclair, N. J 

Hunt, Myron Apartment, Chicago, 111 

Hunt & Hunt House, New York City 

Kendall, Taylor & Stevens Faulkner Hospital, West Roxbury, Mass 

Longfellow, A. W House, Penllyn, Pa 

Lord & Hewlett City Club, New York City 

Lowell, Guy Lecture Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass 

Lowell, Guy Building for Department of Archaeology, Phillips Academy. 

Lutyens E. L House, Overstrand, England 

Maher, George W House, Oak Park, 111 

Maher, George W House, Buena Park, 111 

Parker & Thomas Tennis and Racquet Club, Boston 

Peabody & Stearns Gymnasium, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. . 

Peabody & Stearns Gymnasium, Groton School, Groton, Mass 

Peabody & Stearns School Building, Groton School, Groton, Mass 

Peabody & Stearns House and Stable, Radnor, Pa 

Perkins, Dwight H Gymnasium, University of Chicago, Chicago 

Peters & Rice House, Boston, Mass. ( Exterior and Interior) 

Piatt, Charles A House, Warren, R. I 

Pond & Pond House, Buena Park, 111 

Pond & Pond Two Houses, Chicago 

Potter, W. A Church, New York City 

Price & de Sibour House, Lakewood, N. J 

Rankin & Kellogg Design for Foundry M. E. Church, Washington, D. C 

Rantoul. William G House, Des Moines, la 

Rogers, James Gamble House, Chicago 

Rogers, James Gamble Apartment, Chicago 

Rutan & Russell Hotel Schenley, Pittsburg, Pa 

Seeler, Edgar V Design for Foundry M. E. Church, Washington, D. C 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge House, Brookline, Mass 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge House, Thompson, Conn 

Stern, Leon, and Bragdon & Hillman .... Athletic Club, Rochester, N. Y 

Stone, Carpenter & Willson House, Providence, R. I 

( House for Friendless and Female Guardian Society, 

Tuthill, W. B I ^^^ York City 

Ward, Ward W House, Larchmont Manor, N. Y 

Warren, Smith &: Biscoe Design for Foundry M. E. Church, Washington, D. C 

Werner & Adkins Gymnasium and Athletic Club, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Wheelwright & Haven Dwelling for Nurses, City Hospital, Boston 

Wheelwright & Haven New England Conservatory of Music, Boston 

Wilkinson & Magonigle Office Building, New York City ' 

Winslow & Bigelow Town Hall, Needham, Mass 

Winslow & Bigelow Board of Trade Building, Boston 

Winslow & Witherell Hotel Touraine, Boston 

Wood, Donn & Deming Chinese Legation, Washington, D. C 

Wood, John M. and Howard, John Galen, Majestic Theater, Boston 

Wright, Frank Lloyd House, River Forest, 111 

Wright, Frank Lloyd House, Oak Park, 111 

Wright, Frank Lloyd House, Chicago 

York & Sawyer Recitation Hall, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

PLATE ILLUSTRATIONS.— LINE. 

Arciiitect. Building and Location. Plate No. 

Atkinson, William Elevation and Plans, Hospital, Plymouth, Mass 66, 71 

Babb, Cook & Willard Elevation and Plans, House, Bayville, L. 1 5o» 55 

Boring & Tilton Plans, Casino, Brooklyn, N. Y 64 

Boring & Tilton Plans, House, Lloyd's Neck, L. I 57 

Bunts & Bliss Y. M. C. A. Building, Akron, Ohio 17. 24 

Casey, Edward Pearce Elevation and Plans, House, Lakewood, N. Y 82, 87 

Casey, Edward Pearce Elevation and Plans, Dining Hall, Exeter, N. H 81, 88 

Cutter, Olin W Design, Oneida County Courthouse, Utica, N. Y 20, 21 

Davis & Shepard . Design for Public Library, Yonkers, N. Y 8 

Flagg, Ernest Chapel, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 52, 53 

f Administration, Ward and Kitchen Building, ) 26, 27, 28, 29, 

Freedlander, J. H •) National Soldiers' Home, John,son City, Tenn. ) 30, 31 



Month. 

July 

July 

August 

August 

August 

April 

October 

November 

November 

January 

January 

October 

April 

September 

August 

December 

November 

January 

February 

June 

December 

March 

April 

October 

September 

September 

November 

May 

May 

May 

June 

May 

July 

July 

September 

November 

January 

October 

January 

December 

September 

November 

March 

January 

June 

December 

May 

March 

October 

June 

January 

August 

February 

February 

March 

December 

April 

April 

July 

February 

September 

September 

September 

February 



Month. 

September 

July 

August 

August 

March 

November 

November 

March 

January 

July 

April 



Architect. 



Frost & Granger 
Green & Wicks. . 



Howard & Waid . . 

Howard & Waid . 
Ittner, William B. 

Ittner, William B. 



Kendall, Taylor & Stevens . 

Kerby, John E 

Longfellow, A. W 

Lord & Hewlett 



Lowell, Guy 



Lowell, Guy 

Maher, George W. 
Newton, George F. 
Parker &: Thomas. . 
Peabody & Stearns 
Peabody &: Stearns 
Peabody & Stearns 
Perkins, Dwight H. 

Perkins, Dwight H. 



Peters & Rice 

Piatt, Charles A 

Price iV de Sibour 

Rankin & Kellogg 

Rogers, James Gamble 

Schweinfurth, J. A 

Seeler, Edgar V 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 

Shepley, Rutan & t'oolidge 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 

Stern, Leon, and Bragdon & Hillman 

Tuthill, W. B 



Vinal, Arthur H 

Ward, Ward W 

Warren, Smith & Biscoe. 

Welton, William L 



Werner & Adkins 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Wheelwright & Haven 

Wilkin.son & Magonigle 

Wood, Donn & Deming 

Wood, John M., and Howard, John Galen, 
York & Sawyer 

York & Sawyer 



Building and Location. 

Elevation and Plans, City Hall, Lake Forest, 111 

Design, Oneida County Courthouse, Utica, N. Y 

( Elevation and Plans, Long Island College Hospital, | 

I Brooklyn, N. Y f 

Elevation and Plans, Library, Montclair, N. J 

Plans, Wyman School, St. Louis 

^ Elevation and Plans, McKinley and Yeatman \ 

\ Schools, St. Louis ) 

\ Perspective and Plans, Faulkner Hospital, Rox- \ 

\ bury, Mass ) 

St. John's Hall, Fordham, New York City 

Elevation and Plans, House, Penllyn, Pa 

Elevation and Plans, City Club, New York City 

j Section, Lecture Hall, Harvard University, Cam- ) 
( bridge. Mass j 

j Sectiop and Plans, Building for Department of | 
( Archeology, Phillips Academy ) 

Elevation and Plans, House, Chicago 

Elevation and Plans, Church, Attleboro, Mass 

Detail and Plans, I'ennis and Racquet Club, Boston. . .■ 

Plans, Gymnasiuni, Groton School, Groton, Mass 

Plans, Gymnasium, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. . 

Plans, House, Randor, Pa 

Plans, Gymnasium, Chicago University, Chicago 

( Plans, Gymnasium, Chicago University Settlement, ) 

) C'hicago j 

Plans, House, Boston 

Plans, House, Warren, R. I 

P^levation and Plans, House, Lakewood, N. J 

Design for Foundry M. E. Church, Washington, D. C. . 

Plans, House, Chicago 

Elevation and Plans, Lincoln House, Boston 

Design for Foundry M. E. Church, Washington, D. C, 

Design for Church, Boston Suburb 

Elevation and Plans, House, Brookline, Mass 

Elevation and Plans, House, Thompson, Conn 

Details and Plans, Athletic Club, Rochester, N. Y 

I Plans, Home for Friendless and Female Guardian | 
^ Society, New York City j 

P-levation and Plans, Globe Theater, Boston 

Elevation and Plans, House, Larchmont Manor, N. Y. . 

Design for Foundry M. E. Church, Washington D. C, 
\ Measured Drawings, Italian Brickwork, Chapel in ) 

/ Palazzo Del Tyrco, Seina, Italy \ 

( Elevation and Plans, Gymnasium and Athletic / 
\ Club, Cincinnati, Ohio \ 

Plans, New England Conservatory of Music, Boston . . . 
( Section and Plans, Dwelling for Nurses, City Hos- 1^ 
\ pital, Boston J 

Details, Office Building, New York City 

( Elevation and Plans, Chinese Legation, Wash- ) 
\ ington, D. C ) 

Section, Majestic Theater, Boston 

Plans, Babies' Hospital, New York City 

j Detail, Section and Plans, Recitation Hall, Vassar / 
( College \ 



Plate No. Month. 

68, 69 September 
19, 22 March 



59' 6°' ^' 

89, 96 

73 

84,85 

13 

74. 79 
44, 45 
9', 94 



25, 32 

67 

92, 93 

83,86 

40 

40 

42, 47 
33 

33 

49 
56 

75.78 

4. 5 

7" 

76, 77 

2, 7 

35, 36. 37. 38 

43, 46 
90, 95 
34, 39 



65. 72 
41, 48 

3,6 



58.63 

15 

9. 16 

18 

51. 54 

12 

1 

10, II, 14 



August 

December 
October 

November 

February 

October 

June 
December 



23 March 



April 

September 
December 
November 

May 

May 

June 

May 

May 

July 

July 
October 
January 
September 
October 
January 

May 

June 
December 

May 



80 October 



September 
June 
January 

August 

August 

February 

February 

March 

July 

February 
January 

February 



FRONTISPIECES.— FULL-PAGE HALF-TONE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Building and Location. 

Palacio Del Infantado, Guadalajara, Spain 

Palacio Del Monterey, Salamanca, Spain 

La Lonja, Saragossa, Spain 

Church of Nuestra Senora Del Pilar, Saragossa, Spain 

Castle of Coca, near Segoria, Spain 

Detail of Main Facade, Town Hall, Seville, Spain 

Court of the Archbishop's Palace, Alcala De Henares, Spain 

Court of the Palace of the Infantado, Guadalajara, Spain 

Church of S. Gregorio, Ostiense, Miies, Navarre, Spain 

Entrance of the University of Salamanca, Spain 

Convent of San Marco, Leon, Spain 

Hospital of Santa Cruz, Toledo, Spain 



MISCELLANEOUS ILLUSTRATIONS IN LETTER-PRESS. 

This list does not include illustrations made in connection with regular articles, nor those of terra-cotta details. 
Title and Location. Architect. 

American Express Co. Building, New York City 

Apartment, Pittsburg, Pa F. J. Osterling 

Apartment, New York City Thorn &: Wilson 

Apartment, Cleveland, Ohio William R. Watterson 

Bank and Insurance Building, Dubuque, la W. W. Boyington & Co 

Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo 

Bath House, Chicago R. Bruce Watson 

Board of Trade Building, Plans, Boston Winslow & Bigelow 

Casino, Harlem, New York City Alfred Zucker 

Chamber of Commerce, Minneapolis, Minn Kees & Colburn 

Chapel and Receiving Vault, Newport, Ky W. W. Franklin 



Month. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Page. 


Month. 


87 


April 


108 


May 


128 


June 


259 


December 


86 


April 


238 


November 


152 


July 


85 


April 


219 


October 


242 


November 


174 


August 



Architect. 



Page. 



Title and Location. 

Church, Christ, Pensacola, Fla John Sutcliffe. 

Church, Hebrew Temple, Atlanta, Ga W. F. Denny 

Church of Christ, Scientist, Brooklyn, N. Y 17 

Church, Park Street, Boston 

Club, Boys', Pawtucket, R. I Stone,' Carpenter & Willson 

Club, Saddle and Cycle, Chicago Jarvis Hunt 21 

Club, Union, New York City . John Dufais. ......'..'...'.'.'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. .... 196 

Courthouse, Hammond, Ind j. i'. Hutton 218 

Dormitory, Dudley Memorial, Brooklyn, JSl. Y William C. Hough 151 

Entrance, Dormitory, Cincinnati College of Music -. Gustave W. Drach ... 

Entrance, House, Philadelphia, Pa 

Entrance, Lloyd's Neck, L. I Boring & Tilton . '. . . . 

Entrance, Office Building, St. Louis Theo. C. Link 

Entrance, St. Charles Borromeo Church, New York City Georo-e H. Streeton . . 

Fireplace, Tennis and Racquet Club, Boston Parker & Thomas. 

Gymnasium, Chicago University, Chicago • Dwio-ht H. Perkins 

Home for Aged Men, Brooklyn, N. Y Lord, Hewlett ^: Hull 

Hospital, Babies', New York City York & Sawyer 

Hospital, St. Margaret's, Pittsburg, Pa Ernest Flagg 263 

House, Atlanta, Ga 

House, Bishop's Residence, Wheeling, W. Va 

House, Boston j. A. Schweinfurth . . 

House, Buffalo 

House, Camden, N. J Harvey ]. Shumway 

House, Chicago F. W. Perkins 

House, Chicago " 

House, Chicago Jenny iV Mundie. . . . 

House, Cincinnati, Ohio Elzner & Anderson. . 

House, Crescentville, Ohio Jacob J. Rueckert. . . 

House, Detroit, Mich Mason & Rice no 

House, Interiors, Syracuse, N. Y Benson (.K: Brockway 171 

House, New York City Grosvenor Atterbury 

House, Phildelphia 

Houses, Philadelphia 

House, Short Hills, N. J Parish & Schroeder . 



149 
62 



61 

107 



129 

173 

169 

20 

86 

237 
107 

63 
19 



20 

175 
263 

87 
152 

42 

130 

238 

109 

22 



109 

64 

173 

194 

Loggia, House, Thompson, Conn Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 261 

Masonic Temple, New Rochelle, N. Y George K. Thompson 84 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City Hunt & Hunt 153 

Mission House, Boston R. C. Sturgis 105 

Office Building, Albany, N. Y Marcus T. Reynolds 170 

Office Building, Boston Goodwin & Siter 150 

Office Building, Buffalo, N. Y Green & Wicks 130 

Office Building, Covington, Ky Dittoe & Wisenall 242 

Office Building, Minneapolis Gas Co., Minneapolis, Minn 219 

Offxe Building, Minneapolis, Minn Boehme c<: Cordelia 84 

Office Building, New York City C. L Berg 197 

Office Building, New York City 220 

Office Building, Upper Stories, New York City Clinton & Russell 63 

Office Building, Upper Stories, New York City Robert Maynicke 241 

Pumping Station, Chicago R. Bruce Watson 129 

Railway Station, Grand Rapids, Mich ; . D. H. Burnham & Co 65 

Schoolhouse, East Boston 1 96 

Schoolhouse, Hyde Park, Mass Loring & Phipps 22 

Schoolhouse, Jersey City, N. J 150 

Schoolhouse, New York City C. B. J. Snyder 108 

Schoolhouse, Pittsburg S. T. McClaren 196 

Schoolhouse, Troy, N. Y M. F. Cummings iV Son 262 

Stable, Chicago Burtar & Gassman 152 

Stable Interior 87 

Stable, Interior 88 

Stable, Interior Warren & Wetmore 129 

Stable, New York City Ludlow & Valentine 43 

Stable, Thompson, Conn Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 261 

Staircase Construction, Department Store, Paterson, N. J • 241 

Staircase Construction, Union Club, New York City Cass Gilbert 43 

Store Building, Boston 1 08 

Store Building, Buffalo E. A. Kent 

Store Building, Chicago D. H. Burnham & Co 

Store Building, Detroit, Mich Donaldson & Meier 

Store Building, Jacksonville, Fla J. H. W. Hawkins 

Store Building, Minneapolis, Minn C. S. Sedgwick 

Store Building, Philadelphia, Pa C. L. Gardner 

Sugar Refinery, Philadelphia 

Swimming Tank, Dormitory, Harvard University Warren & Wetmore 

Theater, Omaha, Neb Walker i'^' Kimball 

Town Hall, Viacenza, Italy Drawing by William L. Welton 239 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Toledo, Ohio E. O. Fallis 127 



220 

169 

240 

218 

20 

2 1 

'30 

63 

18 



Month. 

July 

March 

August 

March 

May 

January 

September 

October 

July 

June 

-August 

August 

January 

April 

November 

May 

March 

January 

December 

January 

August 

December 

April 

July 

February 

June 
November 

May 
January 

May 
August 

May 

March 

August 

September 

December 

April 

July 

May 

August 

July 

June 

November 

October 

April 

September 

October 

March 

November 

June 

March 

September 

January 

July 

May 

September 

December 

July 

April 

April 

June 

February 

December 

November 

February 

May 
October 
August 
November 
Ocotber 
January 
January 

June 

March 

January 

November 

June 



SERIALS. 



Paper 
Paper 



PLANNING OF APARTMENT HOUSES. 

BY WALTER H. KILHAM. 

(Continued from Vol. XI.) 

Page. Month. 

II 3 January 

in 244 December 



THE AMERICAN HOTEL. 

BY C. H. lU.ACKALL. 

Page. Month. 

Paper 1 24 February 

Paper II 47 March 

Paper III 68 April 



THE PLANNING OF HOSPITALS. 

Page. Month. 

Paper I by Ernest Flagg 90 May 

Paper II by Ernest Flagg 113 June 

Paper III by William Atkinson .... 134 July 

Paper IV. . .by Edmund M. Wheelwright. . 156 .\ugust 

Paper V by Bertrand E. Taylor. ... 250 December 

ECONOMICS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

BY JOHN LYMAN FAXON. 



Paper 1 81 

Paper II 125 

Paper III 145 



April 
June 
July 



THE BUSINESS SIDE OF AN ARCHITECT'S 
OFFICE. 



BY D. EVERETT WAID. 



(Continued from Vol. XI.) 

Paper V 37 February 

Paper VI 232 November 

Paper VII 254 December 



October 
November 



Paper IV. 



THE TOWN HALL SERIES. 

(Continued from Vol. XI.) 
. . .by Henry Forbes Bigelow. . 13 January 



INTERESTING BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA ARCHI- 
TECTURE IN ST. LOUIS. 

BY S. L. SHERER. Page. Month. 

Paper 1 32 February 

Paper II 72 April 

Paper III 96 May 

RECENT SCHOOL BUILDING IN ST. LOUIS. 

BY S. L. SHERER. 

Paper 1 2°^ 

Paper II -. 229 

BRICK ARCHITECTURE IN AND ABOUT 
CHICAGO. 

BY ROBERT C. SPENCER, JR. 

Paper I » 7^ September 

Paper II 222 November 

ARCHITECTURAL AND BUILDING PRACTICE IN 
GREAT BRITAIN. 

Paper 1 7 January 

Paper II 77 April 

Paper III 213 October 

OLD BRICK HOUSES OF RICHMOND, SURREY, 
ENGLAND. 

BY R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

Paper 1 162 August 

Paper II 188 September 



MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

Brick Edifices in Toulouse By Jean Schopfer 

Brick Laying by Machinery 

Chicago Parks 

Convention, American Institute of Architects ( Thirty-seventh) 

President McKim's Speech 

Convention, Architectural League of America ( Fifth) 

L'Art Nouveau and American Architecture By Claude Fayette Bragdon. 

Defective Fireplaces « 

Exterior Plastering on Wire Lathing 



Fire Limits 

Hints on Design in Terra-Cotta By F. Wagner 

International Congress of Architects 

Model Tenements 

New York Building Department 

New York Inspector of Buildings 

Onedia County Courthouse at Utica, N. Y 



Park Street Church, Boston 

Pulling a Building I'ogether 

Rowton House, Whitechapel, London By R. Randal Phillips 

Sand Bricks 

Slow Burning Construction 

Swaying Sky-scrapers 

Terra-Cotta Marble 

Tests of Architectural Terra-Cotta 

Uniform Brick Dimensions 

Westminster Chambers, Boston 

Wind Pressure on High Chimneys 



Page. 

53 
237 
1 27 
200 
201 
203 
204 
238 
236 

105 
119 
194 
169 

237 
107 

130 

58 

61 

86 

217 

141 

169 

>o5 
218 
161 

259 

236 

106 

63 



Month. 

March 

November 

June 

October 

October 

October 

October 

November 

November 

May 

June 

September 

August 

November 

May 

June 

March 

March 

April 

October 

July 
.August 

May 

October 

August 

December 

November 

May 

March 



FIREPROOFING ARTICLES. 



American Fireproofing Methods 

.Artificial Stone -. 

Building with Wooden Floor Joists that is / 

.Actually Fireproof \ 

Combustible Architecture and Conflagrations 

Concrete Danger, The 

(Jost of Fireproof Censtruction 

Evil of Composite Construction of Wood ( 

and Iron \ 

Failure of a Fireproof Floor 

Fire Loss in Life 

Fireproof ( "onstruction 

Fireproof Hotel, A 

Fireproof Hotels 

Fireproof Stairways 

Fireproof Windows 



Page. 


Month. 


167 
193 


August 
September 


193 


September 


40 
2S8 


February 
December 


168 


August 


16 


January 


40 
61 


February 
March 


216 


October 


82 
126 


April 
June 


2 3,S 


November 


167 


August 



Fireproofing 

Insurance Companies 

International Fire Prevention Congress .... 
Laws Respecting Fireproofing in Boston . . . 

New Wall Construction 

" New York " Reinforced Terra-Cotta ) 

Floor Arch ) 

Plaster Blocks 

Progress in Fire Protection 

Reduction of Fire Hazards in Building ) 

Construction j 

Roosevelt Building Fire 

Schlesinger & Mayer Building, Chicago . . . . 
Slow Burning 7's. Fireproof Construction . . . 
Spread of Fire 



Page. 

168 

40 

41 

235 
234 

256 

168 
.67 



Month. 

August 

February 

February 

November 

November 

December 

.August 
August 



60 March 

60 March 

loi May 

167 August 

168 August 



EDITORIALS. 



Page. 

Architect's Fee, The 243 

Architect's Name, The 221 

.Architecture and Business i 

Chicago Post Office 23 

Clerk of the Works 155 

Cleveland Group Plan 177 September 

Hospital Surroundings 67 April 

Importance of an Architect Knowing His ) 

Business J '99 October 

London Office Buildings 2 January 



Month. 

December 

November 

January 

February 

August 



Page. Month. 

Penrose, Prancis Cranmer 46 March 

Private Museum, Boston 45 March 

(Question in Insurance 199 October 

Royal Academy Gold Medal, The 133 July 

Schoolhouse Accommodation in Large Cities 89 May 

Shepley, George F 155 August 

Strike Losses 1 1 1 June 

Tested Fireproof Material 45 March 

LTpjohn, R. M 46 March 

White House Alterations 23 February 



^i^^g§^&2^^g^^l^*2Si 



THE BRICKBVILDERf 




[<rfm 



^ _ ^t^3t^^2fc5^jl2a. 

DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS- OF 5N 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATEFU ALS • OF CLAY(^ 



JAN. 1903 p 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 



ROGERS & MANSON, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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page 


Agencies. — Clay Products 


. . II 


Architectural Faience 


. . II 


" Terra-Cotta 


II and III 


Brick 


. . Ill 


" Enameled . 


III and IV 



ADVERTISING. 



Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

page 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



ARCHITECTURE AND BUSINEvSS. 

THE last twenty-five years has witnessed so complete 
and fundamental a transformation in the practice 
of architecture that we sometimes fail to fully realize 
the changed conditions and we very much doubt whether 
the younger men who are coming into the profession 
every year in such numbers altogether grasp the signifi- 
cance of the tasks which are to be imposed upon them. 
The architect of the past generation was a man of rela- 
tively limited opportunities and the demands upon him 
were far less than what is now expected of an ordinarily 
good draughtsman. It is very easy to misunderstand 
the architect's work of to-day and to misinterpret the 
popular demand, but if there is any one quality which 
seems to be imperatively required of a successful archi- 
tect with even ordinary practice, it is business ability. 
Of course business ability by itself does not mean suc- 
cess any more than does constructive or designing abil- 
ity, but an architect must be a ruler of men. He, in the 
very nature of his calling, is obliged to decide cjuickly 
and promptly questions involving not merely large 
amounts of money, but principles of justice and equity, 



and fre(|uently matters which involve very fine law 
points as well. He must be the business manager for 
his client, and the thousands of dollars which are dis- 
bursed through him must be expended economically, 
and yet with no false economy, and every cent must be 
rigidly accounted for. We know of one architect who 
for a number of years has had an average business of 
nearly one hundred thousand dollars per day. That 
amount of money he has to disburse. He must see that 
a dollar's worth of work is returned for a dollar's worth 
of money, that the accounts are kept straight, and that 
the work itself is carried forward in a prompt and busi- 
nesslike manner. Of course an amount of business of 
this kind is extraordinary, but there are a great many 
architects whose business has run up to five thousand 
dollars a day, and to properly care for a business of this 
sort requires more than (ordinary business ability. This 
is the very point upon which our present systems of 
architectural education are weak. Our students are 
most thoroughly drilled in design, and often in the ex- 
acting requirements of science. Then their practical 
experience is usually limited to toiling over a drawing- 
board in an architect's office, where, to be sure, they see 
tangible results but almost nothing of the business ma- 
chinery which is so important a factor in the production 
of these results. Consequently, when the young man 
starts in business the chances are ten to one that his 
business training will be wholly inadequate to large and 
sudden responsibilities. When the emergency arises he 
will often be found wanting, and it is this fact more 
than any other single feature which causes real estate 
men, biiilders and property owners to be distrustful of 
architects' figures and methods. There are many excep- 
tions to this list and there are architects who are the 
keenest and shrewdest of business men, but the fact that 
they are exceptions shows that the rest are far below 
them, though it also shows what an architect might be. 

So far as we know there has never been any attempt 
made in the schools to teach the business of architecture. 
We are not saying that it would be altogether practicable, 
but that it is desirable cannot be questioned for a mo- 
ment. We cannot go backward. The scope of the pro- 
fession has enlarged and the individuals must enlarge 
with it or take a back .scat. In l)usiness hal)its the l)uild- 
ers as a class are far more fitted for their work than the 
architects. We do not believe this state will continue ; 
methods will crystallize, will become better known, and 
the architects of future generations will profit by our own 
failures and our own shortcomings, but in the meantime 
the architect is at a constant disadvantage. The dreamy 
idealist who cannot bring his mind to practical dollars 
and cents is just as far astray as the shrewd, smart, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



hustling business architect who despises art. Neither is 
the right sort, but a combination of the two interests is 
not only imperatively necessary, but it is bound to come 
about in the course of a very few years. There are too 
many intelligent men in the profession to-day studying 
and working hard and thinking of how they can best, 
most successfully and most economically carry out their 
business, to let the problem stay long unsolved by the 
great majority ; and just as the few are now so well 
equipped from a business standpoint, so will, in a few 
years, the profession as a whole rise to the imperative 
demands for shrewd, hard common sense allied to the 
creative ability and the constructive, scientific execution. 
The lack of good business ability is, to our mind, the 
most .serious shortcoming of the profession to-day and 
one of which the continuance will entail the grave.st 
dangers. It is perfectly possible to imagine a combi- 
nation of keen, sensitive, well-balanced artistic ability 
with shrewd, practical, common-sen.se business methods. 
,Such a combination is extremely rare, but it is the rare 
combinations which succeed in this world, and the ar- 
chitect who ignores the fact that his art is also a mo.st 
exacting business is pretty likely one of these days to find 
him.self in with the majority of the unemployed. 



struction would not have been questioned anywhere ex- 
cept in London. 



NEW BOOKS. 



LONDON OFFICE BUILDINGS. 

THE account of the attempt to promote an Ameri- 
can office building in London is very interesting 
reading. Engli-shmen do not like it when Americans 
suggest that the old-world methods can be improved 
upon, but some of the difficulties encountered in London 
by the parties who recently attempted to put up a mod- 
ern commercial building show that we at least do some 
things better here. A person taking a lease of an office 
in London apparently is supplied with nothing but the 
bare room. He puts in his own gas and electric wires. 
He keeps his coal in the cellar and pays the janitor for 
bringing it up. He has no hot water and no towels. In 
addition to his rental the tenant has to pay a proportion 
of the cost of maintenance of the building, and every 
time the windows are wa.shed he gets a bill from the 
janitor. The elevator service, when any exists at all, is 
poor and irregular. In fact people do not hire offices in 
London, but rent chambers, and the office such as is un- 
derstood in the be.st of the New York buildings does not 
exist at all on the other side of the ocean. And yet the 
rent for these chambers is not materially lower than the 
prices which obtain in New York and Boston. Then 
the absurd restrictions in regard to light and air cm- 
bodied in the so-called laws of Ancient Lights, make it 
almost impossible to put up a new building without 
treading on some one's toes. Vested interests are about 
the most sacred thing in London, and the fact that a 
man has looked out of his window at the setting sun for a 
certain number of years gives him a proprietary right to 
all the atmosphere between him and the departing orb. 
At least that is what the doctrine amounts to in practice. 
There is one case on record where parties proposing a 
new building had to pay a sum of twenty thousand pounds 
before they could be allowed to obstruct their neigh- 
bor's light, though that obstruction was entirely limited 
to their own premises and their right to make such ob- 



Lkttkks and Lktterin(;: A Treatise with Two Hundred 
Examples. By P>ank Chouteau Brown. Boston: 
Bates & (hiild Company, 1902. 8vo, $2. 

That lettering, mere lettering, forms the basis of one 
of the most thoughtful of arts as well as of one of the 
most elaborate and exact of .sciences, we are apt to forget 
until brought face to face with such a volume as this of 
Mr. Brown's. 

It is most compact, the only other treatise at all com- 
parable with it in this respect being that by Edward F. 
Strange. Its author deals with letters, first as individu- 
als, then as members of a family, /. c. the alphabet, and 
at the most, in their relation to the outside world of other 
letters, showing the etiquette, .so to speak, that ought to 
obtain amongst the romans when approached by such dis- 
tant connection as the italic or script, or such foreigners as 
black-letter forms. Only once in a while does a picture 
intrude itself, and even then such will always be found to 
appositely point a moral rather than to adorn a tale. 

Such an attitude of stern repression toward all exter- 
nal things is a difficult one to maintain. In the short 
introductory note there occurs a pathetic paragraph which 
states that " in view of the practical aim of this treatise 
it has been deemed advisable to include a larger number 
of illustrative examples, rather than to devote space to 
the historical evolution of the letter forms." 

Another noticeable feature is the absence of the old 
familiar, almost "stock " examples. vSerlio we find, and 
Diirer, Tagliente, Lucas, and Foresti's beautiful, if hack- 
neyed, black-letter title, but stich a volume must needs 
include such examples, and for the rest there is an amaz- 
ing amount of new material. Not only does Mr. Brown 
give us the latest thing in bizarrcric and art nouvcau, 
by Olbrich and Eckmann, but he has also shown wonder- 
ful industry and enterprise in his own rubbings, repro- 
ducing these directly whenever possible, or carefully re- 
drawing them when necessary : all this in addition to 
the mass of original work which falls of necessity to his 
pen. Yet the author seems to have relied but little on 
himself to illustrate certain tendencies, and .so we have a 
large number of absolutely new illustrations from all over 
the world. A delightful page by (ieorge Auriol, done 
with the brush apparently; a few well-nigh perfect lines 
based on the Venetian type of Nicolas Jenson, by Claude 
Fayette Bragdon ; a page of script by Bruce Rogers, 
which pos.sesses all the suave fiow of the best old P'rench 
copperplate work ; a reconstruction of Serlio's famous 
capitals by Albert R. Ross, which well justifies the tre- 
mendous labor it must have involved ; two pages, by 
Maxfield Parri.sh, of that lettering which many of us con- 
sider the most subtly individual of its kind in modern 
use, as well as many other almo.st equally excellent and 
wholly new designs. 

The author's criticisms and comments are invariablj'- 
kindly and illuminating, though the final chapter, "To 
the Beginner," reads rather perfunctorily. If a reviewer 
must find fault, this is almost the only thing upon which 
to lav rude hands. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Planning of Apartment Houses. 

II. 

BV WALTER H. KII.HAM. 

HOUSEKEEPIX(i APARTMENTvS. 

TURNING now to the question of apartments ar- 
ranged for complete housekeeping, we find their 
satisfactory arrangement to be a much more difficult 
matter. Proper provision has to be made for kitchen, 
pantries and dining-rooms and for the convenient and 
sanitary housing of servants, while the facilities for the 
reception of supplies and disposal of ashes and garbage 
add another element of complication, and the requirements 
as to air and sunshine are just as exacting as in the case 
of non-housekeeping apartments. 

In general, not over two apartments can be entered 
from the same stair landing without injuring the sense 
of privacy which is the aim of every flat dweller. All 
families and their domestic life should be kept apart just 
as much as possible. The tendency of the ordinances in 
Boston and its vicinity is to restrict each bank of apart- 
ments to their own staircases with a solid party wall 
between each set of suites, but in New York this does 
not seem to be regarded as important. The entrance 
from the staircase hall to the apartment should be near 
the rooms which may properly be used for the reception 
of guests. Nothing is more disagreeable than to be con- 
ducted by one's host down a long narrow corridor, pass- 
ing doors to dining-room, bedrooms and even kitchens, 
to a final destination in the parlor. This again does not 
seem to be regarded as any objection in New York, but 
Boston tenants would be pretty sure to rebel if their 

main door did not lead quite 
directly to the living rooms. 
When possible a sort of recep- 
tion hall, or "foyer," should be 
arranged from which the other 
principal rooms may be entered. 
The "foyer" need not neces- 
sarily have outside light, but 
may profitably be paneled and 
have a fireplace or wall seat so 
as to present a cosey appear- 
ance, especially in the evening. 

Having placed the parlor and 
library alcove at the front where 
they will command a view of 
the street and given them at 
least one fireplace suitable for 
burning wood, the location of 
the dining-room next commands 
our attention. The original 
Boston idea was to place this, 
together with the kitchen, at the 
rear, so as to get good outside 
light. This involved traversing 
a long, dark passage past the 
various chambers and offices, 
and was held by many to be a 
poor arrangement. At present 
DRicK. the preferred plan is to place 



W 




the dining-room near the front, opening by means of 
double doors from the parlor or " foyer," while the 
kitchens are just behind. The chaml)ers being now 
l)Iaced at the rear, obtain more air and greatly increased 
privacy. 

It is always well to have the bath rooms open from 
small lobbies between two chambers rather than from 
the main corridor, and considerable importance should be 
attached to their windows opening directly out of doors 
rather than into small wells which serve as flues to con- 
vey sounds and odors from one suite to another. 

The service portion demands most careful considera- 
tion. The Boston law which requires two means of 




FIG. 



TYPICAL PLAN. 

I. "THE KEN- 



TYPICAL PLAN. 
KIO. 2. "IHE HEX HIK." 

egress from each suite settles tiic question of tlie service 
staircase once for all; but many large New York houses 
are without this feature. In Boston this staircase is 
commonly enclosed in brick walls and the dumb waiter 
or service elevator runs in the well sj^ace. It should of 
course be located near the kitchen and preferal)Iy on the 
same side of the corridors. 

Formerly the servants' chambers were placed in the 
basement, along with the storerooms and fuel bins. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



PAft^KT 

1 DiNM<; "f^ • I rl 




-y — 

PAALOR i; LiBRAf^V 



^=^ 



Pamtk\ 










lYPICAL PLAN. 



" IHK srKKi.ii\<;. 



They were damp, C(jld and sunless in summer 
and, beinjj often traversed by steam-heatinj,'- 
mains, heated to suffocation in winter, and 
were sometimes even without windows. In 
some instances the floor space of these dens 
was further reduced by soil pipes running near 
the floor. ( )\vin,(j more to the attitude taken 
by the serving- people themselves than to any 
humanitarian impulse on the part of the build- 
ers, servants' chambers are now generally 
placed on the same floor with the rest of the 
Hioms. The advantages of this arrangement 
to the employer are many. The movements of 
the .servants are under better control, they are 
never out of reach and their incentives to 
neatness are greater. The difficulty is to pro- 
vide servants' bath rooms for the medium- 
priced suites which can be shared by the 
servants of several families. A makeshift, not 
entirely satisfactory, is to place a bath room 
in the basement. In some houses the servants 
are collected in the roof story, which is a long 
step in advance from their basement quarters, 
but not equal in convenience to the same-floor 
arrangement, and in this case bathing facilities 




TYPICAL PLAN. 
KK;. 4. "IMK CASCAUK." 

are easily supplied. Tlie present New York practice in suites renting 
up to $1,200 per year seems to be to provide a single water-closet 
opening from the servants' room, and in some praiseworthy instances 
a little more room is taken and a small bath tub installed as a sort of 
compromise. A common practice appears to be to open the servants' 
room direct from the kitchen, but the writer would prefer to have it 
entered from the corridor or a lobby. 

A place for the refrigerator must be found near the service en- 
trance, and the dumb waiter must have a place when not enclosed in 
the rear stairs. The practice of having it open directly in the 
kitchens themselves is highly objectionable, bringing, as it does, 




TYPICAL PLAN. 
VUi. 1;. "THK ST. (IKRMAINK. ' 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the mingled doors of 
cooking- from all the 
other apartments. 

Figure i is an ex- 
ample of the treat- 
ment on a narrow- 
lot. As in many 
other New York 
houses there is no 
rear staircase. The 
suite is entered near 
the front and a rudi- 
mentary foyer exists. 
The service portion is 
good with the excep- 
tion of the dumb wait- 
er, which would be 
better if approached 
from the corridor. 

Figure 2 shows a 
treatment on adouble 
New York lot and is 
an unusiially good 
arrangement in 
every way, worthy of 
careful study. 




THC C:iC/'N*v 



TYPICAL PLAN. 
KK;. 6. "TIIK KRONl'KNAC" AND "THK lORONA." 



Ljround and are in- 
teresting studies in 
apartment house 
planning. Figure 6 
in particular is 
recommended by a 
prominent real estate 
agent as being a 
popular type of 
suite which could be 
rented as fast as 
built, for rentals of 
from $4iio to $720. 
These Houses pro- 
vide elevator serv- 
ice, porcelain sinks, 
tubs, etc., basement 
laundries with steam- 
drying apparatus, 
telephones, birch and 
oak trim, tiled bath 
rooms with showers, 
and various other 
very modern con- 
veniences. 

Figures 7 and 8 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 



FK;S. 7 AND 8. "THK 1)< )K r I/ION. " 



Figure 3 is an arrangement for providing three suites are plans of the well-known "Dorilton," whose remarkable 

on each floor on a double lot. facades are such conspicuous features of upper Broadway. 

Figures 4, 5 and 6 are treatments on large plots of {To he contiiiiicd.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




BACHELOR Al'AKTMENTS, 7 EAST 32NI) SIKKET, NKW YORK. 
Israels & Harder, Arcliitects. 



Architectural and Building Practice 
in Great Britain. 

HV (JLR SrECIAI. REI'RKSENIA 1 1\ K. 

IT is an axiom nowadays that nothins^ public shall be 
done without discussion, and as each side tries to 
make the other appear as foolish or as \vron_sj or as vil- 
lainous as may be, it is extremely difficult for an impar- 
tial observer to determine exactly who is rijjfht and who 
is wront^-. This is a peculiarly argumentative age, and one 
in which the small man is vastly conscious of his own 
ability, his own discretion and, above all, his own com- 
mon sense, though the less said about that the better. 
If earlier England witnessed the rise of "the third es- 
tate," and later England a fourth, we are surely in the 
splendor of the fifth, a splendor which sees prosperous 
butchers metamorphosed into city magnates and the large 
draper so zealous in his new learning that he may rise 
from his municipal seat and tell the surveyor or architect 
how to be about his business. It would be wrong to 
brand all councilors as being men of that breed, but, on 
the other hand, it is impossible to forget that such men 
exist in thousands. It is they who are so largely respon- 
sible for all the vandalisms and desecrations that are done 
in our midst, for their "taste" is of the fresh-as-paint 
order and they would doubtless like every bit of old ar- 
chitecture in the kingdom cleaned up spick and .span and 
everything else done which "common sense" might ap- 
prove of. Their influence on architecture is not at first 
apparent, but you may trace it from those "thin, tot- 
tering, foundationless shells of splintered wood and imi- 
tated stone, those gloomy rows of formalized minutene.ss, 
alike without difference and without fellowship," to the 
miles of respectable villadom spread around every large 
town and city. 

Thus we find that the London County Council, when 
the proposal to build a great home for itself at last takes 
definite shape, can have nowhere else to go for a site 
than the Adelphi. Site after site was considered by 
the committee — Christ's Hospital, Millbank Prison, the 
Foundling Hospital, the Hotel Cecil, the Aquarium — 
until they finally chose the Adelphi, estimated to cost 
four and a half million dollars. But two facts need to 
be stated. First, the Adelphi site embraces the finest 
work of the Brothers Adam in London — the Terrace 
facing the Thames, the famous home of the Society of 
Arts, with its wall paintings by Barry (not commendable 
to modern eyes but historically interesting), and the 
many houses with their fine ceilings, chimney-pieces and 
other relics of great talent; all of which the council 
talked of demolishing as if it were a collection of ware- 
houses or slums. The councilors could speak of nothing 
but the cost of the site; its architectural value was not 
mentioned ; and all the while the best site in London was 
allowed to be lost. I mean the crescent end of the new 
street now being formed from Holborn to the vStrand. 
In previous letters I have referred to this great thorough- 
fare, which promises to be the finest in London, and I 
need only now explain that between the crescent at its 
lower end and the Strand there will be an "island." At 
one end of this "island " the new Gaiety Theatre and 



8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



restaurant is rapidly risinj,^ (a brick core faced outside 
with Portland stone enriched by bands of marble); at 
the other end it was proposed to build an opera house, 
leaving a splendid site in the center. Here was a chance 
in a thousand, here the council should have built their 
hotel de ville ; indeed when the Holborn-Strand compe- 
tition was held such a building- was suggested and most 
of the designs showed it, but the council, to facilitate 
the passing of their scheme through Parliament, agreed 
to reinstate the Gaiety Theatre and two other buildings 
on the " island," and had represented that though the im- 
provement was estimated to cost ^4,500,000 they would 
get a recoupment of ^4,000,000, a recoupment which 
would have been seriously diminished had the coimty 
hall been placed on the site. The chance was lost and it 
now seems likely that instead of a fine civic building we 
shall have a collection of shops and offices and hotel 



1 -^LLUJiiiitni^ 



CHRIST CHURCH, LONDON. 
Professor Beresford Pile, Architect. 

premi.ses, with all their limitations and disadvantages. 
Having lost the chance, the council could do nothing 
better than propose to spend nearly a million of money 
on the Adelphi. 

As I mentioned at the beginning of this letter, 
nothing is done now without discussion ; and so far as 
architectural matters go perhaps the Liverpool Cathedral 
competition has been the subject of more debate than 
anything else of late. It will be remembered that after 
being harried right and left the executive committee con- 
sented not to restrict the designs to Gothic ; and they sub- 
sequently appointed Mr. G. F. Bodley, R. A., and Mr. 
Norman vShaw, R. A., to act as assessors. These two 
architects have issued their report, which contains one or 
two observations of interest; they have also made public 



some facts of extreme suggestiveness. The majority of 
the one himdred and three designs were (lOthic (the few 
Renaissance or classic designs were neither commendable 
nor remarkable ) ; most of them had plans more or less 
like mediiL-val cathedrals, with too many chapels around 




II 



INTERIOR, CHRIST CHURCH, LONDON. 

the cast end of the choir; there were clever drawings of 
poor conceptions by which one might be tricked; thirty- 
three of the designs were expressly prepared for the com- 
petition, twenty-three consisted mostly of competitive 
designs submitted for large churches in different parts of 
the world, and the remainder were a miscellaneous col- 




CHRIST CHURCH, LONDON. 

lection of photographs, drawings and sketches, many of 
them just gathered together as they lay handy and tied 
up in portfolios. The assessors selected the following 
architects to send in designs for the final competition, 
each to receive three hundred guineas (the assessors re- 
ceive five hundred guineas each): Au.stin & Paley, C. A. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Nicholson, G. Gilbert Scott, Malcolm Stark and W. J. 
Tapper. In addition they honorably mentioned the fol- 
lowing: Sir Thomas Drew, J. Oldrid Scott, A. II. Skip- 
worth, H. C. Corlette, C. A. Nicholson, F. Walley, James 
H. Cook and Reilly & Peach. Up to the present about 



We must now wait for the final competition ; tlie de- 
signs are to be sent in by April _^o next. 

In London two famous buildings are being swept 
away, namely, Christ's Hospital (the famous Blue Coat 
vSchool) and Newgate I'rison. As regards the former, 




CHRIST S HOSPITAL, HORSHAM. Aston Webb and E. Ingress Bell, Architects. 

General View of Quadranfjle, showing Chapel and School Halls. 



^155,000 has been collected by the committee for the 
cathedral. 

It is interesting to note that one competitor submitted 
a plan suggestive of the Royal Albert Hall, London, the 
entire area being closely seated ; the author remarked 
that he was unable to prepare a design because he had 
been ill. Another coinpetitor submitted a large chalk 
drawing of a figure ; a third, two photographs of a brass 
lectern, and so on. The assessors would not for a moment 
suggest that a man who could draw the figure could not 
design a cathedral, but when the two photographs of the 



the governors found the school inadequate for their needs 
and were compelled to move to Horsham in Surrey, where 
fine new buildings have been erected from designs by 
Messrs. Aston Webb and E. Ingress Bell. The famous 
old hospital with its great hall is now half pvilled down, 
and the site is to be covered with business premises. 
This is much to be regretted, but the governors say they 
were not rich enough to avoid doing so. The school of 
course takes its name from the dress worn by the boys (a 
long blue coat, yellow breeches and stockings, a red 
leather girdle, a clergyman's band around the neck, and 




DININt; IIAI.I., CIIKISr S IIOSI'IIAI., IIOKSHAM. 



lectern were placed side by side with thirteen large and 
carefully matured drawings of a cathedral, showing fine 
architectural skill and great knowledge in every line, 
they felt that these threw far more light on the (lucstion 
to be decided. 



sometimes a flat black cap about the size of a saucer. 
Blue was originally confined to .servant-men, and not till 
its recognition as part of the uniform of the British navy 
was it looked upon as a color to be worn by gentlemen). 
Similarly, not many yards away, Newgate, "perhaps 



lO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




T HE B R I C K B U I L n E R 



1 1 



the finest abstract expression of wall surface to be found 
in western architecture," is in the hands of the house- 
breakers, though of a different kind from those who were 
formerly its inmates. Its demolition will be extremely 
difficult, for Newgate was built as a fortress and the walls 
are more than 3 feet thick, composed of Portland stone 
slabs 4 feet and 5 feet long. The outer walls are cased 
with huge slabs of stone clamped to inner blocks, the 
cavity between being filled with concrete. But somehow 
or other, all this massive work must come down and the 
new Sessions House be erected on the site from designs 
by Mr. E. W. Mountford. The cyclopean nature of 
Newgate has preserved it in good condition ; there are 
no delicate moldings and carvings to become coated 
with soot and eaten away, for that is the chief cau.se of 
the decay of London buildings. If the soot, instead of 



amendment. Whilst referring to this matter I may 
mention that next year a great international fire exhibi- 
tion is to be held at Earl's Court under the auspices of 
the British Fire Prevention Committee. An eminently 
influential advisory council has been constituted and the 
support of all the leading continental representatives has 
been secured. 

The committee recently undertook a test between a 
slated roof and ceiling and a flat roof covered with vulcan- 
ite roofing and ceiling. The test lasted one hour, the tem- 
perature reaching 1,700 degrees Fahrenheit, followed by 
the application of water for three minutes. Each floor 
measured 100 feet superficial, and four weeks were allowed 
for con'itruction and drying. The slates were "American 
green," 20 inches by 10 inches by ^'V, inch thick, with a 
2>^-inch lap. and the ridge covered with blue Stafford- 




INTERIOR, DININ(;-HAI,L, CHRIST S HOSFITAI,, HORSHAM. 



being allowed to settle year after year, were periodically 
swept away, not scraped, the buildings would last very 
much longer. Brickwork does not suffer like stone in 
this respect. 

The question of fire protection is receiving increased 
attention from all city architects, and the terrible fire 
which occurred last June in Queen Victoria Street, Lon- 
don, has directed special attention to the subject ; in fact, 
the various municipal and government officials have been 
in commimication, with the result that a bill is propo.sed 
to be introduced into Parliament next session for the 
amendment of the London Building Act in regard to fire 
prevention. At present the act is not retro.spective and 
it is not therefore possible to insist on fire-proof stair- 
cases and other requirements in certain old buildings; 
but this will be altogether changed by the proposed 



shire ridging. The laths were of sawn spruce i}( 
inches by j^ inch. (Gutters lined with No. 14 gauge 
(Vieille Montague) zinc. The vulcanite roofing was 
covered with 2'/^ inches of gravel and sand. In fifteen 
minutes the plaster to the ceiling of the slated roof 
began to fall and in forty-seven minutes the whole of 
this roof collapsed; while in fifty-four minutes the un- 
derside of the vulcanite flat was a sheet of flame, 
though after sixty minutes the fire had not passed 
through it, and it was sound enough to be walked 
upon. Many other matters of interest to architects have 
taken place recently, but I can only briefly refer to one 
or two of them. 

A proposal has been made to reform the architectural 
room at the Royal Academy exhibition so as to get rid of 
"tricky" perspectives and admit photographs, which are 



12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



not allowed now on any account: but there is little hope 
of such reform at present. 

The rebuilding of .St. Mark's campanile, Venice, has 
been widely discussed, the general opinion being in favor 
of a reconstruction, and the Academy opened a fund for 
that purpose. 

An improved process for making stock bricks is being 
experimented with by Messrs. Eastwood & Co., Ltd., who 
have laid down a large plant at Sittingbourne. The 
same material as before is used,- -earth mixed with 
ashes, — but instead of hand molding a machine is used 
that will turn out 40,000 bricks a day as compared with 




Pl_AM OF GROUMD FLOOR 

HOUSK AT GUILFORD. 

7,000 or 8,000 by hand. The bricks are carried on trucks 
to a drying chamber 180 feet long, heated up to 200 de- 
grees Fahrenheit by exhaust-steam pipes, the moistened 
air being drawn off by fans. After twenty-four hours 
the bricks are hard and practically dry ; they are then put 
into a kiln 180 feet long, where the maximum heat is 900 
degrees Fahrenheit. Here they remain for three days. 
To allow for shrinkage, they are molded 9^ inches by 
3 inches by 42^ inches; when dried they measure ^}{ 
inches by 2"'^ inches by 4 '4 inches; and after being burnt 
they come down to the standard size, 8^ inches by 2% 
inches by 4}^ inches. The plant is a German patent and 
it is claimed for it that there is no waste and that the 
process can be carried on during the whole of the year 
instead of for about six months, as at present. 

In conclusion I may refer to the accompanying illus- 
trations. Mr. Belcher has designed a great many houses 
for the nobility, and the one here illustrated is a good 
example of his work. The house is built of purple bricks 
with red quoins, the exterior woodwork being painted 
white. 

Profes.sor Beresford Pite's church in the Brixton 
Road, London, exhibits quite new methods of treatment. 
Note the girder under the gallery, which is left exposed 
(it is painted an ocher color). The woodwork inside the 
church is stained a dark green, and the roof is very pleas- 
ingly lined with alternateh' light and dark narrow strips 
of wood diminishing towards the crown. 




HOUSK AT OUII.I'Okl). 
John Belcher, Architect. 

The new schools for the Blue Coat boys at Horsham, 
by Messrs. Aston Webb, A. R. A., and E. Ingress Bell, 
are most extensive and comprise many more buildings 
than tho.se shown by the accompanying illustrations. 
Mr. Webb is the president this year of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects and has many important schemes 
in hand, including the (Jueen Victoria Memorial and the 
extension of vSouth Kensington Museum. 




NTMUKR 5 NE\V(;ATE STRKKT, LONDON". 
C. Stanley Peach, Architect. 



The premises in Newgate Street, London, by Mr. 
C. Stanley Peach, F. R. I. B. A., are very cleverly treated 
in terra-cotta and brick. There are many refinements in 
the design, such as the little figures above the first-floor 
windows. 



* 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



13 



The Town Hall Series. IV. 

A TOWN HALL IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

BY HENRY FORBES BIGEI.OW. 

IN early New England days we find in the old towns 
settled by the Puritans an open space in the center 
of the hamlet around which the houses were grouped and 
where in many cases the meeting-house and later the mu- 
nicipal buildings faced. It was a very common arrange- 
ment to have the floor of the meeting-house raised a 
story, and the basement used as a 
town hall and entered often at the 
side. The New England town meet- 
ing originated in a house such as 
this, which served as a place of as- 
semblage only, as the offices of the 
town clerk and selectmen were at 
their homes or places of business, 
and only the legal notices were tacked 
beside the door. 

In many places a separate town 
hall is a luxury only attained in re- 
cent years, and one for five thousand 
inhabitants or over needs first an 
auditorium capable of accommodat- 
ing all the legal voters at once, and 
second, accommodations for the of- 
fices of the town clerk, school com- 
mittee, town treasurer, assessors and 
other officials, as well as often ac- 
commodations for a public library 
and in some instances the fire depart- 
ment, though this for obvious reasons 




BLOCK PLAN 



voters requires fretjuent renewal and vent flues of ample 
area and vigorous draught, and it .should have good 
acoustic properties. 

The site chosen for this town hall is on the small 
common of a village of five tliousand to six thousand 
inhabitants such as one finds in most New lingland 
towns. The village churches are found about this com- 
mon, and the main street runs on one side of it. A 
simple type of colonial architecture somewhat modified 
has been chosen as best suiting the traditions of the 
place and lending itself easily to 
the requirements. The exterior is 
intended to be built of red brick 
laid Flemish bond, witli trimmings 
of white semi-glazed terra-cotta, 
and the roof of tile. The inte- 
rior is simple in treatment, the cor- 
ridors having floors of Moravian 
tile in simple pattern and the 
ceilings of glazed (ruastavino tile. 
This latter construction is to l)c 
used in all the rooms of the first 
floor and basement. If the money 
permits, it would he desirable to 
use glazed white brick for all the 
walls throughout the basement, and 
particularly desirable in the lock-up 
room in order that it may be fre- 
quently washed with a hose. 

The plans and elevations ex- 
plain the .scheme as fully as a 
longer description, and are intend- 
ed to be carried out in as nearly 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



is unusual. The hall should be bright and cheerful, for 
it is probably the largest hall in the village, and for that 
reason will be often used for fairs and entertainments. 
It should be well ventilated, for even in Massachusetts 
the atmosphere of a thou.sand clo.sely packed average 



fire-]3roof construction as possible. It may be of 
interest to add that the drawings proved successful 
in a competition for a Massachusetts town, and tlic 
Iniilding is being l)uill on very much llic lines indi- 
cated. 



H 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



D^-^ 




BASEMENT PLAh. 
I'l.ANS, A TOWN HAI.I. IN MASSACHUSETTS. Henry Forbes BiKelow, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



15 




.\ 




-J ^ 
a 5 

O o 



3! cu 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Fire-proofing. 



The Evil ot Composite Construction 
of Wood and Iron. 

IN the construction of buildinjfs in which ironwork is 
the supporting material the building regulations of 
cities should prohibit the use of wood for any structural 
purpose. Iron as a material to resist fire has its limits. 
At about 400 degrees Fahrenheit it has its maximum 
strength, and for every increase of 100 degrees it loses 
approximately 10,000 pounds per square inch. Bearing 
these facts in mind, it is not hard to understand why 
wood and iron as structural members should not be used 
in the same building. 

A not uncommon method of constructing warehouses, 
factories and other commercial buildings where the floor 
spans or loads to be carried by the girders are too great 
to conveniently permit the use of wood, is to make the 
coh;mns and girders of iron and the beams and floors of 
wood, and in this style of construction little if any at- 
tention is given to protecting the ironwork from the weak- 
ening and injurious effects of heat. 

The reasons which usually govern the selection of iron 
for the framework of such buildings are: First, the rapid- 
ity of erection ; second, the difficulty of obtaining wood 
members of sufficient size and strength for girders (which 
difficulty is becoming greater each year as the forests are 
denuded of their larger trees) ; third, structural objections 
arising from the inability to design sufficiently strong 
wood connections where great strength is required at the 
joints, as in the case of high and narrow buildings or 
buildings subjected to shocks or vibrations which cannot 
be taken up by the thickness of the masonry walls ; fourth, 
the necessary thickness of walls in the all-masonry type in 
lower stories necessary to support the masonry walls above. 

It may be said that all these reasons may also be ap- 
plied in favor of the fire-proof building and this is true. 
The fact is, the skeleton form of building presents many 
advantages from a standpoint of construction. It is so 
simple, so direct and can be designed so efficiently that 
these strong points have all been borrowed from this 
form of construction, while its vulnerable points have not 
been protected, consequently we have in such high build- 
ings a type possessing some of the advantages of the 
skeleton type, but none of the advantages of the fire- 
proof type, coupled with the greatest vulnerability to 
possible total destruction by fire. 

From an insurance standpoint the all wood, slow burn- 
ing construction type, particularly if it is supplied with 
sprinklers, is much better than the composite type. 
Buildings of the composite type are not likely to have 
their outside columns protected, except by the outer brick 
walls, and if the columns are thicker than the walls the 
inner sides of the columns are usually uncovered or at 
best covered with a thin layer of tile or metal lath and 
plaster ; and as the building is not treated as a fire-proof 
structure, the inside iron framework usually has no pro- 
tection whatever. Should the composite type of building 
be menaced by fire from the outside or inside, serious 
damage is likely to result not only to the structure but 
also to adjoining buildings and to the firemen. 




Fn;. I. 

One reason, perhaps, that this matter has not received 
proper consideration from the designers of buildings and 
the municipal authorities is probably because it is not 
often that when a fire occurs in such a building a good 
illustration of it can be secured or that the contributing 
causes to its destruction can be clearly seen. Usually the 
" remains " are bent and distorted by falling walls or the 
causes which led to the damage are so complicated that 
any conclusions drawn from it are open to question. 

Several years ago a fire originated in the Detroit 
Opera House by the explosion of a calcium light 
tank. The explosion set fire to the Opera Hou.se, and 
from the Opera House the fire was carried across a small 
street thirty feet to a ten-story steel-frame building with 
a composite wood and iron floor system. The fire en- 
tered the steel-frame building at several unprotected 
openings, and was rapidly communicated to all the floors 
through an open elevator shaft and stairway. The in- 
flammable character of the stock, which was furniture, 
added additional combustible material to the wood beams 
and floors. 

Figures i and 2 .show the evil effects of the composite 
construction, by comparative photographs taken "before 
and after. " They illustrate the argument so clearly and 
such illustrations are so rare that no other excuse is 
needed for using them. In this case the primary causes 
of the destruction came from the outside, and it might 
be said, attacked the building from its least vulnerable 
side. 

The walls of the mercantile building were 16 inches 
thick in the first story and 1 2 inches above this up to and 
including the tenth story. One of the side walls was 
built of tile in .several of the upper stories. The floors 
were of plank about 3 inches in thickness and the girders 
were protected by tile of i inch in thickness; the col- 
iimns were also covered with tile i inch in thickness. 
The wall columns were partly built into and partly pro- 
tected by the outside walls, and where exposed on the 
inside were covered with tile i inch in thickness. An 
examination of the illustration taken after the fire will 
show what very serious damage a fire in such a building 
can do. The steel frame has seriously suft'ered from the 
heat, many of the curtain girders are much twisted and 
bent, and quite a number of the girders in the interior of 
the building are also bent and out of line. In this build- 
ing, also, the brick curtain wall is seen to be missing. 
The front walls of the building did not suffer so much 



THE BRICKBUILDKR. 



17 




FIG. 2. 

because they had only to contend with the fire inside and 
not with an additional fire ovitside, as did the rear walls. 
The walls of the building- proved to be a menace to the 
firemen, although no fatalities resulted. The wonder is 
that the skeleton remained in position at all, and the fact 
that a considerable part of the framework was used again 
in the restored building was due probably to the efficient 
use of water before the point of yielding of the iron had 
been reached. 

Had this building been of the true fire-proof type, as 
it might have been with a little more expense, and had 
its openings been properly protected by metal frames 
and sash with wire-glass lights from adjacent exposure, 
there is little doubt that it could have successfully passed 
through the fire with but little injury, but with thin 
walls and a mere imitation of fire-proof covering in con- 
nection with wood beams and floors, hardly as good a 
showing could have been expected. 

Buildings of the composite type should not be encour- 
aged either by the building laws or by the insurance com- 
panies, for while some buildings of this type may make a 
better showing than could be expected in case of fire, owing 
to the timely arrival of the fire department, yet they pre- 
sent so many objections from the standpoint of safety to 
the adjoining buildings, the occupants, the public and the 
fire department, that they should be prohibited by proper 
laws or at least regulated to such a modest height that in 
event of failure no great harm can result. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that such prohibition or regula- 
tion will be needed, for after a designer has once become 
familiar with the sureness and certainty of iron construc- 
tion, as well as its very many other advantages from a 
constructional point of view, he will naturally turn to this 
class of construction when it can .satisfactorily solve his 
difficulties, without thinking of the possible after effects 
such construction may have upon the neighborhood in 
event of fire. 

In the building illustrated this composite type of con- 
struction is carried t(j the very great height of ten stories, 
and the folly of the laxity of building laws which per- 
mitted this is evident. Providence is said .sometimes to 



take particular care of the 
foolish, but it is not safe to 
count forever on this immu- 
nity from harm. 

What is said here of com- 
posite construction can also 
be said of the growing and 
indefensible custom of build- 
ing party or division walls 
upon an iron framework — for 
the proper fire-proofing of 
the ironwork of such walls 
is rarely considered, and the 
difficulties in the way of 
])roperly applying the fire- 
proofing are so many that the 
convenience of a wall with- 
out offsets is usually consid- 
ered more important than 
proper thickness of covering 
for the ironwork. 

The use of iroii skeleton 
work or iron girder construction in the street fronts of 
buildings which have joists of wooden construction is 
not good practice under ordinary circum.stances, for in 
this class of buildings the fire-proofing is usually omitted 
and exposure to fire may cause the collapse of the front 
with possible fatalities to the firemen and destruction to 
neighboring buildings. Ironwork, if used in combusti- 
l)le buildings, requires even more care to protect it from 
exposure, perhaps, than if used in non-combustible or 
fire-proof construction, and in any case requires more 
covering than is iisually applied. 

The facility with which alterations can be made to old 
or existing properties by removing the fronts of the lower 
stories and replacing the masonry with ironwork, calls 
for special attention from the building inspectors and in- 
surance companies. As the.se alterations are usually 
made in the cheapest manner, no consideration is given 
to the question of the effects which fire may bring about. 
With this class of l)uildings, if a fire occurs in the lower 
stories, the heat may be sufficient to so weaken the iron- 
work that the whole front may come tumbling down to 
the danger of the firemen and the people upon the street. 
The use of ironwork in buildings has brought with it 
so many advantages that its disadvantages, or rather its 
weaknes.ses, in the form of lack of fire resistance and lia- 
bility to rust have sometimes been overlooked, or rather 
failure has resulted from a neglect to recognize the neces- 
sity of properly shielding these weak but readily pro- 
tected characteristics of a building material possessing 
so many useful, admirable and almost indispensable qual- 
ities, and the additional cost of effectively fire-proofing 
ironwork is such a small percentage of the total cost that 
it is in fact shortsighted to neglect it, and it is further 
the duty of the building departments of the cities and of 
the inspection departments of the insurance companies 
to see that the use of ironwork in connection witli wood- 
work without proper protection is prohibited. 

When a practice is wrong it should be discontinued, 
and nothing is to be gained by temporizing. Building 
laws should recognize the evil of this form of construc- 
tion and make it impossible. 



i8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Selected Miscellany. 



NOTEvS FROM NEW YORK. 

THE general condition of real estate and building op- 
erations in this city continues to be prosperous. 
K^ven though this is usually a dull season with architects, 
many of them are now at work upon preliminary sketches 
for buildings which will be started in the spring. The 
prosperity of any community can be clo.sely gauged by the 
poverty which is prevalent and by the number of the un- 



one. We do not assume that this state of affairs is peculiar 
to New York. In fact reports irom all parts of the country 
suggest a similar condition of affairs, so altogether it may 
be taken for granted that there is no abatement of the 
prosperity that has blessed this country for the last six 
years. vSome fatalists are predicting hard times for the 
near future, and base their predictions upon the over- 
production of the present year. Facts, however, seem 
to indicate that there is no over-production, and very re- 
cently a well-known student of these conditions said to 
me, " Do you know that if this city were absolutely block- 
aded against outside communication without warning for 




1 HK TROCAUERO, O.MAHA, NEH. Walker & Kimball, ArchiteLts. 
Terra-Cotta made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 



employed. The movement is of course in adverse direc- 
tions, — when the one goes up the other goes down. The 
smaller the poverty the greater the prosperity, and -■icr 
versa. By poverty or pros- 
perity is not meant the 
standing in wealth of a com- 
mimity as a whole, but the 
actual poverty and prosperity 
that exist in it and are the 
factors by which a general 
conclusion is drawn. 

Statistics show that those 
who are idle this winter are 
idle from preference, as there 




a week there would be a vmiversal famine imminent ? " 
Although it does not seem possible that the immense car- 
loads and boatloads of provisions entering this city are 

cjuickly consumed, it is a fact, 
and comparatively little is 
stored up. The same c(jn- 
ditions seem to prevail in the 
building world. New apart- 
ments and office buildings 
seem to spring up in a night 
and are filled up as soon as 
completed, and strange to 
say the population of the old 



DETAILS BY JOHN H. DUNCAN, ARCHITECT. buildiugs sccms to remain 

is work enough for every ^ew Vork Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. the same. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



19 



Of course there 
are no men more 
benefited by prosper- 
ous times than those 
workmen and me- 
chanics who are em- 
ployed directly or 
indirectly upon build- 
ing operations, and 
if they desire a con- 
tinuance of prosper- 
ity a word of warning 
is in order. We be- 
lieve heartily in the 
organization of labor 
for the betterment 
of their condition, 
and we also believe 
that their pay should 
be better when times 
are prosperous and 
that they with their 
employer should reap 
some additional har- 
vest, but we also be- 
lieve that the arro- 
gance and unreason- 
ableness which 
seem to be fast be- 
coming popular 
among labor unions 
will do more than 
anything else to put 
a sudden stop to 
prosperity and to 
cause building op- 
erations to cease for 
an indefinite period. 
If this comes to 
pass it will throw 
into idleness a vast 
army of working- 
men, not only of 

those actually engaged in building operations but in 
manufactures dependent on them. I know of one large 
estate, with large property and real estate interests, who 




sympathize blindly 
with the working- 
man, wliicli is only 
natural, but it would 
be well if they knew 
more of the facts. 
Probably every ar- 
chitect and builder in 
the country could re- 
late anecdotes cor- 
r (J b o r a t i n g these 
statements, and they 
would prove intense- 
ly interesting. 

The enormous 
and popular Waldorf- 
Astoria is soon to 
have a rival in a 
mammoth new hotel 
to be erected on the 
site of the old Hotel 
B r u n s w i c k . T h i s 
has been rumored at 
many times, but this 
time it seems to be a 
fact. Mr. Charles T. 
Barney is at the head 
of a syndicate whicli 
will build and run 
the hotel. It is esti- 
mated that ;*i!4,75o,- 
000 will be spent on 
the building. 



CONCRETE MILE 
POSTS. 



THE BAlilES HOSPITAL Ol 



c 



THE (TTV OF NEW YORK 
AND 50TH STREET. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 

(see plate no, 1 FOR FLOOR PLANS ) 



LEXINGTON AVENUE 



ONCRETE mile 

posts have been 

adopted by the Chi- 

cago & Eastern 

Illinois Railroad. 

These posts are 8 

inches by 8 inches, 8 feet long, with 4 feet 6 inches 

showing above ground. The posts are cast in a mold, 

and in the form are laid raised characters used to desig- 




MEDALI.IONS DESIGNED KV VKlok ilVC.O KOEHI.ER. New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makt 



have stopped all building operations until the time comes 
when they can build without the constant annoyances to 
which they have been recently subjected. Most people 



nate the miles and the divisions. The first layer of con- 
crete put in is 1)lackcncd by coloring matter, and in the 
finished post tlie numbers appear reces.sed in white or 



20 



THE B R 1 C K B U I L D E R . 



tW 



light gray on a black ground. These posts are manufac- 
tured at a cost of eightv-two cents each. 



THE JOHN STEWARDSON MEMORIAL 

SCHOLARSHIP IN ARCHITECTURE. 

SEVENTH COMPETITION. 1903. 

The managing committee of the John Stewardson 
Memorial Scholarship in Architecture announces by au- 
thority of the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, 
who act as trustees of the memorial fund, a competition 
for a scholarship of the value of one thousand dollars, the 
holder of which is to spend one year in travel and in the 




DAMON lUILDING, ,M I NNKA I'OI.IS, .MINN. 

C. S. Sedgwick, Architect 

Hiiilt <il CDliimljus Brick and Terra-Cutta Cnnii)any's l^rick. 

Study of architecture in Europe under the direction of 
the committee. 

Candidates must be under thirty years of age and must 
have studied or practiced architecture in the state of 
Pennsylvania for the period of at least one year immedi- 
ately preceding the twenty-third day of May, 1903. 

Inquiries may be addressed to Professor Warren P. 
Laird, School of Architecture, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. 





rii 


\ 


4 




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ii-'-Msss^^^ 


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m 






DETAIL HY J. M. MiCOLLUM, ARCHITECT. 
C'onklinK-Arin'^tronK Tcrra-ditta Company, Makers. 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION OK 
N. B. M. A. 

THE seventeenth annual convention of the National 
Brick Manufacturers' Association will be held in 
lioston February 4, 5 and 6, headquarters at the Hotel 
Brunswick, corner of Boylston and Clarendon streets. 
'I'he indications are that a large number of manufactur- 




HOUSE AT ATLANTA, GA. 
Roofed with American S Tile. 



KNIRANCE, CARLETON BUILDING, ST. LOIIS, Ml). 

Theo C. Link, Architect. 
Terra-Cotta executed by Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 

ers from different parts of the country will be in attend- 
ance, and a programme of unusual interest has been ar- 
ranged for. The banquet of the association will be held 
at the Hotel Brunswick at 6.30 o'clock Wednesday even- 
ing, February 4. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



2 I 



f. 




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1 "^ 




3^,^ ^^ 2 


11^^ 






^H .':^ 


1 


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^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


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9£ 



SADDLE AND CYCLE CLUB HOUSE, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 
Roofed with Ludowici Tile. 



THE OLD BRICKWORK OF HOLLAND AND 
BELGIUM. 

IN an extra edition to The Brickbuilder for this month 
there are illustrated fifty selected examples of the 
charm in j^- old brickwork of the Dutch countries. This 
special number will be ready for mailing about February i . 



regular university educa- 
tion and yet who have 
the ambition to study 
and improve their con- 
dition. The affiliation of 
the Correspondence 
School with the Armour 
Institute is greatly to 
the credit of both insti- 
tutions and is in a sen.se 
a guarantee of the high 
s t a n d a r d w h i c h the 
American School has set 
before itself and to which 
it has tried so hard to 
raise the average of its 
pupils. 



During the year 1902, 
as c(jmpared with tlu' 
year 1901, the amount of 
building shows a loss in 
New York, Philadeli)hia 




THE AMERICAN 

SCHOOL OF CORRE^ 

SPONDENCE. 

WE have received the 
catalogue of the 
American vSchool of Corre- 
spondence at the Armour 





PANEL, EXECUTED IN RED, GREEN, 
BLUE, GRAY AND GOLD GLAZES 
BY PERTH AMBOY TERRA- 
COTTA COMPANY. 
.Alfred Ho])kins. .Architect. 

and St. Louis of from :; to iS per cent. 
San Francisco shows a gain of 92 per 
cent, and Chicago, Buffalo, Cincinnati 



DETAIL BY LORD & HEWLETT, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cott? Company, Makers. 



STATUE (10 KEET HIGH). 

Excel.sior Terra-Cotta Company, 
Makers. 



Institute of Technology at 
Chicago, also the instruc- 
tion paper on Perspective 
Drawing of the same, pre- 
pared by Professor W. H. 
Lawrence, As.sociate Pro- 
fessor, Department of 
Architecture of Masachu- 
setts Institute of Tech- 
nology. The subject-matter 
is very thoroughly treated 
in all its aspects and the 
illustrations are clear and 
concise, affording great aid 
to the student. The Cor- 
re.spondence vSchool is doing 
a good work for the thou- 
sands of young men all 
over the country who are 
denied the privileges of 



and Washington 
show gains of 
from 20 to 36 per 
cent. 



IN (rENERAL. 
Louis Mull- 
gardt, architect, 
vS t . Louis, has 
1) e e n commis- 
sioned to design 
the woodwork 
and mural deco- 
rations for the 
new mammoth 
hotel which is to 
be erected at 
M a n c h c s t e r , 
ivngland, by the 
Midland Railway 




STORE KRONI', PHILADELPHIA, I'A. 

C. L. Gardner, Architect. 

Bnilt of ■■Ironclay" Brick. O. W. Ketcliam, 

Philadelphia Agent. 



22 



THE BR ICK BU I LDER. 




HOUSE AT CRESCENTVILLE, OH Id. 

Jacob J. Rueckert, Architect. 

Brick furnislied by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 

Company at a cost of $5,000,000. Mr. Mnllgardt, accom- 
panied by hi.s family, sailed f(jr England December 31. 

E. ( ). Kuenzli, for a number of years head draughts- 
man with Charlton, Gilbert & Demar, architects, Milwau- 
kee, Wis., has been admitted to the firm, succeeding Mr. 
Dcmar. 

Knight Brothers have opened an office at Crown 
Point, Ind., for the practice of architecture and engineer- 
ing, and would be glad to receive manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 



\V. W. de Veaux, formerly 
of New Vork City, has opened 
an office for the practice of archi- 
tecture at 104 Union Street, Se- 
attle, Wash., and would be glad 
to receive manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 

Brick, one of the leading 
clay-working journals of the 
country, gives five pages of its 
January number to a descrip- 
tion, with illustrations, of the 
plant of the Blue Ridge Enam- 
eled Brick Company, located at 
Saylorsburg, Pa. This is one 
of the best equipped enameled 
brick making plants in this 
country, w-e may say in the 
world, it being modern and in 
every respect up to date. The 
compliment which lirick pays 
this company is certainly de- 
served. 

As previously announced in 
The Brickbuilder for Novem- 
ber, the business heretofore 
conducted by The Columbus 




F'ace Brick Company will be continued in a 
more extensive w^ay by The Ironclay Brick 
Company, a new corporation having a capital 
of three himdred thousand dollars, with facil- 
ities for the annual production of upwards of 
twelve millions of the "Ironclay" brick in 
all sizes and shapes. New and larger kilns 
have been built. New presses of greater 
capacity are now in operation. Larger stor- 
age sheds have been provided, and every- 
thing that experience has shown to be nec- 
essary or desirable has been done to bring 
the enlarged and perfected plant fully up to 
the requirements of the trade. There will be 
no change in the personnel of the company, 
David C. Meehan continuing as president 
and treasurer, and John M. Adams, secretary. 

The Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, St. 
Louis, has issued a very attractive calendar 
for the new year. 

The Pope Cement and Brick Company, 
Pittsburg, Pa., are sending to their friends 
a vest-pocket diary which should prove to be very 
acceptable. 








DETAIt. BY FISHER & 

LAWRIE, ARCHITECTS. 

St. Louis Terra-Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



NEW HIOH SCHOOL Kt_ I I.DINO, HVDE PARK, MASS. 
Loring & Phipps, Architects. 

The new high .school building at Hyde Park, Mass., 
Loring & Phipps, architects, will have the Folsom vSnow 
Guard on its roof. This same statement might in truth 
be applied to most of the new schoolhouses in New Eng- 
land having ])itchcd roofs. 

PERSPECTIVE DRAWING 

TAUGHT BY CORRESPONDENCE. 

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offers thorough instruction in me<hanic.m. draw- 

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Catalogue describing courses, methods and terms on request. 




AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 
AT Armour Institutk of Technoi.oov - - Chicago, Ii.l. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

FEBRUARY, 
1903. 




PALACIO DEL MONTEREY, SALAMANCA, SPAIN. 




THE BRICKBVILDERi 




DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTSOF 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN MATERIALS OF CLAY 



FEB. 1903 ^« 



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PUBLISHED MOXTHLV BV 

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Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
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ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

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Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



APARTMENT HOUSE SERIES. 

OWING to the illness of Mr. Kilham the presentation 
of the third article in the series on The Planning 
of Apartment Houses will be postponed until the March 
or possibly the April issue of The Brickbuilder. 



A CONTROVERSY has been aired in the newspapers, 
apparently started by Colonel Bingham, who feels 
called upon to criticise the nature of the White House 
alterations and incidentally to cast a species of aspersion 
upon the architect and his charges which would be alto- 
gether absurd as applied to any first-class architect and is 
especially so in the case of Mr. McKim. Surely if any 
architect ever gives full worth for his money it is the firm 
of which Mr. McKim is an honored member, and to as- 
sume that since the architect receives ten per cent on the 
decorations and five per cent on the general construction 
he would necessarily run up the bills of the former to 
merely increase his commission is a suggestion worthy of 
the political mind which would conceive it and simply 
shows how dense is the ignorance of the average public 
man to the point of view of the trained architect. The 



commission system of payment has its faults. It, how- 
ever, more often inadecjuately conipen.satcs an architect's 
expenditure of thought than it overpays, and if the prices 
paid for the high order of architectural service which has 
been expended on the White House had been twice the 
actual percentage the total would not have been too much 
for the personal attention and trained skill which have so 
successfully transformed our executive mansion from a 
very commonplace, if not vulgar, interior to one that is 
in every respect fitting for the official residence of our 
chief magistrate. And in the mean time Mr. McKim can 
well afford to let the politicians rave. 



WE notice in a contemporary magazine, which claims 
to be architectural at least in its character, a 
statement to the effect that the American Institute of 
Architects had elected, among others, Emil Nauchamer 
of Paris an honorary member. Such is the bubble repu- 
tation. Emile Vaudremer is a name so familiar to every 
architect who has followed the development of his art 
during the past thirty years that to have that honored 
name so horribly mutilated in print shows how easy it is 
for even the greatest to be ignored. For that matter, 
when M. Vaudremer's name was presented at the con- 
vention he was referred to by one architect as Mr. Vau- 
dream-er, with the accent on the dream. 



THE Chicago Post Office, which is nearing comple- 
tion under the direction of Mr. Henry Ives Cobb, 
is proving to be one of the most economically built 
structures of its kind. The New York Post Office, 
which was built during the reign of Mullett, is said to 
have cost one dollar per cubic foot. The cost of the 
vSt. Louis Federal Building is said to be ninety-six cents, 
and of Omaha seventy-one cents, Philadelphia sixty-five 
cents, Cincinnati sixty-four cents, and the Pittsburg 
Federal Building forty-nine cents. All of these build- 
ings were built some years since when prices were con- 
siderably lower than they are now. The Chicago build- 
ing is an expensive one to build in some ways, having a 
great deal of outside wall for its area, and the contracts 
were let at times when the prevailing prices were higher 
than they have been for many years, yet the total cost 
per cubic foot, including finish of a very high order, it is 
said, will be only forty-one cents per cubic foot. An 
ordinary commercial building can be built for thirty-five 
cents per cubic foot as a minimum. Many of them cost 
as high as sixty. The Chicago Post Office is a notable 
exception to the general rule for government work. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The American Hotel. I. 

BY C. H. BLACKALL. 

THE extraordinary growth in material wealth of this 
country during the past generation has made pos- 
sible the development of the construction and the opera- 
tion of the large city hotel to an extent which renders 
the problem one of the most interesting which confronts 
the architect. Fortune has been prodigal in her blessings 
to this people, and apparently we are no less prodigal in 
improving our communities. The hotel life of to-day in 
a large city implies necessarily the possession of and the 



in New York City any hotel which would to-day answer 
to the designation of first class. The Waldorf was looked 
upon as a freak of an extremely wealthy family which 
could afford to indulge such hobbies, and the prediction 
was freely made that Mr. Boklt, the manager of the 
hotel, was courting failure by assuming the enormous ex- 
pense incidental to a hotel of that sort. When a few 
years later the Astoria was added to the Waldorf on a 
degree of even greater magnificence the public began to 
appreciate that there were a good many thousand people 
in the world who not only wanted but were willing to pay 
for the highest class of accommodations. At present 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

HOTEL MANHATTAN, NEW YORK. 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
H. J. Hardenbergh, Architect. 



willingness to spend a good deal of money. Few even 
of those who are fairly familiar with the problem realize 
how tremendously prices have advanced even in the last 
ten years. It was not very long ago that five dollars a 
day was considered a very high price for accommoda- 
tions at the best hotels in New York City, including both 
meals and room. To-day it is not easy to obtain a room 
in a thoroughly first-class hotel under three dollars a day, 
and this hires a very humble apartment usually on an 
inner court, the best rooms commanding prices as high 
as ten or fifteen dollars per day for room and bath alone. 
Up to the time that the Waldorf was built there was not 



there are a number of hotels on the scale of the Wal- 
dorf-Astoria in New York, and they all seem to be pros- 
perous in every sense of the word. Nor is this prosperity 
confined to New York alone. Prices have advanced 
enormously in Chicago, St. Louis, W^ashington and Bos- 
ton. The fact that all these large, magnificent hotels 
pay good returns on their money and a handsome profit 
to the manager who understands his business is abundant 
evidence that the country needs just such structures. 

The change from the American to the European plan, 
so called, of operating a hotel has necessitated and brought 
about many changes in the planning. In the older type 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



25 




FIFTH FLOOR FLAN. 




BAIXONY 

u □ n - O a = 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
THE WALDORF-ASTORIA, NEW YORK. H. J. FlardenbcTKh, Architect. 



26 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of hotel the dining room was the principal apartment and 
was usiially a single, large, more or less dreary hall where 
all met in common. This room and the bar were all that 
was offered to the patrons for eating and drinking. The 
bar, however, soon expanded into a cafe', and the cafe in 
turn has developed into what bears still the same name, 
but is virtually the men's dining room and usually the 
most profitable source of income about the building, 
while the dining room proper is by common custom in 
the large cities reserved for ladies alone or with escorts. 
The American plan hotel still survives in most of the 
small cities. In the larger cities some of the cheap hotels 
are run on the American plan, but almost without excep- 
tion the first-class hotels are to-day on the European 
plan and the cheaper ones are rapidly falling into line. 
In studying this problem it is the intention to draw 
for illustrations from only the best of the large city hotels. 
If an architect twenty-five years ago could have clearly 



practically without much reference to everything below, 
for with our modern methods and the possibilities which 
steel puts within our reach the lower stories can be 
arranged and divided almost without reference to the 
structural lines of support from above. This may be 
questionable architecture perhaps, but it certainly seems 
to be custom. In the Waldorf-Astoria the ballroom, 
one hundred feet in diameter, is .spanned by huge girders 
which support some fifteen stories or more of sleeping 
rooms. In nearly all the hotels, in fact, the large rooms 
are arranged with little reference to the upper portion of 
the building. vSo the first consideration of plan is for 
the sleeper; the next is for the business floor, so to speak, 
including the dining room, offices, etc. ; and the last to 
be considered includes the kitchens and service quarters 
generally. These can be tucked away to an apparently 
unlimited extent in the bowels of the earth. The hotel 
which is now being constructed at the corner of 42nd 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
HOTKI, SCHENLKY, I'rTTSRUR( 1 11 . Rulan & Kussl-11, Architecls. 



foreseen just what the hotels of the twentieth century 
would be, the best hotels of his time would all have been 
poor models to study for what we have to-day. It is fair 
to assume therefore that the future will see quite as large 
developments as have marked the past, and the best of 
to-day will surely be none too good to study for the crea- 
tion of what will be the average of excellence of a few 
years hence. Furthermore, there is no problem involved 
in the construction of a small hotel that is not eqiially 
prominent in a large one and which is not usually therein 
solved in a better and more logical manner. There are 
few Waldorf-Astorias in the country and only one Ponce 
de Leon, but it is by studying these best examples that 
the architect who has a more modest problem confronting 
him can find the exact solution which he seeks. 

In the planning of a large hotel the first study is given 
to the arrangement of the sleeping accommodations. 
The disposition of the upper stories can be established 



Street and Park Avenue, New York, is carried down 
story after story until it stretches far below the bottom 
of the subway. Indeed the subway is carried through 
one corner of the hotel so as to be entirely enclosed by 
the service portions. The three factors, the sleeping 
apartments, the first floor and the service, are almost in- 
dependent of each other and will be studied separately 
in this article. 

There are three troublesome features to be considered 
in planning the sleeping apartments of a hotel, namely, 
bath rooms, fireplaces and closets. These are termed 
troublesome for the reason that invariably the client will 
take the total area of the lot, divide it by the approximate 
area of a single sleeping room, multiply this by the num- 
ber of stories, and demand that in some way the architect 
shall plan a hotel with that number of sleeping rooms. 
That was approximately possible before the days of mod- 
ern plumbing, and there are still manj' hotels built with 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



27 



relatively few bath rooms, but it is becomins^- more and 
more nearly the rule in every first-class hotel to provide 
each room with a bath room, or to at least arrange the 
rooms with one bath room adjoining two sleeping rooms. 
And in regard to the disposition of the bath rooms them- 
selves there are two distinct views. Some hold that so 
long as the bath rooms are well ventilated, outside light 
and air are in no sense necessities, and that only on rear 
passages or courtyards is it advisable to give up space on 
an outside wall for direct light into a bath room. Conse- 
quently, following this supposition, the bath rooms are 
placed inside and receive a certain amount of air and 
rarely a little light from shafts which are often reduced 
to an extreme minimum. In the second floor bath rooms 
of the Holland House, New York, one light well serving 
two bath rooms measures only about 18x52 inches. Like- 
wise in the Auditorium Annex Hotel in Cliicago, which 
is considered one of the best in the country, the bath 
rooms in the older portions of the hotel are entirely 



meet with more favor in the West than it does in the East. 
Whichever way is adopted permits, if properly installed, 
of perfectly clean, wholesome bath rooms, but it seems 
to sound more attractive to the public to say that every 
bath room has outside air and light, and though the value 
of this light and air may be exaggerated, the more recent 
hotels, certainly in the East, seem to have adhered to this 
arrangement. As to the (juestion of whether bath rooms 
pay there is little doubt. The interest on the extra cost 
of the pluml)ing fittings is not sufficient to be seriously 
considered in the matter. A bath room at the most takes 
up 40 per cent as much room as a single .sleeping room, 
but on the other hand a room with a bath usually rents 
for about 50 per cent more than a room without a bath, 
and, furthermore, it rents much quicker, .so that from a 
purely financial point of view it would seem to be desir- 
able that every room in a large hotel should have its in- 
dependent bath room. 

The typical floor plan of the Hotel Schenlcy at I'itts- 




PLAN OF FIRST BEDROOM FLOOR. 
THE JEFFERSON HOTEL, RICHMOND. CaiTere & Hasting.s, .■\rchitect.s. 



lighted from interior wells and in the p(;rtion recently 
completed from the plans of Holabird & Roche only a 
very few of the bath rooms receive direct outside light. 
The wells in this instance, however, are relatively quite 
generous, being about 16 square feet in area each. On 
the other hand, by reference to the fifth floor plan of the 
Waldorf-Astoria it will be seen that in every case the 
bath rooms are lighted from the street. In the Hotel 
Manhattan, New York, the only bath rooms not lighted 
from the outside are either entered directly from the cor- 
ridor and are for public use or are connected to some of 
the inner corner rooms of the light courts. But on the 
plan of the fourth to the ninth floors inclusive there are 
only five inside bath rooms as against twenty-three out- 
side bath rooms on each floor. In this hotel every room 
not provided with a bath room has a set bowl and closet. 
The New Willard follows the same principle, putting 
bath rooms entirely outside. In a general way the plan 
of lighting the bath rooms from an inside well seems to 



burgh shows in the front rooms an arrangement of baths 
and closets which can almost be taken as a typical one, 
when it is not considered absolutely essential that every 
room .should have a bath. It will be seen that the out- 
side bath room is reached by a short passage between two 
adjacent rooms, the bath room and the passage taking all 
but about three feet of the depth of the room, the re- 
maining space in the rear of the passage being divided 
into two closets for the respective rooms. By this ar- 
rangement the bath room can be used for either chamber 
and (m a hmg .spacing across a continvious front the 
group of two rooms and a common bath room would be 
repeated indefinitely. This arrangement also permits 
rooms to be rented en suite, which is frequently desirable. 
In fact it may generally be stated that in the modern 
hotel all the rooms are connecting. Tlie fifth floor of 
the New Willard at Washington afi^ords in the rooms on 
the court towards the rear a very good arrangement 
where every room is to have its independent bath. Here 



28 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




TYPICAL UPPER FLOOR PLAN. 

NEW PLANTERS HOTEL, ST. LOUIS. 

Isaac Taylor, Architect. 

the rooms, however, are not connecting. On the other 
hand, along the two street fronts every other room is ar- 
ranged with a bath, with a bowl in the passage connect- 
ing the two rooms, thus allowing the rooms to be let in 
pairs. 

When the bath rooms are placed against the outside 
wall the problem of closets becomes a very simple one, as 
the total depth of the bath room is not sufificient to take 
up the average depth of the chambers and the remain- 
ing space works in very nicely for closet room. Few 
hotels now are built without a separate closet for each 
room. The old days of wardrobes have long gone by. 
This seems .somewhat like an anomaly, for probably 
ninety per cent of the people who patronize a city hotel 
rarely unpack their trunks and still more seldom do they 
hang up their clothes in the closet, but if the hotel were 
built without the closet it would run a chance of getting 
a bad name, which is far worse than to be actually bad, 
and con.sequently the room must be given up to this 
purpose. 

The upper floor plans of the Hotel Jefferson, which 
was built by Carrere & Hastings, at Richmond and de- 
stroyed a short time since by fire, offer very good illus- 
trations of both outside bath rooms and fireplaces. Nearly 
all the rooms are provided with fireplaces and they cer- 
tainly add a great deal to the attractiveness of the room. 
Practically a fireplace is a mere 
ornament in a hotel, for it never 
could be depended upon for 
either heating or ventilation, 
and the complication in a tall 
building arising from the nu- 
merous flues is something 
which interferes very seriou.sly 
with the proper arrangement of 
the upper stories, but when it 
can be worked in it is always 
desirable and at least helps to 
make the rooms attractive and 
to rent them easily. 

The size of bedrooms in a 
hotel is something which has 
diminished a great deal within 
the last few years. It was not 
very long ago that the ideal 
bedroom in a first-class hotel 
was a very large high studded 
apartment with ponderous 



mahogany furniture and heavy draperies at the win- 
dows. The bedrooms now are often less than 300 square 
feet in area, and in some rooms they are even as 
small as 9 X 1 2, though this is an inadvisable mini- 
mum. The furniture is light and graceful, the bedstead 
is of brass, and lace curtains are hung at the windows, 
while the height of story is no more than would be 
expected in a first-class residence. A comparison of the 
sizes of sleeping rooms is of interest. In the first bed- 
room story of the Jefferson the outside rooms range 
from a minimum of 9 x 16 up to 17 feet square, while 
the rooms around the court run from about 9x13 up to 
a little over 14 x 17. In the Niagara Hotel at Buffalo, by 
Green & Wicks, the bedrooms range from 175 to 375 
square feet in area. In the Manhattan, New York, the 
outside rooms are about 12 x 19 and the rooms on the 
court vary from 9 x 12 to 14 x 17. Unless considerations 
of expense are to be considered paramount, it may be 
said in a general way that no hotel bedroom ought to be 
less than 150 square feet in area. We are speaking now 
of the first-class hotel, of course. 

There are several features which enter into the equip- 
ment of each sleeping room. The heating is by a steam 
coil concealed in the window seat, drawing air from out 
of doors and controlled by something analogous to the 
Johnson system, so that all the guest has to do is to turn 
a pointer on the wall beside his bed to the degree of 
heat which he desires, this pointer actuating an electric 
or pneumatic device which opens or closes the steam 
valves. The door to the corridor is usually provided 
with a transom, but it is customary to cover the glass with 
a muslin screen so that reflections cannot be seen from 
outside. Each room is, furthermore, equipped with a 
telephone communicating to a central station in the hotel 
by which the wants of the tenant can be made known. 
There is a very ingenious device known as the Teleseme 
which is familiar to all hotel dwellers and permits the 
guest by a peculiar arrangement of pointers to ring for 
almost any imagineable service. The room is lighted 
by a central chandelier controlled by a switch near the 
door, besides which there are bracket lights each side 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 
NIAGARA HOTEL, NIAGARA FALLS. Green & Wicks, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 



of the dressing table. The latest idea as to construction 
of the floor provides for a concrete surface into which is 
built, around the edge of the room, a wooden strip to 
which the carpet is nailed. 

The ideal hotel would be one in which every room 
was provided with a bath, ample closets, a fireplace and a 
bay window. The hotel which comes apparently nearest 
answering all these requirements is the Auditorium An- 
nex in Chicago. Every outside room has a bay window 
and many of them have fireplaces, but it is seldom possi- 
ble to have bays to this extent on account of restrictions 
of building laws and the necessity of utilizing as much of 
the lot area as possible. Neither the Waldorf-Astoria, 
the Manhattan nor the New Willard are provided with 
bays. The New Planters, in St. Louis, has onlv a verv 



Boldt, the manager, towards the rear on 33d Street. The 
plan of the first floor of the Hotel Manhattan likewise 
shows state apartments occupying the greater portion of 
the 4 2d Street front. These are, however, far less mag- 
nificent than those in the Waldorf-Astoria. It may be 
said in passing that the first floor in a modern hotel usu- 
ally designates the first floor of sleeping apartments and 
the rooms of course are numbered with the initial of the 
first figure corresponding to the index of the floor. Then 
besides these extremely elaborate apartments there are 
usually a number of rocjms arranged in groups so that 
they can be rented in siiites, such as the front apartments 
of the Hotel Touraine or the rows of rooms facing Michi- 
gan Avenue in the more recently completely portion of 
the Auditorium Annex. There are also several very in- 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN, 
HOLLAND HOUSE, NEW YORK. HardinR & Gooch, Architects. 



few recessed bays which do not project very materially 
beyond the building line. Only rarely are bay windows 
possible, but they certainly add a great deal to the hotel, 
and when circumstances permit should be put in by all 
means. 

A notable feature of all first-class hotels to-day is the 
attention given to special suites. For years every hotel 
had its bridal apartments, which are still continued in a 
way, but the large hotels now go even further and have 
what are termed the state apartments. The first-floor 
plan of the Waldorf-Astoria shows three sets of such 
apartments, the inner suite including the Astor dining 
room facing towards the court over the palm garden, the 
state apartments at the corner of 33d vStreet and Fifth 
Avenue, so called, and the private apartments of Mr. 



geniously planned .stiites in the Jetferson. In a sense 
these suites are mere flourishes. The steady income of 
the hotel comes from the regular patron who asks only 
for a comfortable room and bath and runs up the greater 
portion of his bill in the cafe and dining room. 

A modern hotel has very little in the upper stories ex- 
cept the sleeping rooms. It seems to be the custom to 
provide only a slight accommodation for linen and storage 
on each story, rather massing accommodations for such 
purposes in one place. Each story, however, is ])rovidcd 
with a maid's closet, a men's and a women's toilet room, 
and very often a single public bath room ; and then 
of course there are the service stairs, and there is usually 
on each floor a serving room connected by a dumb waiter 
to the stories below, from which meals can be served to 



30 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 




HOTEL TOURAINE, BOSTON. 



rooms. The upper floor plans of the New Willard show 
all these features in a very practical arrangement. These 
take in the aggregate but a very slight proportion of the 
whole floor space, and they are usually tucked away in 
the inner cor- 
ners of the 
light areas or 
in space that 
could be used 
for nothing 
else. 

It is very 
hard to find 
precise data as 
to servants' 
apartments in 
a modern ho- 
tel. The tend- 
ency is grow- 
ing every year 

to eliminate residential servants as far as possible and to 
oblige all who are connected with a hotel, with the excep- 
tion of the housekeeper and the manager, to live outside. 
As a matter of fact it is a pretty expen.sive luxury to house 
the servants under any conditions in a finst-class hotel. 
In the Touraine, in Boston, 
a separate building was 
erected on an adjoining lot 
for this purpose, the lower 
stories being utilized for 
storage, etc. But generally 
speaking, a hotel is from its 
very nature built on extreme- 
ly high-priced land, and it is 
far more economical to pay 
the servants more and have 
them live out than to try and 
house them within the hotel. 
Furthermore, the difficulties 
of controlling servants in the 
house make it often extreme- 
ly desirable to get rid of 
them entirely. Of course the 
bulk of .servants in any hotel 
are employed about the 
ground floor and the base- 
ment, and these almost in- 
variably live out. In a rough 
way the number of servants 
required for the care of the 
sleeping rooms may be taken 
as one woman for every ten 
bedrooms, plus one man for 
each floor, besides which fifty 
per cent should be added for 
night force. When these are 
accommodated in the house 
their rooms are either dis- 
posed around inner wells, or what is a better way, the 
entire upper story is given to their accommodation. 

The width of the corridors in the upper stories of a 
hotel is governed to a considerable extent by the circum- 
stances of the lot, but in a general way the tendency on 



NINTH FLOOR PLAN. 



Winslow & WethereH, Architects. 




NEW 



the part of hotel constructors appears to be to strive for 
what a few years ago would have been called wide corri- 
dors. In the Schenley the corridors are six feet wide. 
In the Manhattan and the Jefferson they are nearer 

eight. In the 
Niagara and 
the New Wil- 
lard they are 
nine, in the 
Waldorf-Asto- 
ria ten, and in 
the Touraine 
something 
over eleven. 
Man y hotel 
men regard 
nine as the ex- 
treme mini- 
mum to which 
the height can 
be reduced except as the result of necessity. 

The elevator service for even the highest hotels is a 
relatively slight consideration as compared with the de- 
mands in an office building, for instance. The elevators 
should, however, at least be in pairs, but the service need 

not be specially rapid, and 
it has been found generally 
best to concentrate the ele- 
vators at one point rather 
than to spread them in dif- 
ferent parts of the building. 
The Waldorf-Astoria, with 
nearly ninety rooms on a 
floor, has eight elevators, 
but this hotel was built in 
two distinct sections. The 
Auditorium Annex in the 
older portion, with forty- 
one rooms, actually uses only 
two elevators, while the more 
recent portion of the An- 
nex, with only twenty rooms, 
has also only two elevators. 
The principal thing is to start 
the elevators at a point on 
the ground floor convenient 
to the ladies' room, let that 
come where it may in the 
upper story. 

Some hotels make a spe- 
cial provision for a service 
elevator with a baggage room 
on each floor. The neces- 
sity for this depends a good 
deal upon the nature of the 
patronage. Another feature 
which has been introduced 
into only a few of the more 
recent hotels is a system of despatch tubes with a 
receiving station on each story in charge of an attendant 
to whom can be sent messages or cards for guests. This 
has been worked very successfully in the Waldorf-Astoria 
and is a highly desirable feature. 



FIFTH FLOOR PLAN. 

WILLARD HOTEL, WASHINGTON 

H. J. Hardenbcr^h, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



31 




LAST week there was held in Boston the Twelfth An- 
nual Convention of the vSociety of Master Painters 
and Decorators of Massachusetts, in the course of which 
there was presented a paper entitled "Should We Not 
Endeavor to Establish a School of Decorative Art in Bos- 
ton?" The writer of the paper, who is a Boston man, 
surely cannot be ignorant of the excellent work which 
is being carried on along the lines of decorative design 
by the art school connected with the Boston Museum 
of Fine Arts, but his point of view was evidently taken 
looking toward the establishment of what would be 
more properly termed a trade school for decorative 
painters. Even in 
this respect, how- 
ever, he fails to 
recognize the es- 
sential requisites. 
A knowledge of 
mere details of 
painting as a trade 
constitutes the 
least part of the 
equipment of a 
successful decora- 
tor. It may be 
said in truth that 
the decorators in 
the whole country, 
of marked ability. 
aside from the 
piirely technical 
points of their 
business, can be 
numbered on the 
fingers of one 
hand. As a rule 
our public build- 
ings are poorly 
decorated. There 
is enough money 
spent, but the sup- 
ply of intelligently 
trained, thorough- 
ly well equipped 
men is most dis- 
appointingly small 
when we consider 
the importance of 
decoration, and 
consider at the 
same time the 

number of schools which are really doing most excel- 
lent work in training young men and women. Dec- 
oration is the final touch to a building. It is the part 
of the fabric which appeals first and most strongly to 
the beholder, and yet it is the part which is most often 
slighted. No matter how well constructed our build- 
ings may be, or how fair the architectural envelo])e 
may appear, the interior effect may be utterly ruined 
by careless or thoughtless application of the finishing 
coats of paint. We are gradually developing our national 
architecture in its exterior effects to a very high point. 
The development of decoration awaits us in the future, 



and there is hardly one of the arts allied to architec- 
ture which offers so promising a field to the young man 
as decoration. The quality of our decorative work, how- 
ever, can be benefited far more by building up the 
schools which are already in existence than by starting 
new ones and thereby creating a diversion of interests. 
The fact that the master painters and decorators are 
thinking of these matters is a most encouraging sign, but 
it is to be hoped that they will see fit to lend their prac- 
tical help to the existing schools rather than try to found 
new ones. There is no need for a new .school of decora- 
tive art in Boston. There is abundant need for more 

support for those 
which are already 
established. 



THl 
of 




FIFTH FLOOR PLAN. 



AUDITORIUM ANNEX HOTEL, CHICAGO. 



[E directors 
)f large en- 
terprises seem to 
appreciate as 
never before the 
value of unity in 
the design of a 
group of build- 
ings. A few years 
ago the tendency 
was in the opposite 
direction and if a 
dozen buildings 
were to be built it 
was quite likely a 
dozen architects 
would be selected 
for the task. But 
at present appar- 
ently a different 
view is taken. A 
short time ago 
Mr. Ernest Flagg 
received the en- 
tire commission 
for rebuilding the 
Annapolis Naval 
Academy. The 
reconstruction of 
West Point is to 
be intrusted to a 
single architect. 
It is announced 
that Carerre & 
Hastings have 
been retained for the rebuilding of Cornell Univer- 
sity, involving thirty eight new buildings at a cost of 
some five million dollars. The Leland Stanford Uni- 
versity buildings were designed altogether by Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge. The buildings for the University 
of California are being designed in a comprehensive 
manner by Mr. John (ralen Howard. There are other 
instances wliich might l)e cited to show that the feeling 
is strongly in favor of preserving the unity of a large 
group of l^uildings by intrusting it all to one architect, 
rather than to divide the artistic and practical respon- 
sibilities. 



32 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Interesting Brick and Terra-Cotta 
Architecture in St. Louis. 

DOMEvSTIC. 

BY S. L. SHERER. 

THE request of the publishers of The Brickbuilder 
for a series of notes under the above caption ren- 
ders a word of explanation necessary. 

The term "interesting" serves to introduce those 
minor examples of architectural design which have some 
claim to distinction, and are notable because of the man- 
ner in which brickwork has been treated. Such a limi- 
tation precludes any reference to the more pretentious 
buildings of brick which are, in some instances, charac- 
terized by architectural design of a high order. 

Situated in a locality underlaid with extensive bodies 
of limestone, and with an abundance of clay well adapted 
to the making of fine brick, tile and terra-cotta, the natu- 
ral tendency in building has been, fortunately, to struc- 
tures of masonry. This has given to St. Louis an appear- 
ance of stability and permanence not enjoyed by many 
cities less favored in the products of clay. 

Although the life of the city extends backward a cen- 
tury, it was not until 1817 that brick was first used, in the 
house of Judge William Carr Lane at 400 South Main 
Street, and in the following year Colonel Thomas Riddick 
erected the second brick house at the head of Plum Street 
— both landmarks of great interest as showing the qual- 
ity of the handmade brick of the period and the manner 
of laying them, which is in Flemish bond. Previous to 
this time the buildings had been constructed of wood, the 
log-cabin type predominating, with an occasional structure 
of native stone. 

The ante-bellum houses are interesting from the stand- 
point of design rather than for the brickwork, which was 
usually laid as stretchers with a close ruled joint of pain- 
ful precision. The weathering of years has imparted to 
the pressed brick a velvety texture of singular charm, 
but such monotonous uniformity applied to modern stock 
brick imparts a lifelessness to the wall that no merit in 
design can wholly overcome. As it is only the work of the 
last decade that shows a departure from such treatment 
of brick, the illustrations necessarily exclude older work. 

In its class probably the most intere.sting example of 
this later period is the DeWolf house, one of a notable 
series of brick houses designed by Eames & Young in a 
style adapted from the type of maiioir house prevailing 
in the north of France, but imbued with the strong indi- 
viduality of the designers. Built of red brick laid with- 
out sorting for color and with deep concave joints, its 
walls have a life and quality wholly absent from the con- 
ventional brickwork of the period. 

This desirable quality of wall texture is also present 
in the house of L H. Lionberger, one of the three Rich- 
ardson houses of which St. Louis can boast; the illustra- 
tion representing it after the addition of the brick dor- 
mers and west wing by another architect. 

The best designed brick houses of the period between 
1888 and 1895 partake of the general style indicated by 
these examples, and by the Maverick house, one of the 
numerous buildings of Peabody & Stearns, who played 
no inconsiderable part in the architectural development 
of St. Louis. 




KNUiHT HOUSK. 



E. A. Manny, Architect. 



Of a later period the Bixby house by W. Albert Swasey 
is the most elaborate example of the French Renaissance 
style of the time of Francis the First ; some of its features 
being traceable to chateaux of that magnificent period. 
It was one of the earliest houses wherein extensive use 
was made of terra-cotta for ornamental detail, and withal 
is the best and most interesting example of a style whose 
more frequent use might have been naturally suggested 
by the early French history and traditions of St. Louis. 

In the Siegrist house the same architect has shown 
versatility in a wholly different style — more formal and 
restrained, as befits Colonial design, but less interesting 
except for the brickwork, which is cream white with a 
surface simulating tooth-chiseled work. It is this type 
of house, on a somewhat smaller scale, that has pre- 
dominated in recent years, although the same general 
plan is frequently clothed with the forms of the Italian or 
French Renaissance. 

The Drummond house by Stewart, Mullgardt & Mc- 
Clure exhibits a marked departure in brickwork, which 
in this instance is somewhat rough and of a pinkish 
tone, with a diapered pattern in the frieze of the build- 
ing. The design is as thoroughl)- good as the brickwork 
is pleasing in color and texture. 

Evolution obtains in architecture as in other things, 
one type developing a slightly different type, but no one 
type has persisted for any great length of time in St. 
Louis. The numerous "Colonial" houses are anything 
but true Colonial in feeling, few of them being invested 
with the reposeful quality of the best prototypes; the 
Brookings and Graham houses, heretofore illustrated in 
this journal, being the best examples in this style, and 
all of them lack one of the chief characteristics of old 
Colonial brickwork, Flemish bond. 

During late years the style appealing to many design- 
ers is the style — for want of a more descriptive term 
— denominated English Domestic. No better example 
exists in the city than the Schwab house by Mauran, 
Russell & Garden. It shows intelligent study of the 
style, which is well maintained in all parts of the design. 
The detail of the beautiful entrance porch and doorway 
conveys a better idea of the brickwork, which is a pink- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



33 




O < 



in o 




O 




a. v. 
as 5 



^^V ' "1 - i |. ' :nr-| 


1 









c 
o 



o 

5 









o 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




LIONBERUEK HOUSE. H. H. Kichardsun, Architect 





MCKITTRICK 


HOUSE. 


Shepley, Rutan & Cool 


dge. Architects 


l^M 


K&t 


1 




m^J 


'^fS^j^H 




^^^^»iA * 


m^%\jfk- ^ 














K_^ Z ' 




I 






SK" ' ^ 


J 






L -^BBi 


I^^^HI 









MKUklNi. ill )l >i. ((iMA'.l.. T. C. Link. Architect. 



SCHWAB HOUSE. Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 




FINLEY HOUSE. E. A. Manny, Architect. 





DeWOLF house. Eames & Young, Architects. BIXBY HOUSE. W. A. Swasey, Architect. 

BRICKWORK IN ST LOUIS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



35 




DRUMMOND HOUSE. 
Stewart, Mullgardt & McClure, Architects. 





SCOTT HOUSE. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 




HOUSE ON LIXDELL AVENUE. 
A. Blair Ridington, Architect. 



HOUSE ON BERLIN AVENUE. 
Weber & Groves, Architects. 





DAVIS HOUSE. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



BRICKWORK IN ST. LOUIS. 



MAVERICK HOUSE. 
Peabodv & Stearns, Architects. 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ish sand mould brick with 8:ra\'ish headers laid in white 
mortar, the base below the water table being a red sand 
mould brick with black headers laid in black mortar. 

The McKittrick and Scott houses by Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge and J. Lawrence Mauran are earlier exam- 
ples in the same style ; very good and interesting in a 
somewhat different way, but less pleasing in composition 
and brickwork than the vSchwab house. 

More individual than the last named houses, the Ster- 
ling house by Eames & Young was also the first St. Louis 
house in which half-timbered work was used. The de- 
sign is pleasing in every way and is invested with a dis- 
tinction that would make it notable anywhere, — a charac- 
teristic that would also apply to the stable. No attempt 
was .seemingly made to adhere to the English feeling in 
all parts of the design, with the result that a more per- 
sonal performance has resulted than by a closer adher- 
ence to conventional forms and mouldings. The wall 
surfaces have been enlivened by the random introduction 
of Roman brick of a darker color than the mottled yel- 
low brick of which the house is built. 

The Castleman house by Renwick, As])inw;Lll & ( )\vcn 
is a typical and well-sustained effort in the same style. 




WAINWKKJHT HOUSK. 



C. K. kanisc-y, Archilccl. 



and while it exhibits many beautiful and picturesque 
features, it suffers from the somber color of the dark 
red brick and terra-cotta, which lessens the homelike 
character that should distingtiish a dwelling place. 

The revival of the use of Flemish bond with black 
headers has added greatly to the interest of the Mariner 
house, a very small but none the less pleasing example 
of a style destined to grow in favor for city and countrv 
houses. 

The Scarrit hou.se by E. A. Manny is a very dignified 
and formal composition, built of a speckled red brick laid 
in red mortar, with trimmings of cream-colored terra- 
cotta; more imposing but "less interesting perhaps than 
his smaller Finley and Knight houses, which are good ex- 
amples of his style, a style that possesses individuality 
and exhibits much study of the possibilities of brickwork, 
a quality not easily shown in the photographs. 

In the Papin house M. P. McArdle has imparted a 



local flavor to a house that bears a strong resemblance to 
a type common in St. Louis before the war. It is well 
not to ignore such a characteristic when much can be said 
for the restraint and general good taste that marked the 
houses of that period. The unusual brickwork, however, 
is personal to the architect, and is laid in the most unor- 
thodox manner, — every fourth course being laid on its 
face and in a way that does not admit of the joints being 
regularly broken. The brick is a speckled red laid in 
black mortar. 




PAPIX HOUSE. 



M. P. McArdle, Architect. 



The same general type of house finds exemplificatitm 
in the Ackert house by G. C. Mariner, but with the 
Colonial idea well expressed instead of the "old St. 
Louis " of the Papin house. Here a reddish sand mould 
brick laid in white mortar accentiiates the Colonial feeling 
and imparts interest to the brickwork for its own sake, 
and con.sequently to the attractiveness of the design. 

The Northrup house by W. Albert Swasey is perhaps 
more interesting for its departure from the conventional 
house than for its being a very successful example of 
X'enetian Gothic — a style that seems foreign to American 
life and one that demands the setting we naturally asso- 
ciate with the style. The brickwork is cream in color, 
with trimmings of glazed white terra-cotta. 

Of houses that are somewhat difficult of classification 
the small Wainwright house by Charles K. Ramsey shows 
a clever adaptation of Sullivan's intricate detail in terra- 
cotta. The Niedringhou.se cottage by Theodore C. Link 
is imconventional enough to please the most extreme 
advocate of rough brickwork, for here vitrified paving 
brick have been laid in all sorts of ways; nevertheless 
it is a most picturesque house and admirably placed for 
such a design. 

While this list might be extended indefinitely, — for 
notwithstanding the mass of mediocre work, vSt. Louis 
posse.s.ses a large number of meritorious houses, — con- 
sideration of other classes of buildings demands the space 
at disposal. 



msn 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



37 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. V. 

BV D. EVEKKTT WAIl). 

" "\ T /"HEX New York architects can charj^e more than 

V V five per cent, then we smaller fellows can hope 
to make our clients pay lis five." 

Such a remark at the recent convention of the Insti- 
tute in Washington led the writer to believe that if a 
more definite knowledge could be had of the actual fees 
charged for architects' services, it might be of value to 
the profession at large. Ever\- architect is keenly alive 
to the fact that the traditional five per cent is small 
enough compensation for his services. When clients 
come to know the amoimt of work and responsibility in- 
volved they are quick to admit that an architect is not 
highly paid and are doubtless just as ready to lose respect 
for a member of the profession who cuts his price. Ar- 
chitects have only themselves to blame if they do not 
receive their full fees. 

Competition is the life of architecture as truly as it is 
of trade, but who can regret it deeply enough when 
competition among professional men and artists becomes a 
matter of price! Let a client select an architect because 
of his reputation, because of the merit of his design, be- 
cause of his engineering ability, because of his talking 
ability, or, if you will, by reason of his " pull," but save 
us from the decision which sometimes is made becau.se 
he cuts his fee! The last named kind of competition 
may be done away with if architects will have backbone 
and consideration for each other when the question of fee 
ari-ses. Hundreds of young architects are realizing that 
clients respect them for standing on their dignity in the 
matter of fees, and that their business is increasing ac- 
cordingly. 

It is true that there are scores, yes, hundreds, of 
apartments, hotels and even residences going up at this 
moment in New York City on which two per cent and 
even less has been paid for architects' services. But 
these are the work of plan factories for speculative 
builders; both the plan factories and the builders are 
making money but are not making good buildings. 
Artistically their products are commonplace when not 
worse ; structurally they are as bad as the law will allow 
and investors can be deceived into buying or securing 
by foreclosure. Fortunately the influence of the real 
architect is increasing even with the speculative builder; 
and other .scores and hundreds of buildings have five 
per cent for architects' fees set down as a part of the cost 
which will bring back interest on the investment. Archi- 
tects whose names are known to the profession charge 
five per cent and in their practice it is a matter of course 
that five per cent will be the minimum fee even when 
the cost runs into millions. 

vSpecial inquiry shows that a similar statement can be 
made not only of New York and other large cities of the 
East, but of cities in the West and of smaller towns. 
Information obtained at various times during a series of 
years convinces the writer that a large majority of the 
young men of the profession stand to the dignity of their 
calling in the matter of their charges and in refusing to 
receive commissions from material men and contractors. 



The standard is not .so higli in the etiiics of securing 
business, but one is plea.sed to find iiow many architects 
are ready to state in the most unequivocal way that 
they never submit sketches without compensation and 
that they never enter competitions in which either no fee 
is paid to the various competitors invited or no prizes are 
offered aside from the commission. 

As to the scale of charges the traditional five per cent 
ought to be fought for more generally as a minimum, not 
a maximum fee. Five per cent is so popularly regarded 
as the acceptable charge that it is no doubt a frcepient 
thing for architects to agree to four per cent on factories 
which clients can see must be less costly tluin residence 
designing. Many, however, like J. C. Llewellyn of Chi- 
cago, charge five per cent for factory work. Nimmons 
& Fellows of the same city say that their charge is in- 
variably five per cent for factories. Since many people 
who have had little to do with building have the impres- 
sion that five per cent is a high price to pay even for resi- 
dence work, it might l)e (^f practical value to the younger 
men to know that a large number of the profession either 
decline that class of work at that rate or increase the rate 
on residences costing less than a certain sum. 

Normand Patton of Patton & Miller, Chicago, writes: 
"Our charges are five per cent for the general run of 
work, without regard to the amount of cost; seven and a 
half per cent for residence work without reference to the 
cost; ten per cent for alterations and additions to resi- 
dence work; seven and a half per cent for alterations 
and additions to the ordinary run of work. We have re- 
cently planned a manufacturing building for which we 
charged five per cent. We have made alterations on an- 
other factory for which we charged seven and a half per 
cent. We have just completed alterations on a residence 
amounting to $40,000, for which we got ten per cent." 

According to the schedule given at the end of this 
article twenty per cent would be the charge for alterations 
of residences if the work amoimts to less than $5,000. 
Under some circumstances that might not be too much, 
but in general Mr. Patton's rate would be more practi- 
cable. 

If residence work in general is costly to an architect, 
suburban work in New York is decidedly expensive. 
Consequently one cannot come out whole if he does not 
nearly double his fee by charging for time for super- 
vision. Following is a copy of an actual bill for ser- 
vices on a house which shows how monthly bills are ren- 
dered during the progress of a l)uilding: 

Xovember i, 1902. 
A. H. Blank, i Wall Street, New York, 

To C. D. TEEsguARE, Dr. 

Account rendered October i, 1902 $292.37 

Estimated cost of plumbing for entire house $6,800.00 

Architect's full commission 5 per cent, 2)4 per cent 

charged for plans, specifications, etc 170.00 

Contract electric work $698.00 

Architect's full commission 5 per cent, 2>i per cent 

charged on account '7-4.S 

Vcrtificali' Issued. 
October 15, Several Works Contract, first payment ..$5,000.00 
Architect's full commission 5 per cent, 1% per cent paid 

on account, 2>i per cent due 125.00 

Half-day visits during (October, five one-half at $10.00 5S-oo 

Traveling expenses during October 5.00 

$664.82 
Note. — In this instance the owner paid sanitary and electrical en- 
gineers on architect's certificate, and the architect's charge of 5 per 
cent covers his own fee only. 



38 THEBRICKBUILDER. 

Mr. Mead, of McKim, Mead & White, says that their All payments are received as installments of the entire fee. When 

, , . . , „ 1 • J I- 1 the work is abandoned or suspended, the payments are due in accord- 

schedule IS not satisfactory. tor some kinds of work ance with the schedule of partial services. 

they have to charge more than the schedule or refuse Supervision means such inspection of the work by the architects or 

the work. Speaking specifically they decline com- ^^^^^ deputy as is required in their judgment to ascertain that the 

. . , "" , 1 n. 1 '^ work is beinsj executed according to plans and specifications, and to 

missions for residence work under !j!2 0,ooo unless it determine when the payments are due. 

is for a friend to whom they are ready to make a gift. Continuous personal superintendence can be secured by the em- 

Their schedule is similar to a form used by many, — five ployment of a clerk of the works, wh<> will be employed by the archi- 

,,,, ^ r ,c I.- J. J tects at the client's expense. 

per cent in general, but ten per cent for "cabinet and Drawings, as instruments of service, are the property of the archi. 

all interior work of a decorative character, for furniture tects. 

and fixtures, and for materials selected, for alterations, ah dealings between client and contractors should be through the 

additions, etc., for monumental work, and for new work "''TnlTcases not covered by the foregoing schedule, the schedule of 

costing under $I0,000. " The following clauses are in- the American institute of Architects shall govern. 

eluded in their schedule: "All commissions are exclu- „ „ ^ ht u n -j . c .-,. -^j -ir , 

Henry Rutgers Marshall, president of the New York 

sive of clerk of works, time lost in traveling, traveling .,, , . t" . , j • •, • . .• , r 

, ,. , , . , .,, , , J Chapter A. I. A., has devised an interesting scale of 

expenses and disbursements, which will be charged to . ^ ^ r i.-i.ji ^m- 

^ . ... 1 J. charges, iselow is an extract from his schedule. This 

the client at cost; or if preferred, at an extra rate or • v^ u j ..u i-j- i r ^ ^ ■ 

,, ^, . . , , ^ table might be used as the sliding scale referred to in 

three per cent. . . . " The minimum charge per day for . j , 

^ . . ,, ^ . , . paragraph i of the succeeding schedule, 
personal service is $ioo. . . . " In preparing designs 

we agree, after consultation with the owner, to use our Cost of Work. ^"''of^ffasTmry^'""" ^.stLliTaiTs'.'" 

best judgment; we cannot, however, guarantee that the Above $30,000 5 per cent on cost 5 per cent on cost 

building when completed shall conform to his ideas of §28,000 to $30,000 " $1,500 

beauty or taste, or indeed those of any person or school. 26,000 to 28,000 " 1,425 

We can only agree to examine and consider the subject 24,000 o 2j,ooo 1,35° 

, , , , , . ..... . . , 22,000 to 24,000 " 1,271; 

thoroughly and to do nothing which is inconsistent with 20,000 to 22,000 " 1200 

our judgment." . . . "We insist upon the employment 18,000 to 20,000 $1,000 1^125 

of the best men for heating, plumbing and electric works; 16,000 to 18,000 900 1,050 

and such work can be guaranteed only by the employment 14,000 to 16,000 825 975 

of experts by the client." McKim, Mead & White is- 12,000 to 14,000 750 900 

.^ . . , . 10,000 to 12,000 6715 825 

sue certificates to owners for payment of experts fees. g^^^^ ^^ 10,000 625 750 

Following is given the schedule of charges, printed 7,000 to 8,000 575 700 

copies of which are issued to their clients, by Carr^re & 6,000 to 7,000 550 650 

Hastings: 5,000 to 6,000 525 625 

4,000 to 5,000 500 600 

Schedule of Professional Practice and Charges. Alterations at some rates as stud wall buildings with addition to 

CTTV PR \CTrCF cover expense of making plans of the buildings as they exist. 

For work costing less than $4,oooand for interior decorative work, 

(JVc-w York and other cities.) mantels and furniture special rates are charged. 

Genera! services and supervision for works costing over Plumbing charged apart from main fee at ten per cent on cost un- 

$50,000 5 per cent less a special expert is employed; in the latter case plumbing cost will 

General services and supervision for works costing less be included in cost of building in calculating fees. 

than $50,000 6 per cent ^ ... r.. j: 1 • 1 .,.• r ^i 

„ ,. , ...,.,.,. '^ , vSome two years ago, after careful consideration of the 

General services and supervision in volvmg alterations . 10 per cent ■' *> ' 

Special interior and cabinet work 10 per cent schedules used by Several prominent architects including 

COUNTRY PRACTICE. those named above, a pamphlet was prepared which with 
General services and supervision for new work . . . 7M per cent some slight modifications is reprinted below. It was de- 
General services and supervision involving alterations . 15 per cent signed to make clear to clients the view point of archi- 
General services and supervision for landscape work . 10 per cent ^ . 1 ^ j_i ^- ^ -j i z- -^ 1 • r 

tects and at the same time to provide a definite ba.sis for 

^ a contract between architect and client. The mailing of 

(And buildings for pujiilic and semi-public iisi.) r^., ^ 1 ^ / • ^ j e ■ 1. t- ■ ^ 

^ one of these pamphlets (printed of size to sup into a 

Genersl services and supervision for new work ... 5 per cent 

General services and supervision involving alterations . 10 per cent regular envelope) With an exchange of letters regarding 

Special interior and cabinet work 10 per cent fees for architects' services is less disagreeable than a 

DISBURSEMENTS. formal contract, which is often quite out of the question. 

All disbursement for traveling expenses, measurements, surveys, 

fees for expert advice when requested or sanctioned by the owner, and PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND CHARGES. 
the cost of all prints, to be paid by the client. 

PARTIAL SERVICES. ^- '">'>«'■'''''' ^''''^'"/'<"''- ^ The charge for general profes- 

„ , J . ,, sional services on works costing over $20,000 is a com- 

rayments are due as follows: " ^ ' 

Preliminary studies, one-fifth of the total commission. mission of five per cent On the COSt. 

Preliminary studies, general drawings and specifications, one-half The charge for general professional Services on works 

of the total commission. costing $!;,ooo or less is a commission of ten per cent on 

Preliminary studies, general drawings, details and specifications, u 

seven-tenths of the total commission. "-"^ COSt. 

GENERAL PRACTICE The charge for general professional services on works 

Charges are based upon the entire cost to the client of the work, costing between $5,000 and $20,000 is on a sliding scale 

when completed, including all the fixtures necessary to render it fit for between the rates quoted above. 

""uTil an actual estimate is reached, the charges are based upon the ^- ^-Alterations. - For alterations Or additions to exist- 

proposed cost of the work. ing buildings the fee is double the foregoing. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



39 



3. MoJiitmcntal and Decorative Work. — For monu- 
mental work and for interior decoration, mantels and 
furniture special rates are charged accordin^s^ to the char- 
acter of the problem. 

4. General Scr^'ices. — All of the following require- 
ments are included in the commission for general profes- 
sional services : 

Preliminary studies. 

Working drawings and specifications sufficient for es- 
timate and carrying o\\\ of contracts. 

Detail drawings and instructions for execution. 
General supervision of works. 
Examining and passing of accoimts. 

5. Partial Services. — For partial services the follow- 
ing division of the general commission is made: 

For preliminary studies one-fifth of the general com- 
mission. 

For preliminary studies, general drawings and speci- 
fications, one-half of the general commission. 

For preliminary studies, general drawings, specifica- 
tions and details, seven-tenths of the general commission. 

For supervision, three-tenths of the general commis- 
sion. 

Payments are due as the work is completed in the 
order of the above classification. 

6. Traveling Expenses, Disbursevtcns, etc. — For work 
situated outside of New York City a fee is charged to 
cover actual traveling expenses and time occupied in vis- 
iting the work either for conference or supervision. The 
fee for visits by the architect is at the rate of $30 per day ; 
for visits by his superintendent at the rate of $15 per day. 

All disbursements for measurements, surveys, etc., 
are to be paid by the client. 

7. Expert Service. — A commission of five per cent in 
addition to the scale named above is charged on all heat- 
ing and ventilating, sanitary, electrical and mechanical 
engineering work. Experts of the highest standing are 
retained by this office, and are in constant consultation 
during the design and execution of its work. The em- 
ployment of experts for other special branches of work is a 
matter of arrangement between the client and the architect. 

8. Decoration and I'lirnitiire. — In view of the fuct 
that the artistic success of a building, and therefore the 
reputation of the architect, depends upon the decorative 
treatment of the interior, the execution of this part of 
the work as well as that of the exterior is understood to 
be under his direction and supervision. Furniture and 
furnishings come within the same category unless it be 
distinctly agreed to the contrary. 

9. Basis of Charges. — All commissions are based 
upon the total cost of work completed ready for occu- 
pancy, and valued as if executed entirely of new ma- 
terials and by laboi at the market price. Until estimates 
are made or contracts entered into, charges are ba.sed 
upon the proposed cost. 

10. Alterations in Designs. — An extra charge will be 
made if the client orders material alterations in working 
drawings after such drawings have been made in accord- 
ance with designs approved by him. 

1 1 . .Special .Services. — None of the charges above 
enumerated cover professional or legal .services connected 
with negotiations for site, disputed party walls or right 



of light, or services incidental to arrangements conse- 
quent upon the failure of contractors during the perform- 
ance of the work. When such services become necessary 
they will be charged for according to the time and trouble 
involved. 

I 2. Dra'ii'ings and .Specifications. — All drawings and 
specifications, as in.struments of service, are the sole 
property of the architect and may not be used in connec- 
tion with any other building without his consent. One 
copy of each drawing and specification will be furnished 
and a charge at actual cost will be made for all prints 
needed in the execution of the work. 

It is iinderstood that each contractor shall be supplied 
with two copies of drawings and .specifications, and that 
he shall be rccpiircd to pay for any extra copies desired 
by him. 

13. Consnltation. — Consultation fees in cases where 
the work is not executed are based upon the importance 
of the services rendered. 

14. .Supervision. — The superintendence of the archi- 
tect (as distinguished from the continuous personal super- 
vision or superintendence which may be secured by the 
employment of a clerk of the works) means such inspec- 
tion by the architect or his deputy of a building or other 
work in process of erection, completion or alteration, as 
in his judgment is necessary to ascertain whether it is be- 
ing executed in conformity with his design and specifica- 
tions or directions; and to enable him to decide when the 
successive installments or payments provided for in the 
contracts or agreements are due and payable. 

The architect is to determine in constructive emer- 
gencies, to order neces.sary changes and to define the true 
intent and meaning of the drawings and specifications, 
and he has authority to stop the progress of the work 
and order its removal if he finds that it is not in accord- 
ance with them. 

It is important that all dealings between client and 
contractor be transacted through the architect. 

When he follows the client's positive instructions the 
architect is relieved from all responsibility what.soever. 

The architect agrees to vise every endeavor to see that 
the contractors complete their work within the stipulated 
time, but in no ca.se is it possible for him to guarantee 
that they will do so. 

15. Subcontracts. — It is understood that the several 
works involved in the erection of a building shall be let 
in a general contract except plumbing, heating, etc. If 
the client desires to sublet the several works, such as 
ma.son work, carpenter work, plastering, etc., two and a 
half per cent will be charged in addition to the .schedule 
rates hereinbefore named. 

16. Clerk of the Wor/cs. — On buildings of impor- 
tance, or in any case in which continuous per.sonal super- 
intendence is desired, the architect recommends the ap- 
pointment of a clerk of the works, who will be employed 
l)y the architect at the client's expense, over and above 
any fees or commissions otherwi.se due the architect. 
The .selection or dismissal of the clerk of the works is to 
be subject to the approval of the architect. 

17. Payments to Contractors. — It is expressly under- 
stood that payments to contractors by the client shall be 
made only upon certificates issued by the architect. 



40 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Fireproofing. 



COMBUSTIBLE ARCHITECTURE AND CON- 
FLA(iRATIONS. 

LTNDER the above title a paper was presented to the 
J Memphis Engineering Society by Mr. James B. 
Cook, in which the subject was very thoroughly taken up 
and some interesting statistics given. Statistics, by the 
way, while always interesting, are not necessarily the 
surest guide to facts, for in them we consider simply an 
abstract statement without taking into account the condi- 
tions or other circumstances which might offset the seem- 
ing good or bad results from which such statistics were 
derived. For example, the statement is made that while 
in France the loss from fire in each one liundred dollars 
per year was about six cents, in New York the relative 
loss was fifty-eight cents, in Massachusetts sixty cents, 
in Texas one dollar ten cents, and Arkan.sas one dollar 
thirty-one cents. And yet the loss in the latter state 
may be confined to a class of buildings which might well 
be spared from the face of the earth and for whose loss 
we might feel really grateful to the insurance companies. 
At the same time these figures show how with all oiir 
attempts at fireproof construction, and we certainly have 
carried it further as a science than anywhere else in the 
world, we somehow or other still continue to pay tremen- 
dous annual bills for lack of proper preventive measures. 
We fight our fires admirably after they are started, but 
we should not let them start. Every year more attention 
is paid in the large cities to the so-called still alarms 
which the public never hears about, because a possible 
great conflagration is checked in its incipiency. And as 
the writer of the paper very truly points out, the strength 
of a fireproofing system is measured by its least resist- 
ance. There are very few of our fireproof buildings to- 
day which are not most thoroughly protected as far as 
relates to all the structural members, the floors and the 
walls, but the weak point is in the plan itself, which often 
permits of a ready transference of a slight fire from one 
portion of the building to another until the resulting con- 
flagration is sufficient to cause v-ery serious damage. 
Furthermore, as we have repeatedly insisted in these 
columns, the greatest soi:rQ.e of danger is not from our 
well constructed buildings, but rather from our old in- 
flammable structures which are allowed to remain in the 
heart of our large cities. Mr. Cook made a very admira- 
ble siiggestion that instead of the .sole reliance being 
placed upon portable fire pumps, the large cities be di- 
vided by a species of block system with a stationary fire 
engine in the centre of a square, with three or four fire- 
men on duty, a hose attached and a large fire pump 
driven by an electric motor. By this method instantane- 
ous service would be given at the first alarm. Attacking 
a fire at its incipiency is a most important thing, and such 
a sy.stem could very easily be connected to a chain of 
standpipes which would practically serve every portion 
of the area. Preventive devices of this sort are most 
needed now. We would not say that constructive meth- 
ods could not be improved, for improvement is going on 
all the time, but the theory of fireproof construction at 



present is pretty well established and developments are 
in details of execution, ease of manipulation and reduc- 
tion of cost rather than in the theory. 

THE FAILURE OF A FIREPROOF FLOOR. 

WE note by the papers a record of the collap.se of a 
portion of the concrete roofing of a building under 
construction in Newcastle, Pa., which in falling carried 
down each of the six floors beneath it to the basement, 
killing one man and seriou.sly injuring another. Acci- 
dents of this sort will occur with the utmost care, no mat- 
ter what the particular form of construction may be, and 
with a monolithic construction such as concrete the care- 
lessness of a single indifferent workman might very eas- 
ily make the whole floor construction so poorly com- 
pounded that it would yield to a relatively slight shock. 
We are reminded of a somewhat similar accident that oc- 
ciirred during the building of Tremont Temple, when a 
mass of plaster in bags, the whole weighing several tons, 
fell through a distance of about sixty feet with sufficient 
force to bend two heavy I-beams out of position and shat- 
ter an irregular hole in the terra-cotta blockings, but the 
damage was confined to the few blocks which were broken, 
and the bay upon which the plaster fell was not otherwise 
injured. 

THE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 

WE are not accustomed to consider the insurance 
companies as members of a great trust, but in a 
certain sense that designation would exactly describe 
them. There is a sort of competition among the agents 
of the large fire insurance companies who underwrite 
risks, but competition is not one of rates. The rates 
are made in common, are discussed by an associated 
board and are practically identical over the whole country. 
We are not of those who believe that the fire insurance 
companies are accumulating great rewards in their work. 
Many of them pay and pay well, but the average margin 
of profit at the best is small, the risks are great and they 
are fulfilling a piiblic function which in as far as relates 
to keeping their promises and insuring a man against his 
own folly is scrupulously adhered to. Hut in their capa- 
city as public servants it has seemed to us that they fail 
utterly to realize their rights and their powers, and we 
sometimes seriously question whether, after all, the fire 
insurance companies care to have the fire risk reduced or 
the tremendous annual payment for fire losses made any 
less. We have yet to see any real evidence that the na- 
tional boards of underwriters feel it incumbent upon 
them to foster the development of a proper fireproofing 
system of construction. That the insurance companies 
have it within their power to compel owners to properly 
construct their buildings goes without saying. There is 
no law that fixes their rates but their own judgment, and 
if they so chose they could to-morrow make the rates on 
a combustible building so excessive that the owner would 
not dare to carry insurance. W^e have in mind now a 
theater located in the heart of a large city, which is a 
veritable fire trap. The rate is seven and a half per cent 
per annum. But the building is old and worthless. It 
was equipped under conditions which would not be toler- 
ated in a new structure, and consequently as the owners 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



41 



are doing a thriving business this structure remains as a 
menace to the whole community, and its existence in a 
sense is due largely to the attitude of the insurance com- 
panies. If they were to absolutely refuse to reinsure it, 
the building would disappear inside of a year, and a men- 
ace to the community would be gone forever. F'urther- 
more, reversing the attitude of some of our railroad mag- 
nates, insurance rates are not made all that the traffic 
will bear, but are reduced to the lowest amount that they 
dare to make them. It is a question, therefore, whether 
the insurance companies want to encourage better con- 
struction, and we believe the evidence on this point is in 
the negative. If all our buildings were fireproof, the in- 
surance companies would either grow fabulously rich or 
would do no business at all. And apparently they en- 
deavor to so set their premiums that the insured can 
safely gamble on his chances without being obliged to 
pay prohibitory rates. 

THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE PREVENTION 
CONGRESS. 

THE excellent work which in past years has been 
accomplished by the British Fire Prevention Com- 
mitttee is to be supplemented by an international con- 
gress to be held June 7 to 10 of this year at London. It 
is rarely that those concerned in the different interests 
relating to fire prevention have an opportunity to discuss 
collectively their views, and it is hoped that, by bringing 
together the various personal elements in fire prevention, 
collecting the best information, discussing the latest 
achievements, and recording the most practical technical 
results, some advance will be made, not only in checking 
fire wastage, but in rediicing loss of life. We notice 
that among other points to be especially considered will 
be the best means of watching and inspecting buildings 
exposed to fire risk and of recording the causes and 
effects of fire. These are two features which are often 
neglected, but from which we can sometimes draw our 
most valuable lessons. Eternal vigilance is the price of 
safety. At no time can we afford to assume that because 
a building has been constructed rightly it will be taken 
care of properly, and we know from long experience that 
both tenants and those who have the care of the building 
are very apt at times to relax their vigilance and allow 
conditions to exist which would be fatal if accompanied by 
even a slight fire. It is to be regretted that there is not 
in this country siich a body as the British Fire Preven- 
tion Committee. Attempts have been made in this di- 
rection, but our practical scientists are too busy and our 
theorists are too impractical to unite in the kind of work 
which such a committee would imply. We want the 
best and we generally mean to obtain it, but if there 
could be a greater opportunity for comparison of meth- 
ods and results fireproofing as a practical science wotild 
certainly be greatly benefited thereby. We shall await 
with a great deal of interest the publication of papers 
which will be presented at this congress. We notice that 
the executive committee, of which Edwin O. vSachs is 
the chairman, includes six architects out of a total mem- 
bership of eleven. The foreign corrcs])ondents from 
the United States are Mr. Edwaid Atkinson, of the 
Manufacturers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and 
N. P. Gerhard, consulting engineer. New York. 



Selected Miscellany. 

NEW YORK. 
There seems to be no reason to expect a diminution 
of building activity during 1903. The number of office 
and business buildings erected will probably exceed that 
of the past year, the number of tenements and apartments 
will certainly do so, and the building of apartment hotels 
and dwellings will doubtless continue actively. The price 
of building materials is so high that any excessive build- 
ing will be discouraged, but dealers and manufacturers of 
materials can count upon a demand at least equal to that 
of the past two years and probably superior to it, and this 



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DETAIL BY MARCUS T. REYNOLDS, ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

quite apart from the demand for structural steel and other 
materials, which will be occasioned by the important im- 
provements in transit facilities which are now under way 
or contemplated. Moreover the building of the next few 
years will be more diversified than it has been during the 
past two years. The prospects for future work are bright 
and indefinitely large. 




CAPITAL KXKCriKI) IN IKKKA-COTTA liV AMERICAN 

TERRA-COTTA & CERAMIC CO. 

Kees & Coburn, Architects. 

In spite of the large amount of work accomplished 
during the past year the figures and statistics given by 
the Rciortf and (hiidc show a peculiar state of affairs. 
In the number of new buildings projected and their esti- 
mated cost the year 1901 was decidedly ahead of the year 
ji:st closed. There were plans filed in 1902 for 1,703 



' 



42 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO. 

Built of White Knameled Brick. Made by Tiifany Enameled Brick 

Company. F. W. Perkins, Architect. 

buildings to be erected in Manhattan and the Bronx at 
an estimated cost of $88,044,400, against plans for 2,512 
buildings to be erected at a cost of $118,897,820 during 
the previous year. 

The exceptionally high figures for the past two years 
are due chiefly to the increased cost of the average dwell- 
ing and tenement house erected in Manhattan, but it is 
also partly due to the augmented proportion of large fire- 
proof buildings which are being erected year by year. 










CAPITAL, EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA BY PERTH- 
AMBOY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

The increased cost of the average building is pro- 
foundly expressive of the radical changes which have 
been taking place in the manner of living and doing busi- 
ness in Manhattan and of the prodigious centralization of 
population and business. 



The Municipal Art Society's 
report to Mayor Low puts into 
a form tangible and complete a 
large number of ideas for em- 
bellishing the city, and itself 
constitutes a fundamental plan, 
preliminary though it may be, 
of systematic development for 
all time to come. It concen- 
trates and embodies sugges- 
ti(Mis from various other soci- 
eties of artists, architects, civil 
engineers, merchants and manu- 
facturers, and on that account, 
as representing the best advice 
obtainable at the time, is enti- 
tled to the highest respect. It 
considers everything affecting 
the beauty of the city, taking 
up separately freight distribu- 
tion, passenger traffic, parks, 
public buildings and their deco- 
ration, public monuments and 
general topics. The great 
trouble is that all projected de- 
velopments are met with pleas 
of economy. New York's loca- 
tion is such that it must be- 
come a greater center than the 

world has ever seen, and although it may mean a great 
expense and somewhat of a burden to us to make it one 
of the most beautiful cities in the world, it is perfectly 
feasible, and as the people are gradually being educated 
lip to it, it will probably eventually be accomplished. 

There is probably no influence greater than that of 
the Architectural League's exhibitions making towards 




DETAIL HV VICTOR HUGO 

KOEHLER, ARCHITECT. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co. 
Makers. 




DETAIL EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA BY STANDARD 

TERRA-COTTA WORKS. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 

the aesthetic and artistic education of the public in archi- 
tectural matters and matters of municipal pride. The ex- 
hibition, which is now open, shows the usual care in the 
selection and arrangement of subjects, and is of intense 
interest to all lovers of beautiful work. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



43 




(;L ASTAVIXO SPIRAL STAIRCASE. CONSTRUCTION KOR MAIN STAIRS, UNION CLUB, NEW YORK CITY. 

Cass Gilbert and John Du Fais, Associate Architects. 



IN GENERAL. 

E. L. Stewardson and James P. Jamieson, partners 
with the late Walter Cope in the firm of Cope & Steward- 
son, announce that they will continue the practice of ar- 
chitecture under the same firm name. 

The sixteenth annual exhibition of the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club will be held in the galleries of the Art Insti- 



tute from March 26 to April 13 inclusive. Exhibits will 
be received up to six p. m. March 10. Birch Burdette 
Long, chairman exhibition committee. 

Gustavus A. Trost, architect, has opened an office at 
No. 9 Coles Building, El Paso, Texas, and desires manu- 
facturers' catalogues and samples. 

Frank M. Walker, 24 Park Place, New York City, has 
been appointed agent for the Hartford Faience Company 
of Hartford, Conn. 




STABLE, 63RD STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

Ludlow & Valentine, Architects. 

Face Brick made by Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Company. 



SECTION OK COLUMN, ATLANTIC TERR A-COTTA 
CO., MAKERS. 
Parks & Thomas, Architects. 



44 



THE BRICK BU I LDER. 



The Star Brand of cement made by the Union Akron 
Cement Company of Buffalo will be used in the founda- 
tions of the new armory for the Sixty-fifth Regiment at 




The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company re- 
port an increasing demand for their brick for use in 
butcher shops and the like in New York City. 

The White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company has sup- 
plied their terra-cotta on the following new work : Office 




DETAIL EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA BV 

WHITE BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Herts & Tallanl, Architects. 

Buffalo, also for the large new iron manufacturing plants 
at Hubbard, Ohio, Charlotte, N. Y., and vSouth Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company 
will supply their enameled brick on the following new 
contracts: The Maryland State House, Annapolis, Md., 
Baldwin & Pennington, architects; Baltimore Courthouse, 
Baltimore, Md., Hornblower & Marshall, architects; St. 
Francis Hospital, New York City, Shickel & Ditmar, 
architects. The aggregate of these orders will be about 
300,000 enameled bricks. 




.lAII.S FOR A CHURCH EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA HV 
EXCELSIOR TERRA-COTTA CO. 
George H. Streeton, Architect. 

building, Liberty Street, New York, Butler & Rodman, 
architects; Borden Building, Hudson Street, New York, 
G. H. Chamberlin, architect; Church of the Good Shep- 
herd, Shelton, Conn., Heins & LaFarge, architects; Ran- 
dall & Green Building, New Milford, Conn., Wilson Pot- 
ter, architect; high school, Oneida, N. Y., Wilson Potter, 
architect; high school, Watertown, N. Y., Wilson Potter, 
architect ; apartment hotel, Forty-third Street, New York, 
Mulliken «& Moeller, architects; mercantile building. Nine- 
teenth Street, New York, Dewey & Dewey, architects; resi- 
dence, Westbury, L. I., S. E. Gage, architect; apartments, 
One Hundred and Seventh Street, New York, W. C. Haz- 
lett, architect; residence, Great Neck, L. I., Little & O'Con- 
nor, architects; amusement hall, Brooklyn, N.Y., Herts & 
Tallant, architects; residence, Altamont, N. Y., J. H. 
Hutaff, architect ; apartment, Madison Avenue, New York, 
H. J. Hardenberg, architect. 

WANTED. — An architectural Draughtsman. 
Must be first-class designer and water-colorist. 
Permanent position and good salary to right party. 
The Keith Company, Architects, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



showing method of putting on graduated AMERICAN 

"s" tile on circle roofs and towers, each tile 
IN each course is graduated from gutter 

TO APEX to form A PERFECT RADIATION. 



PERSPECTIVE DRAWING 



r 



7V<- 



Bv CORRESPONDENCK. 

Courses also offered in 

Heating, Ventilation and Plumbing, 

Electrical and Steam Engineering, 

Architecture. 

The Engineering curriculum 
includes Civil, Mechanical, Lo- 
comotive and Marine Engineer- 
ing, Navigation, Mechanical 
Drawing, Sheet Metal Work. 

/;; addition to Ihi'ir regular 
instritction papers, students in 
fit 1 1 Engineering courses are 
hnical Reference Library (in ten volumes) as a help in 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDE 
Armour Institute of Technology - - C 

Mention THE BRlcKBmLUKK. 




rrn B;U,ting, Armour 
lituu •/ Teihnnlogf. 



Instruction 

under 

Supervision 

of 

Members 

of 

the 

Faculty 

of 

Armour 

Institute 

of 

Technology. 



furnished a 
their studies. 

NCE 

HICAGO, ll.L. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

MARCH, 

1903. 




LA LONJA (THE EXCHANGE), SARAGOSSA, SPAIN. 




THE BRICKBVILDER 




I 

DEVOTED -TO-THE-INTERESTS-OFSS^ march iw3 M 



ARCHITECTVRE- IN MATERIALS Of CLAY 



ISJiM^KSI^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PLULISIIEI) MONIIII.V liV 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 AVater Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Officeas Second Class Mail Matter, March i 2, 1891. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILUKK PUBLISMI.NG COMPANY. 



CIS in the United States and 



>5.oo per year 

50 cents 

56. 00 per year 



Subscription price, mailed tljt to m 

Canada ........ 

Single numbers ........ 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... 

SUBSCRIPTIO.NS PAYAliLE IN AI>\\N I . 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled . . . Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



TESTED FIREPROOF MATERIAL. 

ARCHITECTS are as a class conservative. This is 
quite as it should be. The temptation to experi- 
ment at some one's el.se expense is always within the reach 
of the architect. But in most cases it is not a temptation 
which appeals to one very strongly, and it is one which 
surely, in the interests of the client as well as the archi- 
tect's own reputation, should be sedulously avoided. There 
are in this countr}- to-day before the pul)lic a surprising 
number of so-called systems of fireproofing. We venture 
the broad statement that there is only one which has 
stood all manner of tests and been successful through 
them all and that is that which is based upon the use of 
hollow terra-cotta blocks as a protection against the action 
of heat. We do not feel, however, that fireproofing need 
be treated like burnt pig, in Charles Lamb's famous 
essay. It is not necessary to burn the building down or 
even set it on fire in order to determine whether or not 
the system of fireproofing employed is a safe one, but 
more insistence can with advantage be placed upon the 
necessity of actual tests even on a small .scale. Nor is it 
enough that such tests should receive the approval of a 
building department or of the engineer employed by the 



company, or of a few interested investigators. The 
great pity is that we have no authoritative board or body 
in this country to make such tests in an absolutely impar- 
tial manner, publishing fearlessly the results and showing 
no favors. But in the absence of such disinterested tests 
we feel it can be stated as a general rule that no material 
will resist fire unless in the process of its manufacture it 
has already passed through a temperature as high as any 
to which it might be exposed in a burning building, nor 
is any material to be considered as ranking among the 
best unless it is of such nature that the action of heat 
under 2,500 degrees W'ill not change its molecular or 
chemical constitution. Nor is any material suitable 
which is in any way affected by the action of water. 
There is only one material, at present, before the public 
which will answer all three conditions and that is burnt 
clay, and we feel that architects are quite justified in be- 
ing sceptical in regard to any system of fireproofing which 
uses any other material as a base. The fact that other 
systems may pass muster from inspectors or may stand 
most fires or may be almost as good as terra-cotta is a 
poor argument. The best is none too good, especially 
when the best generally costs but little, if any, more than 
those compositions which will stand most fires. Too 
great insistence cannot be placed upon the selection of 
material and upon the system of construction which is 
absolutelv the best. 



THE daily press has found a great deal to say of late 
anent the opening of a private museum in Boston, 
which is in .some respects a most interesting sign of our 
national progress in art matters. There are rich men 
and w'omen by the hundred who have accumulated works 
of art which are carefully hoarded in private collections 
to which the ])ublic has no access, but as far as we know 
Mre. John L. (iardner is the first to appreciate that she 
is but a trustee and that her unquestioned taste and her 
ample bank account can best be used to place objects of 
fine art within the reach of educated, cultivated people. 
Her museum is unicjuc in many ways. Every object it 
contains was selected because of its artistic worth. There 
is no padding, no gifts which cannot be (picstioned, and 
there is plenty of room for pictures and for art subjects 
so that they can be studied one by one without crowding 
and without haste. Two hundred people only are allowed 
to enter on certain days of the week l)y special admission 
tickets which must be ])urchased at one dollar each. We 
know of no place where conditions might be so ideal for 
studying and appreciating art, and it is to be hoped that 
examples of this kind, whicli arc by no means uncommon 



46 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



abroad, may be imitated by men like Senator Clark, J. 
M. Hill or the Vanderbilts, whose priceless collections 
now are for the greater part hidden away from those to 
whom they would do the most good. 



R. M. UPJOHN. 

BY the death of R. M. Upjohn the architectural pro- 
fession loses one of its oldest and most honored 
members. For more than half a century the Upjohns, 
father and son, have been prominent architects in New 
York, and they have been identified with every develop- 
ment of the profession. Mr. Upjohn was the first presi- 
dent of the American Institute of Architects, and up to 
the time of his death took an active interest in all profes- 
sional matters. He was born in England in 1828, and 
came to this country while a mere child. The best known 
of his buildings is the State House at Hartford, which in 
many ways is one of the most successful structures of its 
kind in the country and offers one of the very few exam- 
ples in the world of a Gothic dome. 



FRANCIS CRANMER PENROSE. 

SINCE our la.st issue we have to chronicle the death of 
Mr. Francis Cranmer Penrose. From 1852 to US97 
Mr. Penrose held the position of siirveyor to St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London, having succeeded Professor Cock- 
erell, and during that time, in addition to his care of the 
cathedral and a moderate architectural practice, he wrote 
a number of highly esteemed treatises on the refine- 
ments of Greek architecture and kindred topics. He re- 
ceived the Royal gold medal of the Institute of British 
Architects, and was a past president of that institution. 
His literary work was not confined entirely to architec- 
ture, as he found time to publish a work on "A Method 
of Predicting Occultations of »Stars and Solar Eclipses 
by Graphical Construction," of which a new edition was 
issued last year, as well as a paper on certain astronom- 
ical facts connected with the orientation of Greek temples. 



NEW BOOKS. 



The Design of Simple Roof-Trusses in Wood and 
Steel. By Malverd A. Howe, C. E. New York: 
John Wiley & Sons. Price, $2. 

The stated object of the writer of this book has been 
to bring together in a small compass all of the essentials 
required in properly designing ordinary roof-trusses in 
wood and steel. The programme so laid out has been 
faithfully adhered to. There is hardly a line of superflu- 
ous matter in the book, the essentials are clearly and 
compactly stated, the theory of graphical statics is pre- 
sented in a precise and comprehensive manner, and to give 
the work a practical value the author .selected one typical 
truss fn wood and a similar typical truss in steel and 
worked out in fullest detail all the strains and all the sizes 
and detail connections. P'or work of this kind a single 
truss so worked out is far better than an extended variety, 
for the engineer or architect who can master the processes 
of calculation involved in a single truss as herein shown 
would have no difficulty in applying the same principles 
to any structure however complicated. The book has 
been carefully edited and is quite free from slips or in- 



accuracies. Our only criticism would be that the tables, 
which occupy some thirty pages, are quite superfluous, as 
they are essentially nothing but transcripts from the steel 
handbooks. They, at least, however, do no further harm 
than to add to the bulk of the book. 



A Discussion of Composition, Especially as Applied to 
Architecture. By John Vredenburgh Van Pelt. New 
York: The Macmillan Company. 

This book is interesting reading. It is throughout 
evidently inspired by nothing more American than the 
acquired principles of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and its 
practical applicability to American wants is questionable, 
but its abstract statements are such as are common to all 
manifestations of art, and they are well put and worthy 
of serious study. The value of the book ceases where the 
author gets beyond general statements, and especially in 
the so-called practical hints toward the close he is hope- 
lessly at sea. Still the successful practitioner will doubt- 
less derive an intellectual pleasure in being told exactly 
why he has done certain things which led to success, while 
with the beginner the impracticability of the impractical 
chapters will pass over his head without notice, and the 
really excellent discussions on the theory of art cannot 
fail to do him a great deal of good. For the best that is 
in it the work is strongly to be commended; the balance 
had far l)etter have been omitted entirely. 



The American Vkjnola. Part I. The Five Orders. 
B}'^ William R. Ware, Professor of Architecture in 
Columbia University. Boston: The American Archi- 
tect and Building News Company. 

It seems like a bit of ancient history for Professor 
Ware in the preface to refer to January, 1859, when he 
left Mr. Edward Cabot's office in Boston to .study archi- 
tecture under Mr. Richard Hunt. Since that time the 
country has passed through several varying phases of 
architectural manifestation, but the principles of the 
Orders and their use are not essentially different from 
what they were in the early days of this century when 
our excellent colonial work was produced. Professor 
Ware's book is admirably illustrated and gives in very 
complete detail all that can be said on the subject. The 
work is to be commended for its thorough, scholarly 
qualities. 



A Manual of Drawinc;. By C. E. Coolidge, Assistant 
Profes.sor of Machine Design, Sibley College, Cornell 
University. 8vo. 92 pages, 10 full-page plates. 
Paper, $1. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 

This book contains about all that can be said on the 
subject of drawing materials and how to use them. It also 
takes up in a general way the usual practice of draught- 
ing offices in regard to the preparation and manufacture 
of drawings. It is written especially for the use of ma- 
chinists, but it is well worth the study of architectural 
draughtsmen as well, though the writer evidently has a 
fondness for mechanical work when he speaks of a soft 
pencil being HHH or HHHH, when the usual custom 
among architects is to consider HB rather hard. The 
drawings accompanying the work are unfortunately not 
as good as the text matter, but the chief trouble is in 
their reproduction rather than in the subject-matter. 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) i^ R 



47 



The American Hotel. II. 



KV C. H. BI.ACKALL 



THE MAIN FLOOR. 



THE keynote of the arrangement of the principal floor 
of a modern first-class hotel is ample circulation 
and publicity. Everything- is subserved to affording op- 
portunity for the guests to see each other and themselves, 
and to have abundant space in which to promenade, to 
show themselves and to observe. It is assumed to be an 
attribute of well bred nonchalance to appear oblivious to 



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TRtMONT 



PLAN OF OFFICE FLOOR, HOTEL TOURAINE, HOSTON. 
Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 



everything that goes on around one, but as a matter of 
fact there is no other place where individual curiosity is 
so tolerated, and so openly encouraged as in a modern 
hotel. Consequentl}' a great deal of space is given up to 
mere circulation and lounging rooms. The main apart- 
ment, if it may be so called, is at once hall, rotunda, of- 
fice, news room and reception room. The dining room 
must be close at hand, and, if possible, separated from 
the strictly so-called public space by either draped open- 
ings or large windows. The corridors are made of ample 
proportions, and as far as possible each corridor leads to 
some notable feature so as to tempt the 
visitor to investigate. Everything is 
for show and to carry out the appear- 
ance of well bred interested leisure, 
which is so prominent in our city hotels. 
There are a few features which are 
common to all and which are essential. 
The main entrance is directly into the 
lobby. Most of our modern hotels are 
now equipped with the Van Kannel 
revolving doors, which obviate the 
necessity for any vestibules and at the 
same time increase the possibility of 
abundance of light for the large rooms 
which are necessitated by the program. 
Everybody can enter from the main 
entrance, but it is a feature of hotel 
etiquette that a lady shall enter by a 
separate entrance, if possible on one 
side, and that close by the ladies' en- 
trance there shall be a small waiting 
room, called, by courtesy, the ladies' 



parlor, which is usually a convenient resting place on 
the way either to the elevators, which ought to be close 
at hand, or to the dining room, which should never be 
far distant. The floor plan of the New Willard, at 
Washington, shows these points admirably. The main 
lobby is a magnificent apartment finished in elaborate 
manner, with a high ceiling, and grouped either in it or 
about it are all of the working functions of the hotel life. 
The ladies' room is on the corner of the two streets 
with an entrance from Fourteenth Street, and the dis- 
position of the elevators and the approach to the dining 
room in relation to the ladies' room and the ladies' 
entrance illustrate a very clever bit of 
planning on an irregular corner. 

The Touraine offers a similar solu- 
tion. The main entrance is from 
Boylston vStreet directly into a large 
apartment designated on the plan as 
office, which accommodates a number 
of various features, and directly oppo- 
site, on the axis, passing the side en- 
trance, is the ample corridor leading 
directly by the elevators to the large 
dining room. In the case of the Man- 
hattan, the ladies' entrance is into a 
sort of enlarged vestibtile which an- 
swers the purpose also of ladies' room, 
and the main rotunda is the general 
waiting room, which is entered directly 
from the street through revolving doors 
which are not shown on the plan. The general scheme 
seems to be to oblige patrons to enter the hotel and come 
in a measure at least under the eye of the management be- 
fore reaching the dining room. Only rarely can the dining 
room be entered without first passing close by the main 
desk. In the Auditorium Annex the restaurant is on the 
corner and immediately adjoining the main vestibule, so 
that outsiders need not pass into the main lobby. The 
same is true of the cafe' in this hotel, which varies from 
the usual type in being on the ground floor. The local 
condition in Chicago apparently did not favor a basement 




PLAN OF OFFICE FLOOR, HOTEL SCHENLEV, 
Rutan & Russell, Architects. 



PITTSBURG, PA. 



4S 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



caf^. On a somewhat smaller scale the Hotel Schenley 
carries out the same principles in a very straightforward, 
logical manner. The lobby is the central feature and 
directly opposite the main entrance is the desk. The 
carriage entrance is at one side, with a passage and a 
parlor or ladies' room on opposite sides of this passage 



vSmoking is generally permitted there, and ladies are sup- 
posed to only cross the lobby but not to linger therein. 
In the Waldorf-Astoria, however, the conditions are 
somewhat different. The main office is entered from 
Thirty-fourth Street. On this side of the building is 
also a driveway into the building, enclosed by a prome- 




SKETCH FROM ARCHITECTS' PLAl 



PLAN OF I'.\KI,OR FLOOR, HOTEL JEFFERSON, RICHMOND, VA. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 




PLAN OF OFFICE FLOOR, JEFFERSON HOTEL, RICHMOND, VA. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



and an elevator just beyond, so that upon entering the 
hotel ladies can remain in the waiting room while the 
gentlemen register and the party can then take the ele- 
vator to the upper stories without the ladies being 
obliged to pass through the lobby at all. It seems to be 
unwritten cu.stom that ladies .shall keep out of the lobby. 



nade, this promenade in turn being separated by a glazed 
partition from the apartments marked on plan as the main 
foyer, the main corridor, and the reception room, the 
office being just beyond the corridor on the right. 
As a matter of fact all of these apartments are thronged 
night and day with guests in constant circulation. This 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



49 



hotel having been built in two sections presents some 
duplication of parts which would not be expected in a 
structure designed as a unit, but the idea of affording 



logical manner, and the hotel as it is shown by the plans 
is one of the most interesting structures of its class in the 
country. Nominally the main entrance is on the upper 




THIRTY roURTH STREET 

PLAN OF OFFICE FLOOR, WALDORF-ASTORIA HOTEL, NEW YORK CIT^ , 
H. J. Hardenberj^h, Architect. 



ample room for circulation is manifest everywhere and 
can easily be traced out on the plan. 

In the New Planters Hotel, St. Louis, there is a de- 
parture from the usual arrangement, in that the main 
dining room, the reception room and 
the kitchen are on the second floor, 
the main entrance, the cafe, bar- 
room, barber shop, etc., being on the 
ground floor, and the office placed 
on the axis of the entrance. The 
ladies' entrance is from Pine Street. 
This plan has a further complication 
in that a part of the ground floor is 
given up to stores. (xenerally the 
requirements of hotel accommoda- 
tion are such that every inch of room 
on the ground floor can be used by 
the lessee, and stores are impracti- 
cable. 

All the plans previously referred 
to are of hotels upon a level site. 
The Hotel Jefferson, at Richmond, 
is an exceedingly interesting illustra- 
tion of what can be done on a site 
which pitches very sharply towards 
the rear. The difficulties were over- 
come byCarrere & Hastings in a most 



level, or at the left of the plans as shown by the cut. A 
shallow vestibule gives access to a moderate sized lobby, 
on each side of which are parlors. ( )n the axis a short 
vestibule leads to a charming open fore court surrounded 




IM.AN OK OFFICE FLOOR, HOLLAND HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Hardiug & Gooch, Architects. 



50 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



■p_.i.j_*^WR?^^5F 




PLAN OF OFFICE FLOOR, AUDITORIUM ANNEX, CHICAGO. 

Holabird & Roche and Clinton J, Warren, Associate Architects. 



at a level ten steps below to give 
access to the dining room that faces 
the rear street and to the galleries 
opening into the upper portion of 
the lower court. This court on the 
lower level is actually the main en- 
trance to the hotel, the omnibuses 
and carriages driving up the rear 
street. The clerk's desk, the grille 
room, the lavatories, etc., are all on 
the lower level and a side corridor 
carries one directly t(j the elevators. 
The effect on entering the hotel and 
looking up from the lower court 
along the axial stairway into the fore 
court with its mass of green foliage 
is extremely interesting and it would 
be hard to imagine a more successful 
treatment of so difficult a problem. 

It is apparently not considered 
'essential that the office or the main 
lobby or waiting rooms of a hotel 
shall be abundantly lighted from 
out of doors. In the Waldorf-Asto- 
ria all the interior rooms, including 
the office, are lighted continuously 
by electric light, and even in the 
dining rooms and cafes, which front 
on the street, the electric lights are 
burning a greater portion of the 
time. In the Manhattan the portion 
designated as rotunda receives ex- 
cellent light from ,the street, but 
even here electric lights are burnt a 
great deal and in the office they are 
going continually. It adds to the 
appearance of the lobby and office 
surroundings if daylight can be in- 
troduced even in limited quantities, 
but it is seldom practicable to so ar- 
range the first floor as to dispense 
entirely with artificial light, and it 
apparently is not an imperative need 
to do so. 



by a colonnade and flanked on one 
side by parlors and on the other by 
a ladies' cafe'. This fore court is, or 
was, beautifully planted with palms 
and flowering shrubs, with a statue 
of Thomas Jefferson and a fountain 
in the center. On the opposite side 
of the hill, still on the axis, is a flight 
of stairs leading down to a second 
courtyard at the lower level, this 
second courtyard extending through 
the height of the lower and the main 
story, and being covered with glass. 
From the fore court a transverse 
corridor leads to a corridor parallel 
to the side street, carried along 
partly on the upper level and partly 




PLAN OK OFFICE FLOOR, NIAGARA 
Green & Wicks. 



HOTEL, NIAGARA FAILS, N. \. 
Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



51 




SECOND FLOOR 



PLAN, 
Isaac 



THE PLANTERS HOTEL, ST. 
S. Taylor, Architect. 



LOUIS 



The location of the de.sk must be very carefully stud- 
ied. The clerks are supposed to keep an eye on every 
one who enters and leaves the hotel, and the registry 
book should, if possible, be visible at a glance to guests 
entering the front door. In the New Planters, the vSchen- 
ley and the Holland House the desk is directly opposite 
the main door. It is more commonly, however, on one 
side as in the Touraine, the Auditorium Annex, the New 
Willard or the Jefferson. In the Manhattan it is some 
distance back beyond the rotunda lobby and almost 
around the corner, while in the Waldorf-Astoria it is de- 
cidedly to one side of the axis and of the main entrance, 
though the disposition of rooms is such that it is very 
prominent. The office includes a main counter where 
the guests are received and registered and rooms assigned 
them. Usually there is a distinct portion set aside for 
the reception of the keys, letters, etc., and the cashier's 
desk is usually an extension of the main counter. In the 
Waldorf-Astoria there is a considerable space devoted 
simply to information, opposite which, against the wall, 
is the station for the despatch tubes leading to each story. 
Beyond the mere fact that the 
main desk or office shall be in full 
view of the main entrance, there 
seems to be really nothing that 
governs its position. 

The arrangement of the va- 
rious features which have to be 
accommodated on the ground floor 
calls for the exercise of a good 
deal of ingenuity. They must all 
be like the servant in the famous 
portrait, who was in the picture, 
but just out of sight around the 
corner. There must be .space for 
a telephone operator's desk with 
at least two telephone booths im- 
mediately adjoining. The Man- 
hattan has six telephone booths, 
and they are in constant demand. 
The New Willard has four tele- 
phone booths. In both of these 



hotels this portion of the service was 
carefully thought out and very conven- 
iently arranged, .so as to be readily ac- 
cessible without detracting from the 
general arrangement, but it is usually 
the case that all the telephone facilities 
are neglected until the building is fin- 
ished, and they do not always receive 
the attention they merit. 

The coat or check room is another 
feature which receives far less attention 
than it should. A coat room is never 
too big, but it is often too small. It 
should be on the ground floor immedi- 
ately opposite the main desk, and in 
a rough general way the number of 
square feet should approximately equal 
the number of rooms in a hotel. This 
of course is the crudest kind of ap- 
proximation, but it appears to fit some 
of the more convenient coat rooms. Im- 
mediately adjacent to this and as clo.se as practicable to 
the service elevators it is well to have a trunk room. 
Only a very few hotels, however, are so placed as to make 
it practicable to have a separate entrance through which 
^agg^age can be brought. When there is a .separate en- 
trance of course the baggage room should be immediately 
adjoining the same, but few city hotels can afford such a 
luxury. 

Space must also be provided for a telegraph office. If 
the hotel includes a ticker in its equipment this appara- 
tus is usually placed in the cafe or in the barroom. 

The news stand is usually very prominently placed in 
the main lobby. It is seldom specially arranged for and 
more often consists simply of a counter built out into the 
room from one wall. For an ordinary hotel a space 10 x 
14 would be ample. The theater ticket office is usually rim 
is connection with the news stand and needs no special 
provision. 

In some hotels, as in the New Willard and in the Wal- 
dorf-Astoria, the head porter has a desk, and to him is 
assigned the calling of carriages, engaging of railroad ac- 




PLAN OF OFFICE FLOOR, THE PLANTERS HOTEL, ST. LOUIS. 
Isaac S. Taylor, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




PLAN OK OFFICE FLOOR, HOTEL MANHATTAN, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

H. J. Hardenbergh, Architect. 

commodations, the delivery of letter paper and envelopes 
and stamp.s, and what i.s termed paging a guest, that is to 
say, sending a boy around through all the rooms to call 
out the name of some one who is wanted. 

There should be a small ladies' waiting room reached 
by a separate entrance from out of doors, opposite the 
elevators if possible, and close by the main desk. This 
is used only slightly and for a very few moments at a 
time, and a very small apartment answers the puipose. 
Besides this there should be a ladies' parlor, a writing 
room and a library. These are purely show rooms. 
They are used so little that it is impossible to settle any 
data as to sizes, and their location depends entirely upon 
what is left in the lot after the main offices and dining 
rooms are set off. 

It is usual in hotels of the present day to place the 
cafe' and the barroom in the basement and re-serve the 
restaurant on the ground floor for ladies alone or with 
escorts. The dining room in the majority of cases occu- 
pies the most prominent corner and is disposed so as to 
get all of the daylight possible. In the Touraine it is 
arranged very naturally at the rear on the axis, with 
light on three sides. In the New Willard it receives 
light only on one side and is disposed rather to the rear 
of the side street. But in all of the hotels illus- 



trated it is the most commanding room on the floor and 
architecturally it receives the first consideration. Quite 
frequently the dining room is helped out by a so-called 
palm garden, in which the service is supposed to be per- 
haps a little less formal, though practically there is no 
difference. When the Waldorf was built the palm gar- 
den was placed directly opposite the entrance and formed 
so charming a feature that upon the erection of the Asto- 
ria the same treatment was carried out on the opposite 
side and the two thrown together. The palm garden in 
the Niagara is treated a good deal like a large conserva- 
tory, and being on the axis of the entrance forms a very 
charming feature. In the Manhattan the so-called palm 
court is not a dining room but a species of general wait- 
ing and reception room. The palm garden in the New 
Willard, on the other hand, seems to be used chiefly for 
theater parties and late suppers. The palm garden in 
the Auditorium is in a mezzanine story communicating 
directly with the main restaurant by a broad flight of 
steps. In the Jefferson the galleries around the lower 
court on the main dining room level are used as a species 
of palm garden, the tables being .set in the open. 

The size of dining room in its relation to the hotel is 
something governed entirely by local conditions. The 
number of guests whichcan be accommodated in a room 
varies from one for every twelve feet of area, which is 
rather crowded, to one for every twenty or twenty-five 
feet in area, which is probably as near an approximation 
of the average as could be made. There are few first- 
class hotels which depend entirely upon registered guests 
for patronage of the dining rooms, and the traffic from 




PLAN OK OFFICE FLOOR, NEW WILLARD HOTEL, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

H. J. Hardenbergh, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



53 



outsiders is the largest source of revenue. The most 
practical rule the writer has heard stated is to plan the 
lobbies, ladies' room, etc., as restricted as will give satis- 
faction, and throw all the rest of the room in the first 
story into the dining- room. The approximate ratio be- 
tween the number of rooms and the area of the dining 
room is 14 in the Touraine, 8.25 in the Auditorium An- 
nex, 9.8 in the Waldorf-Astoria, 9.75 in the New Willard 
and 8. 3 5 in the Manhattan. 

It may be said that the opportunities for systematic 
planning, such as is shown in the Jefferson or the Schen- 
ley or the Niagara, are extremely few. Any attempt to 
plan academically, to balance the parts, to preserve or 
mark axes is generally wrecked by conditions of site, ex- 
posure or practical requirements. Apparently hotels 
which are most architectural in treatment are not neces- 
sarily the most popular or the best patronized, and the 
main essentials seem to be a large, monumental, lavishly 
decorated lobby entered directly from the street, a mag- 
nificent, richly appointed dining room, and especially, as 
was emphasized at the beginning of this article, ample 
circulation. 



WHY NOT CLAY GUTTERS. 

WE rarely see eave gutters made by the clayworker. 
The ironfounder or the "tin-plate" maker gets 
practically all the orders for that class of work, but we do 
not know why it should be. The gutters are not called upon 
to withstand heavy blows, so that because clay goods might 
be thought to be too brittle for the purpose does not enter 
into the question. vSuitable joints can be as easily made 
in the clay goods as in the iron, and we venture to think 
that they would prove, on the whole, more satisfactory. 
One of the most frequent causes for complaint in the 
average modern eave gutter is that, after it has been up 
some time, it commences to leak. The continual oxidiz- 
ing action of the air, especially "moist air," tends to cor- 
rode and eat away the iron in unprotected places, and the 
gutter after a while commences to drip at inconvenient 
points. No action of this kind can be set iip where the 
gutter is of stoneware. Another factor in the case is in re- 
gard to ccsthetic appearance. It is true that some people 
may prefer to see the gutters of their houses painted so as 
to give a " pretty effect. " But we venture to believe that 
very many are not of that opinion, and would much rather 
that clay goods should be adopted to match materials em- 
ployed in other parts of the building externally. The 
owners of house property, too, ought to recognize the 
value of stoneware gutters over iron ones. The latter, 
to keep them in order, must be painted, whilst the for- 
mer require nothing of the kind and will always keep 
their color. Objection might be taken on the ground of 
the superior weight of the stoneware gutters, but that 
weight is little in excess of substantial iron ones, and 
we are not including jerry-built houses in these observa- 
tions. 

'Tis unlikely that clay gutters will ever be u.scd to 
any extent on other than buildings which have been 
built entirely or nearly so of burnt clay. But there can 
be no logical rea.son why they should not be u.sed on a 
building the front of which is either of Ijrick or terra- 
cotta. — British Brickbuildcr. 



Brick Edihces in Toulouse. 

BY J KAN SCHOPIF.R. 

OF all French cities, Toulouse is assuredly the one 
pos.sessing the largest number of brick monuments, 
varying in date from the Romanic period down to mod- 
ern times. Whereas in nearly all the other parts of 
F'rance, a few districts in Normandy excepted, good 
building stone is found, in the .southwest there is none. 
Its place is taken by brick. A virtue is made of neces- 
sity; that is to say, some remarkable brick edifices are 
constructed. It is, therefore, to Toulouse that one must 
go to find the most typical examples of brick architecture 
of the different periods — Romanestiue, (iothic, Renais- 
sance and modern. It is true, as regards the (iothic pe- 
riod, that Toulouse cannot boast of such a fine church as 




1)un(;eon in courtnard ok capitol, toui.ouse. 

is the admirable cathedral at Albi, which we brought to 
the notice of The Brickhuilder readers last year. Albi 
Cathedral remains the masterpiece, as far as brick is con- 
cerned, of religious architecture of the Middle Ages; 
but Toulouse has several Gothic monuments also, and 
can pride itself upon having erected the biggest French 
Romanesque church — and one of tlie most perfect — 
that of St. Sernin's. 

The Church of St. Sernin of Toulouse, of whicli we 
give several views, was begun in the eleventh century. 
It was intended to place therein the body of Saint-vSa- 
turnin, first bishop of Toulouse, and relics of six apostles. 
Saint-Saturnin was held in great veneration, and many 
were the offerings made for the erection of a church in 
his memory. Moreover, the county of Toulouse was at 
that time a very rich jirovince, the Albigcnsian Crusade 
not having yet ruined it. Agriculture and the arts (lour- 



54 



THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 



w 



r^ 









,1 




m 



^■^\ 




HOTEL RAYMOND, TOULOUSE. 




GENERAL VIEW, CHURCH OT ST. SERNIN, TOULOUSE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



55 




■iiL. 



jitJIii 



uJ^..t^^«l.\J*vv< ~-:-^-:-~-^ 



THE PONT NKUF BRIDGE, T0U70USE. 




COI4RTYARU OK MUSEUM, TOULOUSE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 



ished there, and it was one of the parts of France where 
civilization promised to reach a high state of perfection. 

As we have said, the Church of St. Sernin's was com- 
menced about the year 1080. A first consecration of it 
took place sixteen years later, that is, in 1096, at which 
Pope Urban II officiated. At that time there was only 
the crypt, which has remained celebrated to this day. The 
central tower was finished in 1130. It was much less 
high then than it is now, as can easily be seen by an ex- 
amination of the illustration. The two upper stories and 
the spire are not Romanesque like the rest of the edifice, 
having been built a century later, that is to say, in the 
thirteenth century, when the Chapter of vSt. Sernin's de- 
cided to carry the steeple higher, in order that it might be 
visible from a greater distance to the pilgrims who came 
to Toulouse. 

Toulouse was a halting place on the road of one of the 
principal pilgrimages of the Middle Ages. Pilgrims 
from France first went to the Abbey of Conques; they 
next visited St. Sernin of Toulou.se, and arrived finally 
at St. Jacques de Compostelle in vSpain. As may be 
imagined, they left offerings at each sanctuary: hence 
the wealth of these three churches. 

The two parts of the tower, the Romanesque and the 
Gothic, are perfectly distinct. 

St. vSernin's was entirely vaulted in the twelfth cen- 
tury, but, as happened to every large church, it was not 
entirely completed. Two centuries more of intermittent 
work was needed. Some additions were made in the fif- 
teenth century, and in the nineteenth a thorough resto- 
ration of the church was undertaken by Viollet le Due, 
who has been succeeded by M. de Baudot. 

The church is a cruciform edifice with five naves, a 
chevet and five apses. It cannot be said that its style is 
peculiar to the Toulousian school. 

We know that during the Romanesque period there 
were different solutions, according to the province, of the 
problem which exercised the minds of the architects of 
those days, — that of vaulting large spaces in the .safest 
and at the same time most economical manner. This is 
how there came to be in the Romanesque style alone, the 
Norman, the Burgundian, the Provencial, the Poitou and 
the Auvergnian schools, each of which evolved a type 
markedly different from the others. And yet there is no 
Toulousian school. On the contrary, St. vSernin's is a 
thorough example of the Aiivergnian .school, of which it 
possesses all the characteristics. It has the double aisles 
with semi-barrel vaults which distinguish that school ; 
the principal nave has no direct lights; the inner aisle 
has a gallery, a feature which is also found in the churches 
of Auvergne. Much di.scussion has taken place regard- 
ing these galleries. They are dark, cannot accommodate 
worshipers, and have no architectural raisoii d'etre. 
Probably they served as storerooms for the articles of 
value which the cru.saders left behind them when .start- 
ing for the Holy Land. In any case it was during the 
time of the Crusades that they were built, and none were 
built afterwards. We know also that Mussulmans, when 
leaving for Mecca, deposit their valuables in the mosques. 

The dimensions of vSt. Sernin's are considerable. Its 
total length is 380 feet. The tran.sept measures 21 1 feet. 
The nave is no less than 108 feet wide. The outer aisle 
is 24 feet in height and the inner one 32 feet. The nave 



has a height of 73 feet, while the steeple rises to 212 feet 
from the ground. It is to be noted that the axis of the 
church is slightly inclined towards the north. This is 
one of those intentional deviations cleverly resorted to 
by architects of the Middle Ages for the purpo.se of ex- 
tending the perspectives. 

St. Sernin's. by its dimensions and by the beauty of its 
plan and construction, is one of the most remarkable of 
Romanes(|ue churches. It bears the same relation to the 
other monuments of that time that Amiens Cathedral 
bears to the churches of the thirteenth century. 

The various views we present speak for thcm.selves, 
and little comment is necessary. 

A general view is given showing the western front, 
wliich unfortunately is unfinished and lacks the richness 
of aspect offered by the aisles and the chevet. The .sculp- 
tural decoration througliout the edifice is of the most 
sober kind. 

With regard to the belfry it will lie noticed that in the 
upper and Gothic portion brick is employed in a truly 
constructive manner, there being triangular tops to the 
window crownings, which is an economical imitation of 
the ogive for use in brick buildings. 

The view of the aisles shows the rich decorative effect 
produced by the intelligent u.se of brick mixed with 
white stone. In the oculus above the doors we find 
those polychrome mosaics that were .so much in favor 
with the Auvergnian school. The aisle door is a fine 
piece of Romanesque architecture. The outer door lie- 
longs to the Renais-sance period, and is built of stone. 
In St. Sernin's we observe the constant employment of 
those .small arcades which are .such a typical ornament in 
good brick architecture, and whose origin must be traced 
back to the Byzantine edifices at Ravenna. 

A general view of the chevet shows the nine small 
apses flanking the transept and the choir, and a detail of 
the same part of the church enables one to admire in all 
its beauty this masterpiece of Romanesque architecture 
in brick. 

St. Stephen's Cathedral, begun in the thirteenth 
century, is another edifice of considerable size con- 
structed in brick. But the fortunes of Toulouse under- 
went reverses, and the cathedral was never completed 
as it ought to have been. Its nave is ancient, and 
very interesting from the standpoint of brick construc- 
tion. It has three bays, 50 feet in length and as much 
as 65 feet wide. The vault is the Roman groined vault 
with .salient ribs. The front, which we reproduce, has 
never been finished. It dates from the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, and has a big tower, the crowning 
of which is (juite Renaissance. The illustration shows 
clearl)' the thick buttresses in brick. 

Amongst monuments belonging to the period of tran- 
sition from (iothic to Renaissance we will mention the 
dungeon in the courtyard of the Capitol — the Toulouse 
Hotel (h- \'ille. It is a .small building flanked by four 
small towers intended for sheltering sentries. It has 
been restored witliin tlic last fifteen years. 

Another fine specimen of brick construction of the 
.same period is the old Hotel Raymoud. This is a hou.se 
with battlements and a machicoulis; but it is only strong 
in appearance, and one sees by other details — the win- 
dows, for in.stance — that the builders never expected 



IWi 



58 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



that the edifice would have to sustain a siege. The taste 
for making this parade of defensive works comes from 
those earlier times when Toulouse had to bear the brunt 
of political and religious strife. 

Bachelier, who was not only an architect but a good 
decorator, commenced at Toulouse the erection of a 
bridge — the Pont Nciif — which was finished by his son. 
The work was begun in 1546 and only completed in 
1626. It is a splendid brick bridge, crossing the Garonne 
on seven arches. Our illustration sufficiently indicates 
the care with which it was constructed. The materials 
used were of excellent quality, and the bridge, which is 
four centuries old, is as sound now as the first day, al- 
though it has had to withstand some terrible floods, as 
the Garonne, which rises in the adjacent Pyrenees, is 
subject to sudden overflows of a dangerous character. 
Two suspension bridges were carried away by floods in 
the month of June, 1875. This bridge dates from the 
Renaissance. 

Henry the Fourth's courtyard, in the Capitol at Tou- 
louse, is somewhat late Renaissance. It is of elegant 
design, pleasing in color with its alternate layers of brick 
and stone, and decorated quite in accordance with the 
very ornate method peculiar to Toulouse. A statue of 
Henri IV stands over the doorway. It was in this 
pleasant courtyard that Duke Henry II of Montmorency 
was beheaded in 1632, by the king's order, for conspiring 
against the state. 

Our final illustration shows the courtyard of the 
present Museum. It is an old convent of the Augustines, 
one of the chief brick edifices of media;val Toulouse. 
This courtyard was a small cloister, dating from the 
Renaissance, as can easily be seen. It is a very ornate 
building, with bas-reliefs and statues. We call atten- 
tion, from a brick point of view, to the really curious 
pilasters between the little arcades. It is an adaptation 
in brick of forms which originated in stone con- 
struction. 

Such are the few Toulousian monuments which I de- 
sired to bring before the readers of The Brickhuilder. 
It is certain that Toulouse has been, at all periods, a city 
where good architecture has been done, that she holds a 
worthy position in the history of French art, and that 
she has employed nothing but brick for her principal and 
most enduring edifices. 



SIZE OF BRICKS. 



The following bill was recently submitted to the legis- 
lature of Massachusetts : 

Section i. From the first day of July of the year 
nineteen hundred and three, all bricks manufactured or 
sold in this commonwealth shall be known as standard or 
seconds. 

Section 2. The size of standard face bricks shall be 
eight and three-eighths by four and one-eighth by two 
and one-fourth inches, and the size of standard common 
bricks shall be eight and one-fourth by four by two and 
one-fourth inches. 

Section 3. All bricks not of standard size .shall be 
seconds. 



The Oneida County Courthouse at 
Utica, N. Y. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLANS BY OLIN W. 
CUTTER. 

BRIEFLY stated, the principal points to which atten- 
tion is asked are as follows, viz. : 
The amount of floor space that will be finally allotted 
to the departments of the county clerk, surrogate and 
treasurer, which should be on the first floor, is what will 
determine the size of the proposed building. 

The floor space given them in the accompanying draw- 
ings is practically about what is suggested in the "con- 
ditions," and the plans have been worked ovit on this 
basis, rather than upon that of the general dimensions 
suggested of a building 100 x 150 feet, more or less, in 
size. 

The clerk of the courts has on the floor 

of first story 6,622 sq. ft. 

The clerk of the courts has on the floor 
of the basement 480 sq. ft. 

Total 7, 102 sq. ft. 

The surrogate has on the floor of the first 
story 2,806 sq. ft. 

The surrogate has on the floor of the base- 
ment 1,176 sq.ft. 

Total 3.982 sq. ft. 

These figures do not include partitions, closets and 
galleries. 

To obtain a satisfactory arrangement of the important 
rooms of the bitilding the less important ones cannot in 
every instance conform to the dimensions .suggested and 
are perhaps a little larger than desired in some places. 

Planning is but compromising, giving and taking a 
little here and there until the end and aim sought for is 
attained. 

If the plan submitted is satisfactory in arrangement 
and a reduction of square foot area of the various 
rooms is permissible, a blanket shrinkage of the whole 
plan could be made by changing the scale and reducing 
all parts uniformly. 

The hall and corridors are ample for the purposes of 
the building. Where there is a possibility of congestion 
on account of crowds, lobbies have been added to provide 
for them. 

The court rooms have been arranged so that the bench 
faces lengthwise the room and is connected directly with 
the retiring rooms. 

The conditions governing light around and about the 
jury seats have been closely followed. 

The entrances to surrogate's and clerk of court's de- 
partments are located in the center of them rather than 
at the main entrance of the building, for the convenience 
of those doing business in these departments, both as re- 
gard access to elevators and stairs and also for a more 
even division of the rooms. 

These rooms are intended to open up into one another 
through arches and colonnades (except where doors are 
shown) for light and air. 

To minimize the square foot area of the first floor and 
thereby keep down the size of the building to somewhere 
near the area suggested in the conditions it is essential 
that some one of the departments, for which a first-floor 
location is desired, be located elsewhere, and it seems 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



59 



proper that it should be the sheriff's rooms, as they re- 
qiiire a larger area than can be conveniently provided for 
in basement. 

The offices are on the corner of Elizabeth and Char- 
lotte streets, they are above grade at this point and have 
a snbcellar under same. 

For accessibility there is no better location in the 
building. 

Attention is called to the means of getting grand jury 
witnesses to the witness room by means of a private stair- 
way from third floor to mezzanine floor, avoiding contact 
with members of grand jury or occupants of offices of dis- 
trict attorney; also to the passage from offices of district 
attorney to grand jury room and to witness room, avoid- 
ing contact with the public. 

In other respects the plans are self-explanatory. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLANS BY GREEN & 
WICKS. 

The design shows a building 167 ft. o in. front on 

Elizabeth Street, by 98 ft. o in. front on Charlotte Street, 

containing an area of 16,366 square feet. The height of 

the building is as follows: 

ft. in. 

Basement 10 o 

first story 16 o 

Second story i8 o 

Third story 18 o 

Fourth storj' 16 o 

Space taken for thickness of floors and roof . . . . iS o 



Making a total height of 96 o 

taken from basement floor to top of cornice, con- 
taining 1,571, r,i6 CU. ft. 

There is added on the east end of the 

building, in order to make county clerk's 

offices proper size (not needed in upper floors), 

a bay 15 ft. o in. wide by 48 ft. o in. long, 

containing an area of 720 square feet. The 

height of the bay is as follows: 

ft. in. 

Basement : lo o 

First story 16 o 

Space taken for thickness of floor and roof 6 o 



MaKing a total height of 32 o 

from basement floor to top of cornice, contain- 
ing 23,040 cu. ft. 

Making a grand total for contents of build- 

ing 1,594,176 cu ft. 

Round or octagonal rotundas and domes are avoided 
as not essential to the design, and making added expense. 

The names and sizes given in the schedule for various 
rooms have been quite closely followed, but it seems that 
some few of them might be disposed of, and some made 
of greater or lesser area, the net reduction and omission 
making the building somewhat less in size. 

ARRANGEMENT. 

The steps placed inside of building to rise from grade 
to first floor, Elizabeth Street front, make the most of 
the central grouping of windows, and at the same time 
save largely the expen.se that would be incurred by a 
large porch and a flight of outside steps. 

The main courts are placed on the north front of the 
building, so as to be free of morning and afternoon 
streaming sun. It enables the u.se of large windows as 
central features to that elevation of the building. This 
position of main court n;(jms and supervisors' rooms, one 



over the other, simplifies the construction and makes it 
readily possible to place a vent and heating flue shaft at 
each end of these larger rooms. vShafts may be increased 
or decreased, as may be required. In minor rooms it is 
not so important to have windows symmetrically spaced. 
If desired, the light which comes behind the jurors may 
be intercepted by screens or shades. It .seems that jurors 
would be quite as well seated if placed in two rows of six 
each rather than three rows of four each. It would give 
more room for the witness and attorneys, and would not 
be so difficult to pass objects illustrating the ca.se from 
one juror to the other. However, this is a detail that 
may be taken up later with the successful competitor. 
The grouping or placing of jury box, judge's bench, at- 
torneys' tables, dock, stenographers, etc., has been 
roughly indicated as to size or position. 

The basement contains a certain amount of surplus 
room, which is given to the sheriff's quarters and coroner's 
quarters and to storage. It is suggested that it might 
be advisable, as the basement is so well lighted and ac- 
cessible, to place the sherifl''s entire suite of rooms in 
that story. 

The small lavatories al)out the building for the heads 
of the various departments (excepting those for judges) 
might be combined in one special lavatory, — such a lava- 
tory is indicated in basement floor, — btit if distributed 
about the building it is suggested that little slits of win- 
dows be placed in the piers ; they may be treated in 
such a minor way as not to be noticed in the general 
design. 

If from time to time storage other than is supplied in 
direct connection with the various departments is needed 
the old papers may be removed to rooms placed over 
many of the minor rooms of the building. These rooms 
may be reached from the halfway landings of main stairs 
to each story, or by small minor stairs. 

Areas have been placed on the Mary vStreet side of the 
building, extending down the ends towards Elizabeth 
Street, in view of making the basement dry and well 
lighted (the area being drained at the bottom). 

HEATING. 

The building to be heated by low pressure, gravity 
return, steam apparatus ; boilers placed in basement, 
near Mary Street, where coal can be received and ashes re- 
moved with a minimum amotmt of labor ; radiators placed 
in all rooms. 

VENTILATION. 

Fresh air to be forced into such rooms as require posi- 
tive circulation of air through them by steel-housed, elec- 
tric-driven fans placed in basement, taking air supply 
from outside air and also provided with arrangements for 
taking air from corridor during the night if desired; the 
air to be warmed by steam coils before it is delivered into 
the rooms. The inlet into rooms will be placed high up 
on side walls, .so that there will be no currents near the 
level of the occupants of the room. 

There are also to be outlet air flues from tlie various 
rooms requiring ventilation, having one opening near the 
floor and one near the ceiling into each flue, for either 
lower or upper extraction of the air in room, these flues 
to be connected in attic to heated chambers, or to electric- 
driven fans for the removal of air from rooms. 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Fireproofing. 



ON the 26th of F"ebruary, 1903, a fire occurred in the 
Roosevelt Building, corner of Broadway and Thir- 
teenth Street, New York. This was a structure nomi- 
nally of fireproof construction, but with ironwork only 
partially protected, and was occupied for mercantile and 
light manufacturing purposes, the eight stories all being 
filled with considerable stocks of clothing and similar 
goods. The building was of steel skeleton construction 
with cast iron interior columns, all of which were unpro- 
tected. The floors and the roof were constructed with 
terra-cotta hollow tile segmental arches, the flanges of 
the beams and also the girders being protected simply 
by plastering on expanded metal attached directly to the 
iron without an air space. The stairways were of iron 
and incombustible material; the freight elevator was en- 
closed in hollow tile partitions; two of the elevators were 
in a central stair and elevator well and enclosed only by 
an iron grille, though with an enclosure of hollow tile 
partition about the whole stair well. 

The fire started at four o'clock in the morning in the 
rear of the sixth story, .spread very rapidly and ascended 
the central stair and elevator shaft which was not cut off 
except by thin glass windows in wooden sashes, and en- 
tered each of the floors above. The sixth and seventh 
stories were partially subdivided by two-inch hollow tile 
partitions, and these succeeded admirably in confining 
most of the fire on these floors to the southern half. In 
the eighth floor the fire produced the greatest damage. 
Five of the cast iron columns supporting the roof broke 
off clean about two feet from the top (it could not be de- 
termined positively whether this was due to the heat 
alone or to water being played on them during the prog- 
ress of the fire), and all of the remaining columns were 
badly warped and twisted; likewise part of the frame- 
work of the outer walls, where the protection had been 
pulled off by the falling of the roof beams. The giving 
way of the columns caused the entire roof, excepting 
about one-third of the area in one corner, to fall, and in 
doing so one section of it fell through the eighth floor, 
making a hole in the same about 12 feet by 15 feet, and 
landed on the seventh floor, which sagged considerably 
(where hit) from the increased load but remained intact. 
Part of the roof in falling landed on the stair landing in 
the central shaft referred to and fell .straight down 
through the building, carrying each landing with it in 
succession. The ironwork in the sixth and seventh 
floors appears to be in good condition, and structurally 
the building does not appear to be seriously damaged be- 
low the eighth floor, with the exception of the two broken 
floors where the roof fell through. The exterior walls 
being chiefly of brick and terra-cotta, damage to the same 
was slight. 

It is apparent from this fire that terra-cotta floor arches 
and partition work stood admirably and undoubtedly 
saved the building from total destruction, but the value 
of these materials was offset to a very large degree by 
the faulty arrangement in plan of the central stairway, 
which permitted the fire to spread unchecked up and 
down throughout the building. The fire also demon- 
strated, what is almost axiomatic in modern construction. 



that unprotected iron is not suitable for building ccjn- 
struction. Indeed, from an insurance standpoint, a fire- 
proof building with unprotected ironwork and floors not 
cut off, when filled with merchandise, is scarcely better 
than an ordinarily constructed building, and as far as the 
stocks in such buildings are concerned, they are hardly as 
desirable, if all on one floor, as when in an ordinary 
building of medium height. The floors of a fireproof 
building act as a reverberating furnace, and stocks con- 
tained therein are liable to be most effectually cremated, 
but if they be distributed over se\-eral floors properly cut 
off, only that portion on the floor where the fire origi- 
nated should suffer. 

Another point which this fire emphasizes is the con- 
struction of the stairs. The treads were of stone, with 
no iron web underneath, such as is now required by the 
building law. Had these iron webs been in place, even 
though unprotected, they would have undoubtedly 
prevented the falling debris from crushing the successive 
landings in the stair well. 



REDUCTION OF FIRE HAZARD.S IN BUILD 
ING CONSRUCTION. 

PEREZ M. vSTEWART, superintendent, and Rudolph 
P. Miller, chief engineer of the New York Bureau 
of Buildings, have recently published a very valuable 
paper which emphasizes in a most remarkable way the 
statement made some time since by Mr. Edward Atkin- 
son that the only persons who can prevent loss by fire 
are the owners or occupants of the insured premises. 
The indifference of such people to their moral obliga- 
tions is something that the architect has to continually 
combat. The disposition of most people to take chances, 
to gamble on the fire risk, is one of the discouraging 
factors of modern civilization, and no matter how thor- 
oughly we may construct our fireproof buildings, when 
the real test comes the experience of men like Mr. Stew- 
art shows that the failure is not due to any lack of knowl- 
edge on the part of the constructors, but is chiefly charge- 
able to the indifference and often criminal negligence of 
owners or occupants. It is stated that the carpets in the 
hall of the Park Avenue Hotel were imdoubtedly the 
cause of the spread of the fire in the several stories. We 
have seen a fireproof building filled with wooden sheath- 
ing and wooden ceilings which were finished with a 
varnish so inflammable that a slight blaze would spread 
like a flash over the whole surface of the wood. We confess 
to very little confidence in the so-called fireproofed woods. 
The experiments which have been conducted at the Mas- 
.sachusetts Institute of Technology certainly do not show 
that we are yet able to very materially increase the ulti- 
mate resistance of any wood to the destructive effect of 
fire. There are companies in the field to-day who are 
supplying absolutely incombustible materials for finish, 
for floors, and for doors and windows. That these are 
not used more generall)' surely can not be charged to any 
lack of development of fireproofing as a science or to a 
lack of knowledge on the part of architects. Again, the 
fire laws of nearly all of our cities seem to be based on 
an assumption that height is a measure of fire risk, and 
that a low building can safely be constructed in almost any 
way. In New York the Building Code restricts all non- 



vm 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



6i 



fireproof buildings to a height of seventy-five feet, and 
the result is that the great majority of structures which 
go up every year are under that height. This includes 
dwellings, convents, dormitories, clubhouses and other 
residence buildings, and also six-story tenement houses 
and apartments. The most helpless and least responsi- 
ble inhabitants of the city pass most of their lives in 
such structures, and property owners are perfectly will- 
ing to take the risks and paj'^ the insurance companies, 
while public sentiment allows such conditions to continue 
to the menace of the whole city. Again, as Mr. Stewart 
points out very truly, the law may require fireproof 
shutters and the owner may go so far as to put in metal 
sashes and even wire glass, but unless the.sc are ecjuipped 
with some form of automatic self-closing device, which 
is practically never the ca.se in public buildings, a fire 
may start and be communicated through the openings of 
imclosed fireproof windows or doors with such speed as 
to endanger the whole structure before the fire depart- 
ment can arrive. The paper makes clear the statement 
which we have reiterated so frequently, that the real de- 
velopment for the future in the line of fireproof engi- 
neering must be in the more general education of prop- 
erty owners and tenants. 



FIRE LOSS IN LIFE. 

THE greatest danger to per.sonal safety in a fire arises 
not so much from the fire itself or the immediate 
damage by the flames as to the building or to its contents, 
but rather from first smoke and next insufficient or in- 
efficient means of egress. Only in extreme cases do we 
find human beings actually burned to death. Rarely 
does the flame even touch them. But the vast volume 
of smoke which even a slight blaze will cause, especially in 
the interior of a building, is what does most of the damage. 
It is therefore of the utmost importance that wood which 
ignites and smoulders very readily should form no part 
of either the construction or the finish of a building which 
is intended to afford protection against fire. In the 
Park Avenue Hotel fire in New York the actual damage 
by the flames was insignificant, but smoke killed a num- 
ber of people. In the fire in the Hotel Lincoln, Chicago, 
last December, the volume of smoke was so great that 
escape by the narrow passages and areas was impossible 
and fourteen per.sons were killed. There probably is not 
a modern fireproof building constructed to-day that 
would be seriously damaged by any ordinary fire within 
its walls. On the other hand, it is perfectly conceivable 
that a fire which could be confined in its materially de- 
structive effects to a few rooms might by rea.son of 
smoke imperil the lives of all the occupants of the upper 
floors of almost any of our large office buildings. So 
far as we know there is not in existence to-day a com- 
mercial structure in w^hich the finish and the furnishings 
are non-inflammable. That such conditions will change 
at some time in the future there can be no question. 
The price we pay for our slow burning construction, our 
elaborate wood finish, and our carpets and draperies is 
too high, and the time is rapidly approaching when we 
will discover a better way, and avoiding then as we do 
now the danger to the structure we will be able to abso- 
lutely check the liability of death from smoke. 



Selected Miscellany. 



'I'll!': PARK STREET ClirRCIi. 

FOR years Boston has been one of the most picturesque 
of our modern cities. The happy mingling of the 
old and the new, the delightful ab.sence of exact mathe- 
matical lines in the business portion of the city, have 




P.\RK STREET CHURCH, BOSTON. 

given its streets a rare distinction, and probably the 
most interesting feature of the whole city was the Park 
vStreet Church which now stands between the Common 
and the Granary Burying Ground, lifting its graceful 
spire above the mass of foliage on each side. The con- 
gregation which owns the property has changed in char- 




I'ANEI,, POWER HOUSE, STATE CAI'll'l, M'. PAUL, MINN. 

American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Makers. 

Cass Gilbert, Arc-liitcct. 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HEUKEW TEiMFLE, ATI.A.MA, ItA. W. F. DENNY, ARCHITECT. 

Built of "Shawnee" Brick, made by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company. 



acter. Many members have 
moved away to other portions 
of the city, and the value of the 
buildinjf as a down town place of 
worship has passed away. The 
property has just been sold to a 
syndicate, which, realizing the 
commercial value of the site, 
have paid something like one 
hundred and fifty dollars a 
square foot, ecjuivalent to over 
fifteen thousand dollars a front 
foot for the land, upon which 
a commercial building will 
shortly be erected. Thus will 
pass one of the most distinctive 
landmarks of Boston, a church 
dating from the early part of the 
last century, very pure in detail, 
with a most admirably designed 
spire which in the course of years 
has seemed particularly to be- 
long to that special location. 
This loss is distinctly to be re- 
gretted, and no structure which 
will take its place, however 
worthy in an architectural sense, 
will compensate for what the 
city will lose. Such changes, 
however, arc inevitable. The 
church extends back only a short 




PLAN, HEBREW IK.Ml'I.E, ATLANTA, V,A. 



distance from Tremont Street 
along Park Street, and the re- 
maining houses on Park Street 
facing the Common are sure in 
time to be occupied for commer- 
cial purpo.ses, and if the church 
is going, it is better that it should 
go now while still in iLse and 
suitable for its purpose than to 
wait until it is hedged about and 
architecturally smothered by 
commercialism. The Boston 
Common will not seem right 
without this graceful spire clos- 
ing the vista in the distance, 
and we even believe that the 
people of Boston themselves will 
insensibly feel the effect of the 
effacement of so distinctive a 
monument. Mr. James T. Kelly, 
a well-known Boston architect, 
has made the suggestion that the 
tower be preserved and moved 
to a point in the center of the 
(iranary Burying Ground on the 
axis of Bromfield Street, but we 
can not feel much sympathy with 
this suggestion. The spire will 
seem out of place anywhere 
except just where it is now, and 
it would be scant pleasure to 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



63 




S\V1,\1MIN(; TANK, WEST.MORI.KV COURT, UORMITORV, HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 

Warren & VVetmore, Archictects. 

Showing use i>f radius enameled brick, made by American Knameled Brick and Tile Company. 



come Upon this excellent bit of architecture in other sur- 
roundings, in a different location, and perhaps put to a 
different use. The past century's advance in architec- 
tural possibilities has not been accompanied by unmiti- 
gated gain. When all our c<jlonial monuments shall dis- 
appear we must show something better than the last 
twenty years have produced if our descendants are to 
have the local pride in the Boston of those times that 
we have taken in the city of to-day. 




DETAIL, UPPER PORTION OK EIGUTEKN STORV OFUCE BUILD- 
ING, BROADWAY AND MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Terra-Cotta made by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 
Clinton & Russell. Architects. 



WIND PRESSURE ON HKtH CHIMNEYS. 

THE Prussian Minister of Public Works has acted on 
a recommendation of the Prussian Puiilding Acad- 
emy and has issued a set of regulations governing the 
design of high chimneys, which are essentially as follows: 
The regulations generally prescribe an assumed wind 




K I OR A(;KI) .MEN, HROOKLNN, N. 

Roofed with Ludowici Tile. 
Lord, Hewlett & Hull, Architects. 



64 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




HOLbK, GKEEN STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Front of "Ironclay" Fire Flashed Brick. 
O. W. Ketchatn' Philadelpliia Agent. 

pressure of about twenty-six pounds per square foot on a 
plane perpendicular to the direction of the wind. Any- 
possible suction on the leeward side is assumed to be in- 
cluded in this pressure. The wind area of the chimney 
is taken to be its vertical section, and if the chimney is 
polygonal its greatest diametral section is to be used. 
The point of application of the resultant of the wind 
pressure is to be assumed to coincide with the center of 
gravity of the section, which is equivalent to assuming a 
uniform distribution of the wind pressure over the full 
height of the chimney. For circular chimneys the total 
wind pressure area is to be reduced to two-thirds, and for 
octagonal chimneys to . 7 1 of the value for rectangular 
chimneys. To determine the greatest pressure at the 
edges the wind should be assumed to act in a diagonal 
direction. The specifications allow the theoretical open- 
ing of the joints to the center of gravity of the .section, 
thus neglecting the tensile stresses. The compressive 
stresses should be determined for wind pressures of 26 
and 31 pounds per square foot. The weight of the mate- 
rial per unit of volume should be that of the actual ma- 
terial used. The allowable unit stresses were fixed as 
follows: For common brickwork laid in lime mortar ( i : 3), 
100 pounds per square inch; for hard burnt bricks, hav- 
ing a compressive strength of at least 3,160 pounds per 
square inch, laid in cement-lime mortar (i cement, 2 lime, 
6 to 8 sand), 171 to 214 pounds per square inch. For the 
stronger stones and mortar richer in cement, higher 
stresses are allowable, but a factor of safety of 10 must 
always be provided for, and in no case should the great- 
est pressure exceed 316 pounds per square inch for a 
wind pressure of 26 pounds per square foot. If higher 
unit stresses be deemed allowable they should be ji;sti- 



fied by tests on blocks of masonry. The allowable com- 
pressive stress on the foundation is, for unrammed con- 
crete, 85 to 114, and for rammed concrete 142 to 214 
pounds per square foot. The allowable bearing pressure 
on the soil for the assumption of 26 to 31 pounds per 
scpiare foot wind pressure is, as a rule, 61 pounds, and 
exceptionally 82 poimds per .square inch, equal respec- 
tively to very nearly 4 '2 and 6 tons per square foot. — 
lhiti.<h Ih-ickbuiliitr. 



DRAWING TAU(tHT BY CORRESPONDENCE. 

It is not easy to teach the art of drawing by corre- 
spondence, but the task is greatly simplified by thorough 
analvsis and presentation of the practical, mechanical 




DKIAIL I'.V liEKNSIElN .V HEKNSTEIN, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

features of draughting. This has been done most admira- 
bly by the American School of Correspondence in its 
series of instruction papers on the subject of mechanical 
drawing. The course in this .subject as laid oi:t is a very 
exacting one and demands a great deal of the student, 
but we imagine that the young men who follow the 
courses in this school are the kind who would welcome 
the thorough training which is placed within their reach 
and will be only too glad to profit by the excellent oppor- 
tunities which the American School of Correspondence 
offers to the ambitious young man who desires to give 
himself an education without having the means or the 
opportunity for a regular college course. 



IN GENERAL. 



Carl E. Nystrom, architect, formerly of Laurium, 
Mich., has formed a copartnership with Frank L. Young, 
under the name of Young & Ny.strom, for the practice of 




DETAILS BY PAUL J. PELZ, ARCHITECT. 
ConklinK-ArmstronK 'I'erra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



65 



architecture. The new firm has taken offices in the Man- 
hattan Bnilding, Dulnth, Minn. 

Charles H. Hopson, architect, has opened an office in 
Selma, Ala., and wonld be glad to receive manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples. 

Francis J. Plym, architect, has opened an office in the 
Kemper Building, Kansas City, Mo., and woi;ld be glad 
to receive maniifacturers' catalogiies and samples. 



Sayre & Fisher Company bricks have been specified 
for the following new work: Compton Trust Building, 
Boston, Winslow & Bigelow, architects; Rockville Li- 
brary, Rockville, Conn., Charles A. Piatt, architect. 
Enameled brick for the (iurney Building, Hartwell, Rich- 
ardson & Driver, architects. Semi-glazed brick for the 
interior of the Edison Bnilding, Boston, Winslow cV Bige- 
low, architects. 

We seldom stop to think of the important part which 




UNION PASSENGER STATION, GRAND RAPIUS, .MICH. 
D. H. Burnliani & Co., Architects. Architectural Terra-Cottta made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 



vSamuel E. Edwards and J. C. vSunderland have formed 
a c(jpartnership for the practice of architecture, under 
the firm name of Edwards & vSunderland. Offices, Sheid- 
ley Building, Kansas City, Mo. 

Charles Bacon, Boston agent for the Celadon Roofing 
Tile Company, reports the following new contracts: 
Terminal Chambers for Metropolitan Water Board, Wes- 
ton, Mass., Shepley, Rutan k Coolidge, architects; John 
Carter Brown Library, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, ar- 
chitects; hou.se at Marion, Mass., Coolidge & Carlson, ar- 
chitects. 



macliinery plays in the luodern mctliods of manufactur- 
ing burnt clay into its various forms. It has been said, 
and with much truth, that the methods of our forefathers 
in making brick have .scarcely been improved ujion by 
succeeding generations. This, however, applies only to 
the common rough l^rick. A modern, up-to-date clay- 
working plant, the product of which has reached the 
higher stages of perfection, is one in which machinery in 
various forms is the principal agent in production. The 
manipulation of clay from the pit to the wall requires the 
assistance of machinery almost as much as does any other 
line of manufacture. Botli (piality and cost are depend- 



66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ent upon the ability of the machinery to properly perform 
its duties. In this connection we are glad to call atten- 
tion to the new catalojjue which has been issued by the 
American Clay Working Machinery Company, of Bucy- 
rus, Ohio. It is one of those trade volumes which gives 
a clear insight into the inner workings of the business 
which it represents. After a perusal of its pages one can 
but feel that the company incorporates in all it does the 
whole spirit of its motto, " Built Right! Rim Right I " 



^^^■^S^^i 


^'^r^\ 


AV%J "> -X 


'fif V 


IPVPES^^S'^*^ 


K,»» • \W-/? 


•latiaMIBri.-CT' AraH* 


' '^KkjMmm.-^j^j^-^ 


WMm. ^.j^fWKmm 







CARTCH'CHK H\ K. M. MURCHISON, ARCHITECT. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Statics by Algebraic and Graphic Methods. By 
Lewis J. Johnson, C. E., Assistant Professor of Civil 
Engineering in Harvard University. New York: 
John Wiley & Sons. Price, $2. 

This volume has been written in the hope of helping 
students of engineering and architecture to acquire a 
knowledge of statics which will include the power to ap- 
ply it correctly in professional work. To this end an 
attempt has been made to carry out several specific pur- 
poses, prominent among which may be mentioned the 
following: 

1. To give much attention to the starting points of 
the science, and to make as clear as possible the course 
of deduction therefrom. 

2. To point out the inherent mathematical limita- 

tions of pure 
statics, and to 
show how all its 
important prob- 
lems are .solved. 

3. To de- 
velop algebraic 
and graphic 
methodsof solu- 
tion, or, if one 
prefer the 
terms, analyti- 
cal and graphi- 
cal statics, side 
by side and with 
equal thorough- 
ness. 

4. To pre- 
sent a graded 
set of problems 

DETAIL BY A. H. HOWDITCH, ARCHllECT. iHUStratlUg not 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. only universal 




principles but also how 
statics is u.sed in engi- 
neering practice. 

5. Finally, to keep 
the book of a size com- 
mensurate with the 
small amount of new 
matter which the 
reader, versed in the 
simplest operations of 
elementary mathemat- 
ics, need master to gain 
the desired end. 



Wall Papers and Wall 
Coverings. A practi- 
cal Handbook for 
Decorators, Paper 
Hangers, Architects, 
Builders and House 
Owners, with many 
half-tone and other 
illustrations, showing 
the latest designs. By 
Arthur Seymour Jen- 
nings. One large 8vo 
vol., cloth. Price, $2. 
New York: William 
T. Comstock. 




DETAIL liV H. H. MULLIKEN, ARCHI- 
TECT. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



The book attempts 
to cover more complete- 
ly the subject than in 

the previous work. It is very elaborately illu.strated 
with half-tones of the latest designs of a large number 
of manufacturers in America, England and France, and 
special chapters are devoted to English, American and 
French papers. 

The whole subject seems to have been carefully and 
systematically studied, and is presented in a well-ar- 
ranged manner, making it a valuable handbook both for 
the mechanic and designer. 

WANTED. — An architectural Draughtsman. 
Must be first-class designer and water-colorist. 
Permanent position and good salary to right party. 
The Keith Company, Architects, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



DRAWING 



I 

■ Architectural, Perspective, 

B Mechanical. Taught by Mail. 

^i^^^ Courses also offered in 

r?iI^^HL, Heating, Ventilation and Plumbing, 

uUL^^^H Electrical and Steam Engineering, 

^^^^^^H|- The Engineering curriculum 

^^^^^^^^ ' includes Civil. Mechanical, Lo- 

^K^^ comotive and Marine Engineer- 

ing. Navigation, Meclianical 

Drawing, Sheet Metal Work. 

/« addition to their regular instruction 
papers, students in full Engineering courses 
are furnished a Technical Reference I.il'rary 
(i)i ten Tolumes) as a help in their studies. 
AMERICAN SCHOOL OK CORRESPONDENCE 
at 
Armour Institute of Technology 
;iTK BKtrKBnLDEK. CHICAGO, III. 



Instruction 

under 

Supervision 

of 

Members 

of the 

Faculty 

of 

Armour 

Institute 

of 

Technology. 



Main Buildings Ar 
Institute if Tithnt 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

APRIL, 

1903. 




y. 



■s. 

X 






<; 



X 




THE BRICKBVILDER 




DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTS OF 5^ 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS OF CLAY^ 



APRIL 1903 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

I'LULISIlEl) MIl.Vllll.V BY 

ROGERS & MAXSON, 
8s Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March i 2, i 892. 

Cdl'VKIGHT, 1893, HV THK KR ICKBU I l.Il K 1< I'l" HL 1 si 11 Nf. ' i iS[ !■ \ :< -^ 



Subscription price, mailed ll.it to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 56. 00 per year 

SuMscKirno.N's p.\v.\I!LE in advani::!;. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements .... ... IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing file IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



COMPETITION: ANNOUNCEMENT. 

IT was intended to give in Thk Brickbuilder for this 
month the detailed programme of the competition, 
for which cash prizes amounting to $800 are to be offered, 
but owing to the fact that all the necessary details have 
not been completed, the announcement will be deferred 
until the May or June issue. 



HOSPITAL SURROUNDINGS. 

IN our endeavors to eliminate all lurking places for 
disease germs and to introduce to every corner 
floods of health-giving sunlight, it is to be questioned 
whether we have not ignored a very cs.sential feature of 
hospital planning, namely, the element of beauty in set- 
ting, surrounding and finish. The ideal hospital is by 
some assumed to be absolutely plain, without adornment 
of any sort, and hopeles.sly bare and uninteresting except 
for a few very carefully framed pictures on the wall of 
the wards, and cut flowers, which fortunately are never 
quite banished. There seems, however, to be no good 
reason why a hospital should not be one of the most 
beautiful of buildings. If there is ever a time when a 



human being needs just the right kind of surroundings, 
it is when his nerves are unstrung and his system all 
awry. To cure a man it is not enough mereh' to give 
him good care and good medicine; the icsthetic element 
in many human beings is one which cannot safely be de- 
nied, and the dreary monotony of some of the hospitals, 
which pass as being among the best, is, we have no 
donht, often responsible for slowness in recovery if not 
actual relapse. A building committee usually feels that 
it has accomplished its whole duty when it has built a 
hospital so severely plain that it makes one ache to look 
at it, but if we would design the structure so as to be at 
once absolutely sanitary in all details as well as truly 
beautiful, there is no (juestion but that it would have far 
more beneficial effect on the residents than one which 
was merely hygienic. 

This statement applies not merely to the architec- 
ture of the building and the adornment of the interior, 
but in an even larger degree to the exterior setting, the 
sitrroundings, the planting, in fact to the landscape work 
as a whole. Any one who has visited some of the charm- 
ing old missions in Southern California need not be told 
what delightful places they are for sick people, embow- 
ered in roses, with a riot of nature all around, informal 
but thoroughly delightful. These old buildings may not 
be in accordance with the doctor's dictum, but they cer- 
tainly will do what sometimes the doctor cannot accom- 
plish, infuse in the sinking patient a love for life and for 
the beauties of nature which will arouse his powers and 
enable him to stem the ebbing tide. We can at this 
moment recall only a single hospital in this country in 
which landscape architecture is treated as an essential 
element of the exterior design, and yet the beneficial 
effect of a proper setting we are sure can hardly be over- 
estimated. And it is hoped that as we have now pretty 
clearly found out how to c<)])c with germs, how to avoid 
and destroy them, the energies of the hospital architects 
of the future may be allowed to expand in the direction 
of more appropriate setting, more beautiful adornment, 
and that the ideal hospital of the future may be a build- 
ing the farthest removed from the stiff, formal and often 
repellent structure to which \vc are now obliged to con- 
sign the sick. 



Thk Mac.mim.an Companv has published Vol. I, No. 
2, of the Memoirs of Art and Archa-ology of the Brook- 
lyn Institute Mu.seum. This Memoir is by Mr. William 
H. (ioodyear, Vale '67, Curator of Fine Arts, Brooklyn 
Museum, and relates to those architectural refinements 
of St. Mark's at Venice of which he has been the dis- 
coverer. 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The American Hotel. III. 



BY C. H. BLACKAI.I.. 



THE BASEMENT. 



JUST as the key of the arrangement of the first floor of a 
hotel is liberal, easy circiilation for the guests, so the 
key of the arrangement of the basement is liberal, 
direct and easy facilities for transportation of supplies, 
from their reception at the service entrance, through 
the storerooms, kitchens and serving rooms, to the door 
of the dining room. The ideal arrangement is one in 



TAMWOnTM 




TRCnONT 



baskmp:nt I'I.an, hotki, toukaine, boston. 

Winslow & Wetherell, .Architects. 



which all supplies are brought in at one point, where they 
are received and checked by a special clerk, assigned to 
storerooms which are near at hand, these storerooms be- 
ing in turn close by the cooks' headquarters, while on the 
other side of the kitchen begin the service departments, 
so that there is no occasion for those employed in the 
preparation of food on the one side to mingle or inter- 
fere with the waiters who deliver the finished products. 
The part of the architect in planning this portion of the 
hotel is limited to the providing of 
surticient area to approximately ac- 
commodate what is likeh^ to be 
needed in connection with the kitch- 
ens and dependencies. The exact 
subdivision of the space, the placing 
of the different appliances, are usu- 
ally intrusted to one of the firms of 
contractors who make a specialty of 
fitting hotels and who are far better 
able to judge of the needs and how 
to met them than is the case with 
an architect in ordinary practice. 
The architect should, however, be 
perfectly familiar with the problem 
in a general way so that he may in- 
telligently plan and provide space 
for the work of the specialist. 

It will be seen by an inspection 
of the plans accompanying this arti- 
cle that in most of the large hotels, 
with the exception of such relatively 
restricted areas as are devoted to 
cafes, billiard rooms or barber shops. 



the whole basement is given up to the kitchens, store- 
rooms, etc. Very rarely is too much space allotted for 
such purposes. The writer has found only one hotel thus 
far in which the kitchens were considered too large. 
Very often they are too small. 

As a rough approximate rule it may be said that the 
area of the kitchen and dependencies should be equal in 
square feet to ten times the number of sleeping rooms in 
the hotel. That is to say a three hundred room hotel would re- 
([uire a total area for kitchens, etc. , of about three thousand 
feet. Like all rules of this kind, however, such approxima- 
tion should be u.sed with great care, as conditions often make 
it impossible to gauge the size of a 
kitchen by the number of rooms in a 
hotel. For example, the Adams 
House in Boston has a kitchen pro- 
portioned about in accordance with 
the foregoing rule, but the number 
of guests fed daily will vary some- 
times over one hundred per cent, 
and the kitchen seems neither too 
large nor too small for any occasion. 
In some respects a better rule to fol- 
low is to make the arrangement of 
ranges, steam kettles and serving 
tables as compact as possible and 
then give the balance of all the 
room that can be spared to the 
storerooms, refrigerators, wine 
rooms, etc. By making the actual 
cooking space restricted, a considerable gain can be 
had in time of service, and anything which reduces 
the distance in feet from the cooks' table to the dining 
room means quicker and better service. The writer has 
been repeatedly told by hotel stewards that the lack of 
space was chiefly in storage. With more ample space 
for storage, supplies could be purchased in larger quanti- 
ties and would be more readily available when wanted. 
On a small scale the plan of the Saint Paul School 




BASEMENT PLAN, HOTEL SCHENLEV, HITTSBURG 
kutan & Russell. Architects. 



wmmm 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



69 



kitchens, for which the writer is indebted to Mr. E. L. 
Morandi, engineer with the Smith & Anthony Company, 
shows in very practical form the essentials' which are 
common to all hotel kitchens. The produce is brought 
in through the entrance adjoining the refrigerators, 
perishable goods are put on ice at once, and others are 
sent down to the storage cellar. The refrigerators are 
immediately adjacent to the kitchen. The" range, the 
broiler, the kettles and the steamers occupy the length 
of one wall. In front is arranged the cooks' table, 
which has at one end a compartment in which dishes can 
be kept in hot 
water, the rest 
of the table be- 
ing kept warm 
and used for 
trimming, cut- 
ting, etc. This 
relative arrange- 
ment of ranges 
and cooks' table 
is one usually fol- 
lowed. The hot 
water bath goes 
specifically by 
the name of Bain 
Marie. The pas- 
try room is dis- 
tinct from the 
kitchen, and both 
communicate di- 
rectly with the 
serving room. 
In the latter are 
arranged the 
steam coffee 
urns, the cases 
containing ice 
cream packed in 
freezers, and the 
dish-washing ap- 
pliances, while in 
the center of the 
room is a steam 
table containing 
compartments 
for the roasts and 
vegetables. 

The arrange- 
ment of thekitch- 
en in the Hotel 
Schenley is very 
carefully studied. 

vSupplies are brought into the compartment marked re- 
ceiving room. Beyond is a storeroom for canned goods, 
etc., adjoining which is the butcher shop, with an ample 
ice chest. Directly opposite the entrance to the butcher 
shop are disposed the ranges and the cooks' table. The 
waiters ascend to the upper story by the stairway on the 
extreme left leading to an upper .serving room. The 
spaces for chopped ice, tea and coffee, etc., are at the 
foot of the stairs, in the corner beyond is the bake shop, 
while the dish-washing and storage rooms are reached 




BAJCACNT PLAN JHOWING- -MTChtN ARRANGt/^LNF 

HOTEL .MANHATTAN, NEW YORK CITV. 
H. J. HardcnberRh, Architect. 



without passing by the front of the ranges. This is a 
very compact arrangement, which reduces tiie time of 
serving to a minimum. 

The arrangement of the kitchens in llie Hotel Tou- 
raine is such as cannot readily be siiown by a single plan. 
The servants' cjuartcrs in this hotel are in a building 
across the passage in the rear, this building connecting 
underground through the basement and sub-basement. 
Supplies are received in the first story of this building 
and thence distributed to the storerooms in the ba.sement 
and sub-basement. The ranges and the cooks' table are 

along the wall 
separating the 
kitchen from the 
corridor beyond 
the elevators. 
The bakery, pas- 
try room and ice 
cream room are 
in t h c a n n e x. 
With the excep- 
tion of such por- 
tions as are used 
for machinery, 
the whole of the 
sub - b a s c m e n t 
appears to be de- 
voted to wine 
room, storage 
and servants' 
d i n i n g r o o m . 
T he waiters 
serve the base- 
ment caf(5 direct- 
ly from the kitch- 
e n and serve 
the f i r s t - s t o r y 
dining room up 
the flight of 
stairs. 

The kitchens 
of the Manhattan 
are located in the 
rear of the base- 
ment. The ser- 
vice is up and 
down by way of 
the stairs adjoin- 
ing the cafe. At 
the small curved 
counter near the 
foot of the stairs 
the orders are 
checked. The three-sided table opposite the ranges is 
for vegetables and roasts. Opposite these, against the 
partition work, is the range for the roasts, and in the 
angle are the soup kettles, etc. The other details will 
be readily understood by an inspection of the plan. 

The basement floor i)lan of the Waldorf-Astoria shows 
what is probably one of the largest kitchens in the coun- 
try. There is so much to it that it requires considerable 
study to make the arrangement seem (juite clear. The 
supplies are brought into the building through a passage 



70 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



from the rear opposite Fifth Avenue, storerooms beinjj 
immediately adjacent to this portion. The cookinj^- 
room is under the center of the Waldorf, with the 
bakery adjoining on the side towards Thirty-third Street, 



sufficient to give in a general way a third as many lockers 
as there are sleeping rooms in the hotel. Lavatories 
and conveniences of this sort of course have to be pro- 
portioned in size to the building. There should be a room 



TIIIKT1 THIRD STHKET 




THK WALDORF-ASTORIA 



TIIIF(T\ roi HTM STRRET 



ij\sf:Mi;\T ri.w 



and the butcher shop towards the rear away from Fifth 
Avenue. The ranges are in the center of the kitchen, 
a disposition which is not often met with. The broilers 
are distinct from the ranges, being against the division 
wall between the Waldorf and the Astoria on the side 
towards Fifth Avenue, while the vegetable and the soup 
kettles are on the opposite side of the room against the 
same wall. Under the Astoria in the central space are 
arranged the ice creams, fruits and salads and butter 
and egg departments, beyond which, 
towards Thirty-fourth Street, is the 
dish-washing apparatus. All of the 
serving is through the sets of doors 
each side of the checking counters. 
Arrows on the plan indicate the direc- 
tion the waiters follow in serving 
the different portions of the building. 
The kitchen and immediate de- 
pendencies are of course the princi- 
pal feature of the basement, but 
there is considerable other accom- 
modation required in a large hotel. 
There should be a dining room for 
the help, and in some of the larger 
hotels separate dining rooms are ar- 
ranged for the men and women. A 
dining room 20 x 30 would answer for 
help for anything except the very 
largest hotels, as the servants never 
all eat at once. Then there should 
be ample locker rooms for the help, 



for the head steward, and in a large hotel it is customary 
to provide one for an assistant steward, in addition to 
which the chef requires a room for himself, each of these 
rooms being of about 150 s(juare feet area. Space should 
also be provided for laundry and drying room, together 
occupying, for a thre^ hundred room hotel, a space about 
30 X 50. There are also a host of minor requirements 
for which no rules can be laid down, as they vary indefi- 
nitely according to the circumstances. 




Plan or Brt:jLMLyv r 
LillJ — I — I I I_U 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



71 




BASEMENT PLAN, AUDITORIUM ANNEX, CHICACJO. 
Clinton J. Warren and Holabird & Roche, Associate Architects. 



considered necessary it seems to be tlie practice to coat it 
with enamel paint. 

There remains yet to be taken into acct>unt tlie steam and 
power plant and machinery. These constitute a very large 
item. In the Waldorf-Astoria the entire sub-basement is 
devoted to these purposes, and there is none too much room. 
The points to be considered in connection with the plannino- 
of boilers and machinery in a hotel are about the same as 
those which are involved in the construction of any large 
building, except, however, that in all first-class hotels an 
ice and refrigerating machine constitutes a very important 
factor. This, again, is a matter for expert advice, but in a 
general way it may be said that a hotel with three hundred 
rooms would require a maximum capacity of about thirtj- 
tons of refrigeration per day, which would consume in the 
vicinity of four hundred horse power hours in steam, and the 
entire ice plant would recpiire a floor area of about one 
thousand square feet. If ice is to be made in any great 
c[uantities the available floor space should l)c increa.sed 
twenty-five per cent. 

In devising the electric generating plant for a hotel al- 
lowance must be made for a certain amount of power to be 
used in the kitchens, etc. There are a number of devices, 
such as ice cream freezers, egg beaters, knife cleaners and 
sharpeners, which are to advantage operated by small inde- 
pendent motors. For a three hundred room hotel it would 
be well to allow thirty-five horse power for fans, motors, etc., 
in connection with the kitchen, including the dumb-waiters. 

The stairs between the kitchens and the dining room 
are best arranged in pains, so that the waiters can ascend on 
one side and descend on the other. When this is impracti- 
cable, single stairways should be not less than six feet wide. 



It is usual in a large hotel to provide in the basement 
for a billiard room with at least three tables, for a barber 
shop accommodating not less than four chairs, and in ad- 
dition to the cafe', to plan for a barroom, which should be 
arranged so that one can enter at one end and leave at 
the other, the bar occupying the entire side of the room. 
An apartment 15 x 24 would be ample for the largest of 
barrooms. The men's jmblic lavatories for the guests 
are also usually placed in the basement convenient to the 
billiard room, to the barroom and to the main stairs lead- 
ing to first story. The boot-blacking .stand with accom- 
modation for not less than four chairs is best placed in an 
anteroom adjoining the lavatory. It goes without say- 
ing that all of these basement rooms should be kept 
bright and clean in appearance and arrangements made 
for the most ample and thorough ventilation. 

'Fhe construction of the walls and partitions about the 
kitchen, storerooms, etc., is usually of such nature as to 
admit of being readily and thonnighly cleaned. There 
is no material which ^eems to answer so thoroughly for 
walls in this connection as enameled brick. Thin parti- 
tions, where practicable, are often made of heavy wire 
netting .so as to allow of ample ventilation, and where 
wooden partitions are necessary they are best set up six 
inches above the floor so as to prevent accumulation of 
dirt. The kitchen of the Touraine is floored with twelve- 
inch quarry tiles laid in cement, the floor sloping towards 
a catch-basin in the center, and the whole kitchen is hosed 
out once or twice a day. None of the floors anywhere in 
the ba.sement .should be of wood, and where plaster is 




HASK.MEN'r PLAN, NEW WlI.EAKl) IIOIKI,, WASHINOTON. 
II. J. IlardeiiberKh, Architect. 



72 



THE BRIKBUILDER. 



with a strong hand rail down the center. Diimb-waitesr 
are provided to run from the kitchen to the serving room 
in the floor above, and where practicable from the kitchen 
through the private serving rooms in each of the sleeping- 
floors. An automatic electric dumb-waiter which can be 
set so as to stop at anj' given floor is best adapted for 
this purpose. 

It is a good practice where possible to carry a separate 
smoke pipe from each range, so as to ensure thorough 
draught. Where ranges are set in the middle of the 
kitchen the draught has to be down and across under the 
floor. The separate smoke pipes from the ranges are 




PLAN OF KITCHEN AND AUJOININli ROOMS, ST. I'AUL S 

SCHOOL, CONCORD, N. H. 

.'^mith & Anthony, Contractors. 

sometimes combined in a single vertical shaft, btit it is 
better to carry the pipes up independently above the roof, 
enclosing them in a large shaft which serves as ventila- 
tion exhaust from the kitchen and connects directly to 
the metal hood enclosing the top of the ranges. For a 
three hundred room hotel the size of this exhaust duct 
would be about fifty scjuare feet in area. 

The quantity of water which is used so continuously 
around a hotel has made practicable the utilization of 
artesian wells sunk within the premises. Many of our 
largest hotels draw their supply for boilers and for wash- 
ing from wells and occasionally the well furnishes water 
of sufficiently excellent quality to be used for drinking 
as well. This results not only in a great economy, but 
makes the control of the water system much easier. If 
an artesian well is to be provided for, the space for 
pumps would be about fifteen feet square. 

In conclusion, it can be said that in a problem so com- 
plex as the modern hotel, it would be impossible to lay 
down any exact rules for planning or arrangement which 
could be applied indiscriminately. There is no structure 
with which the architect has to deal that calls for a larger 
amount of specialized technical knowledge, and the most 
that can be hoped for these articles is that they have pre- 
sented the most prominent features of architectural practice 
as exemplified by the typical American hotels of to-day. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge to courtesy of the 
architects who have given their aid in the loan of plans 
and the supplying of data regarding the various hotels 
which have been illustrated. 



Interesting Brick and Terra-Cotta 
Architecture in St. Louis. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

HV S. L. SHERKR. 

IN the previous article reference was made to .some of 
the private hou.ses of vSt. Louis, but in this continua- 
tion mention will be made of those buildings not entirely 
private and yet not wholly devoted to commercial or in- 



I 




iSS^'SHr" 



ENTRANCE (iATE, WASHINGTON TERRACE. 
("■eort;e K. Manii, Architect. 

stitutional purpo.ses. Some of these structures, wherein 
the uses of a doctor's office have been united to those of 
a private residence, form an interesting class and off"er 
the architect a problem that lends itself to architectural 
treatment. (Tenerally located on corners, they have the 
advantage of two street fronts with an entrance on each 
street. 

Of this class of semi-private buildings Theo. C. Link's 
house for Dr. Moore is an original and interesting ex- 




PAVH.ION, FOREST PARK. Eames & VoiuiK. Architects, 



THE B R I C K B U I L n E R 



73 



^g 


A^\ 










r 1 


■a ^ ^ ^ 


^ if 


:arf 


1 II 


It '- 


K^^l 


1 




DOCTORS OFFICES. E, A. Manny, Architect. 



inRK HUll.UINO. \Vcli>i iV dinvcs, Archilecls. 




-•*>*"9--.' {-■^.i*<^\ii::*^fcB p--" -^^ 



DR. COMSTOCK's HOUSE AND OFFICE. W. A. Swasey, Architect. 





DR. MOORe's HOUSE AND OFFICE. T. C. Link, Architect. 




OFFICE KUII.DINO FOR DOCTORS. Barnes* Young, Architects. OFFICE FOR DR. SPENCEK. J. L. Wees, Architect. 

BDICK'vVORK IN "^"T LOUIS 



74 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ample, marked b}- extensive use of diapered brickwork 
which has been made to play an important part in the 
desijjn, although the dense foliat^e prevents this being 
shown in the photograph. 

In Dr. Comstock's house W. Albert JSwasey was 
charged with a similar problem, and while the front ele- 



design shows a clever adherence to those features which 
are making the modern French school of design such a 
power in the architectural work of the day. The effect 
is marred by the introduction of the marble panels in the 
upper story; nevertheless it is a very interesting design 
and one that evinces study and knowledge of the style. 




I.lNDKI.l, RAILWAY PAVILION, FOREST PARK. KaiiK-s &• YounK. .Architects. 




STAHLK FOR SIM.MONS HAUDWAKK to. 



WcliL-r \- Crnvcs, .Architects. 



vation presents an attractive appearance, the east side is 
less pleasing, and the whole rendered somewhat lifeless 
by the immaculate .smoothness of the red brickwork. 

The office of Dr. Spencer, by J. L. Wees, is entirely 
different from the preceding examples in that it is solely 
an office building adjoining the private residence. The 



The doctors' office building, by E. A. Mannv, is a 
.somewhat different development of the .same purpose, 
and withal is a clever design with the terra-cotta orna- 
ment well placed. 

A still larger and more individual performance is the 
office building for doctors by Eames & Young, one of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



75 




RATHSKKLLEK. 



Louis MullKiiidl. Architfcl. 



the best and most interesting examples of all briek desio^n 
in the city. Bnilt in i.SHy, it remains the best example of 
its kind, nor dcjes it seem improbable that its indefinable 
charm will abide a century hence. 

Louis Mullgardt's building for the Budweiser Raths- 
keller is highly individual, as is all of his work, whether 
it evokes one's admiration or not. For the first time 
a dark green enameled brick of varying shades has been 
used and with good effect, exhibiting the architect's love 





STABLE. 



Shcpley, Kutaii <t Coolidne, Arcliitccls. 



of coloring in building. Unfortunately the photograph 
docs not show the interesting staircase hidden by the 
temporary entrance screen. 

'I'lic Hotel Horn, by Weber & Groves, is an ambitious 
attempt in the modern French style that compels atten- 
tion. It seems unfortunate in the crowding of the 
cornice over the windows, and the application of a 
balustrade in front of a blank wall. The walls are of red 




APAKr.MKN r. 



K. A. Maiiin 



APART.MENTS. Jnliii StalTord White, A re hi left. 



Stock brick laid with close joints of white morlar. the 
trimmings being of white tcrra-cotta. 

More original and individual in design, the vSt. Nich- 
olas Hotel possesses all the characteristics that have made 
the work of Louis H. .Sullivan famous the world over. Cer- 
tainly no more original work, unless we except his mas-, 
terly Wainwright building, has emanated from his hand. 
Not the least interesting feature of the building is tlie 
band of ornament over the entrance, demonstrating that 
his detail looks as well in stone as in the more plastic 
tcrra-cotta, with which material wc naturally associate 
his design. 



76 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The tendency towards life in apartment houses has 
been marked, but up to this time few of the buildings 
erected have been characterized by any notable architec- 
tural treatment, The desire for a private apartment de- 
voted to a number of bachelors of kindred tastes has 
given Mr. Manny the opportunity — the first of its kind — 
to design the Pendennis. It is built of red brick with 
(lashed headers every fourth course and with architraves 
of white terra-cotta. It is such a house as Major Pendennis 
himself would have enjoyed, and is a good example of 
refined and restrained use of the materials employed. 

In the Staflord apartment John vStafford White has 
had recourse to the English Renaissance style for his 
clever design, which speaks for itself in the regardful 
manner in which the red brick and white terra-cotta have 
been combined in a very interesting composition. 

The Olive Street store and apartment building, by 
Weber & Groves, is a well balanced design in a mottled 
yellow brick with terra-cotta trimmings white in color. 
It is regrettable that our streets do not show more 
buildings which evince the same intelligent study and 
grasp of opportimity. 

The English Renaissance has afforded a model for the 
same architects in the corner store building; less inter- 
esting perhaps than their larger building, but a fairly 
successful attempt to impart some measure of fitness and 
interest to a problem which is seldom solved in a way 
that repays a second glance. 

A problem generally delegated to the iitilitarian en- 




ST. NICHOLAS HOTEL. Adlcr, Sullivan & Ramsey, Architects. 




HORN S HOTEL. 



Weber & droves, Architect. 



gincer has received fitting treatment at the hands of 
Eames c^ Young in the two pavilions erected in Forest 
Park for the street railways. The design of the struc- 
tures bespeaks their purpose, and a class of building here- 
tofore "viewed with alarm" has been developed in a 
manner that enhances rather than mars the beauty of the 
park. The towers and campanile are useful and pictur- 
esque features that add interest to the composition, which 
would naturally appear somewhat fiat without them. 

St. Louis is fortunate in pos.sessing many private 
places wherein the better class of houses are concentrated. 
These places or parkways are adorned with entrance 
gates which are iisually well designed and add to the 
attractiveness of the place. While the gateway to Wash- 
ington Terrace by George R. Mann cannot lay claim to 
originality — being a copy to some extent of the well- 
known Tower of the Large Bell in Bordeaux — it pos- 
sesses interest not only for its picturesque design, but for 
its brickwork as well. 

That the humble purpose of a stable justifies the 
same thought as a house is evidenced by the Sproule 
stable designed by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, notable 
for its brickwork as well as for its design. Built of a 
reddish sand mold brick with horizontal joints of white 
and vertical joints of red mortar, it presents an appear- 
ance as unusual as it is delightful. 

In the stable for Simmons Hardware Company, \\'eber 
& Groves have made the most of a larger opportunity 
and produced a building that not only expresses its func- 
tion, but one that possesses interest for its clever design 
and for the character of the brickwork, which is mottled 
red in color and laid as stretchers with Flemish bond 
every seventh course. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



n 



Architectural and Building Practice 
in Great Britain. 

KV R. RANDAL I'HILLIl'S. 

A COUPLE of months ago, when the frost was keen 
and building operations were consequently much 
interfered with, some prominence was given to the idea 
of mixing sugar with the mortar to prevent it freezing. 
That is an ingenious, a plausible idea, but practically 
worthless. Building is stopped in winter because 
the water in the mortar freezes and disintegrates the 
crystalline structure essential to its binding. Some 
years ago experiments were made to ascertain the effect 
of sugar on Portland cement, and it was found that while 
a very small percentage retarded its setting, a slight ex- 
cess utterly spoiled the cement. So that the addition of 
sugar in making mortar is a very doubtful advantage. 
The only effective way is to use unslaked lime, the heat 
generated by which will prevent the mortar freezing for 
some time. 

In previous letters I referred to the bill which was 
to be introduced to amend the London Building Acts in 
regard to fire protection. That bill has latterly made 
its appearance — and also its exit! Highly desirable 
though it is to render buildings as fireproof as possible 
and to provide adequate means of escape from them, 
this bill was altogether too drastic — an impossible bill, 
prejudicial to the building trade and oppressive to prop- 
erty owners. It met with the entire opposition of the 
city and has now been withdrawn ; but a new bill is to 
be introduced in the next session of Parliament. When 
it makes its appearance it will probably be so amended 
as to receive legal sanction. Two other bills before 
Parliament are the Plumbers' Registration Bill and the 
Architects' Registration Bill. The former has passed 
its first reading in the House of Commons. Though 
promoted for many years, it has never succeeded in be- 
coming law; yet it is a bill worthy of support, for with 
proper sanitation, so vitally important to the health of all 
communities, nobody should be allowed to call himself 
and work as a plumber unless qualified. The bill aims 
at enforcing a statutory examination and registration. 
The Architects' Registration Bill has the same object in 




LANSDOWNE HOUSE. 



William Flockhart, Architet-t. 




CENTRAL SCHOOLS, OXFOKU 



view. It also has been before Parliament for many 
years. The Society of Architects fathers the measure, 
and as a consequence it has not received the support of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, without which 
it can never hope to be put on the statute book. For- 
merly the Institute members were utterly opposed to 
the idea of registration, but of late years they seem to 
have somewhat modified their views and it is my own 
belief that they will introduce a registration bill in the 
not very far distant future. 

The Engineering Standards Committee has now prac- 
tically finished its chief labors. Composed of more than 
two dozen committees, to whom the government con- 
trilnited fourteen representatives, it has effected one of 
the most important reforms in the industries of 
this country by standardizing steel and iron 
sections; indeed in structural work alone it 
is estimated that a saving of ^/~75o,ooo (about 
$3,700,000) a year will result. I'uilders and 
architects are chiefly iuterested in the H beam, 
of which thirty sizes are given, varying from 
^ inches X I '_. inches to 24 inches x 7'.. inches, 
and weighing respectively from forty to one 
hundred pounds per foot. 

The Royal Academy — so eminently con- 
servative a body— has decided on a much- 
needed reform. Since its inception, one hun- 
dred and fifty years ago. Academicians and 
As.sociates have been entitled to have eight 
pictures hung and outsiders to submit eight. 
After this year members will be limited to 
six and outsiders only allowed to submit two 



78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



pictures. At present about one in ten pictures gets 
hung: more than ten thousand are submitted and the 
work of selection is enormous ; in fact it often amounts 
to little more than a scramble, in which those amateurs 




Several other matters of current interest have oc- 
curred which I may brietly mention. 

An association has been formed to promote the adop- 
tion of the new model by-laws for rural districts, so 
urgently needed in place of those dead weights of by-laws 
which imposed the same fireproof construction on an 
isolated country house as on city buildings huddled to- 
gether on every foot of space. Another association has 
been formed to watch the conditions of competitions and 
protest against such as they think unjust ; while another 
association is being promoted to further the interests of 
quantity surveyors. The Architectural Vigilance Society 
has been formed with the object of influencing public 
opinion and, if necessary, protesting against public au- 



FRUUENTIAI. ASSURANCE CO.Ml'ANV S BLILUING. 
Alfred Waterlunise, Architects. 

who persist in sending their eight pictures every 
year cherish the hope of getting one squeezed in. So 
far as the architectural room is concerned, the new 
rule will not make much change. About two hundred 
and fifty designs out of probably a thousand are hung: 
but no photographs on any account, though this is pure 
folly, as photographs show buildings as they actually are, 
not as they might be with their worst features softened 
or hidden by the 
clever artist's per- 
spective and their 
best features accent- 
uated to a lying 
degree. There are 
not many architects 
who send in eight 
frames; but many 
submit four which 
have not the slightest 
chance of being ac- 
cepted ; and it is in 
regard to these that 
the new rule will 
apply most happily 
for the Hanging 
Committee and the 
reputation of English 
architecture. hotel, seacroft golf links. 





.■\1<CU AM) CO\l-.,xl.i» .. .O , I'kl UL.N 1 lAl, AS.Sl RANCE 
company's KlILDING. 

thorities who refuse to consider "qualified advice on the 
jESthetic as well as sensible treatment of public works of 
art." The committee includes several well-known engi- 
neers, architects and 
artists. A form of 
contract will, it is an- 
ticipated, be agreed 
upon soon between 
the Royal Institute 
and the Institute of 
Builders, and action 
has been taken to 
abolish the objection- 
able practice on the 
part of some public 
bodies and architects 
who require priced 
l)ills of ([uantities 
with tenders. 

The chosen recip- 
ient of the Royal 
Gold Medal (which 
is awarded annually 



BrewiU & Bailv, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



79 



to the architect who 
is considered to 
have produced the 
most distinguished 
work during the 
preceding year) is 
Mr. Charles F. Mc- 
Kim of New York. 
Mr. Richard M. 
Hunt is the only 
other American who 
has been so honored 
and that was in 1893. 
A notable paper 
on Westminster Ca- 
thedral was read by 
Mr. Charles Had- 
field before the 
Royal Institute of 
British Architects 
in March. Mr. 

Hadfield pointed 
out that Bentley's 
chief constructive 
idea was a great 
building of brick- 
work set in cement 
mortar, covered by 
homogeneous con- 
crete domes, vaults 
and flats, with no 




" S.<\Nl)HOl'SK,. 



I' W 'Proup, .Architect. 




SANDHOUSE 



K. W. Troup. Architect. 



Steel or iron work about it and 
little wood. " I have disproved," 
wrote Bentley, "that terrible 
superstition, that the use of iron 
is necessary to long spans." It 
was found by experiment that the 
best core for the concrete of the 
domes and for general bearing 
purposes was clean, hard brick 
refu.se from the brickyards broken 
to a walnut gauge. Old brickbats 
and coke-breeze were discarded 
because they tended to kill or 
starve the cement. The concrete 
for the foimdations was composed 
of five parts of Thames liallast and 
one of sand to one of Portland 
cement. The brickwork of the 
footings was double the width of 
tlic walls above, tlie concrete be- 
low extending from one foot to 
two feet outside. More than two 
million bricks were used in the 
foundations. For tlie exterior of 
the cathedral Bracknell red facing 
bricks two inches thick were used, 
wire-cut bricks for tlie piers, and 
hard blue bricks for the outside 
facing of tlie underground vaults 
and sacristy, and for the damp- 
courses, set in nearly neat cement. 



•So 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Enjflish bond was generally adopted, except for the onter 
facing, which was bonded to the backing with one course 
of binders to four of stretchers, without the use of quarter 
bats. Inside the building stock bricks were employed. 
The mortar was composed of Portland cement and clean 
sharp Thames sand, mixed in the proportion of one to 
three. The courses, averaging four to the foot, were well 
rubbed in and flushed up as work proceeded, with a good 
substantial mortar joint throughout. As the result of 
tests made it was found that the Fletton bricks stood a 
"slightly cracking stress" of 185.6 tons per square foot, 
while it is considered that ordinary London stocks would 
have cracked with one-third the load. The blue bricks 
resisted pressure up to seven hundred tons per square 
foot, and are impervious to moisture. 

In conclusion I may refer to the accompanying illus- 
trations. "Sandhouse, " Witley, Surrey, is built of 
wood-burnt bricks, and thus most of the headers are vit- 




PLANS, " SANDHOUSE. 



K. \V. Troup, Architect. 



reoiis Hare-ends of a soft gray color, which have been 
worked into a diaper over the whole house. The other 
bricks are red. All the woodwork is in oak. The some- 
what unusual south larder has double windows and triple 
walls, and is supplemented by good cellars and a de- 
tached dairy with covered approach, thatched. Mr. F. 
W. Troup of London is the architect. 

The Prudential Assurance Company building forms 
an immense block. It is of red terra-cotta with a brown 
granite base. Inside all the walls are covered with glazed 
brick in light tints or with tiles of very charming pattern. 
There is a great inner courtyard that gives light and air 
to the buildings grouped around it. The roofs are cov- 
ered with green slates. Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R. A., 
is the architect. 

The Seacroft (iolf Links Hotel at Skegness is to be a 
red brick building up to the first-floor level, above which it 
will be rough cast, with a wood cornice painted white and 

the roof covered with hand- 
made strawberry colored 
tiles. The accommodation 
provides not only for an ordi- 
nary hotel, but also a small 
golf club with the necessary 
dressing rooms, etc. Messrs. 
Brewill & Baily of Notting- 
ham are the architects. 

The Central Schools at 
Oxford have recently been 
completed from the designs 
of Mr. Leonard Stokes, F. 
R. I. B. A., and consist 
of three blocks irregularly 
disposed on a spacious site 
and enclosed by a well-de- 
signed iron railing. Each 
building is characterized by 
reposeful outline and quiet- 
ness of detail, the architec- 
tural effect largely depending 
on the carefully considered 
coursing of the two varieties 
of brick (red and picked yel- 
low stocks) and the carrying 
up of the angles of the build- 
ing as flanking piers to the 
gables. 

Lansdowne House, Not- 
ting Hill, London, is a block 
of flats and studios built of 
yellow stock bricks. Each 
two-floor suite has a studio 
the height of both, .so that 
the monotonous repetition of 
small windows is avoided. 
The boldly corbeled bal- 
conies faced with slabs of 
Ham Hill stone set on edge 
and cramped together give 
a striking aspect to two of 
the elevations. The archi- 
tect is Mr. William Flock- 
hart, F. R. 1. B. A. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



8 1 



Fireproofing. 



The Economics of Construction. 

BV JOHN LYMAN FAXON. 

ECON( )MY — it's a pretty large word, covering a wide 
field of knowledge; intelligent application; and of 
considerable import to the investor. 

It is also a very much abused word, thou.sands of 
errors, both of omission and commission, being perpe- 
trated imder the guise of its alluring prospects and its 
misconceived interpretation. 

There are two kinds of economy, so called: (i) in the 
perverted sense, extravagance, in the use of cheap mate- 
rials and poor work, because of the delusion that money 
is saved thereby; (2) the exception which proves the rule, 
scientific economy ; in the use of the least amount of best 
materials, and the employment of skilled workmen, to 
ensure the best results at lowest cost, without waste of 
materials or labor. 

Our relations are with (2). As a simple, concrete exam- 
ple, we will assume a brick pier — load one hundred tons — 
of general run of stock brick laid in lime and cement mor- 
tar, which should have a factor of safety of eight square 
feet section area; but a pier, for same load, built of 
selected A 1 hard bricks laid in neat Portland cement, will 
give a requisite factor of safety with four square feet 
section area, at a saving of twenty-five per cent in cost. 

This is a simple principle of means to ends, yet one 
which the average owner, also mason, does not seem to 
comprehend. 

We know of a recent case in which an architect was 
damned in no measured terms as "extravagant and a 
robber," because of just such application of means to 
ends, because he specified "Portland cement instead of 
common cement, which was good enough." 

Or take, for instance, a country house ; an eight-inch 
wall of A 1 hard bricks, hards outside and hollow bricks 
for backing, laid in Portland cement, properly bonded, 
and the inside face painted with a first-class damp-proof 
paint, is equal in strength and durability to a twelve-inch 
wall as ordinarily built, and the cost of the eight-inch wall 
is about twelve and one-half per cent less than the twelve- 
inch wall. Economics of construction have to do with all 
classes of materials — coefficient of strength, availability 
for use, cost of stock and labor, common sense applica- 
tion; it begins on the draughting board and radiates 
through the structure, the bone and flesh, the nerves and 
fibers of a building, and ends with the net per cent in- 
come. 

The main object of this series of papers is the fur- 
therance of a departure from the present system of steel 
framing to the adoption of .solid masonry construction, an 
enlarged field for burnt clay products, and we contend that 
solid masonry construction is not only vastly more sensi- 
ble and enduring, that it is less costly, a more profitable 
investment; because of its enduring qualities, longer 
life. The present system of .steel framing is a delusion 
and a snare, not permanent as to stability or life and ex- 



travagant as an investment; the "fad" is a good deal 
like champagne, mighty .seductive, but an overdose of 
it is pretty sure to make one light headed - and even in 
moderate portions it lacks the flavor of fine red wine. 
Within reasonable limits, any kind of a building can be 
erected in solid masonry; by reasonable limits we mean, 
all pul)lic and semi-public buildings, town halls, .schools, 
churches, libraries, hospitals, college buildings, city and 
county buildings, of whatever area or height, also oflice 
buildings, hotels and ai)artment houses, not exceeding 
twelve stories in height. 

The time is fast approaching wlien the excessive sky- 
scraper (an out and out abortion) will be a thing of the 
past; a time when investors will come to realize that 
buildings not exceeding eight to ten stories are better 
dividend payers. 

Architectural economics have to do with the art of 
planning SiS, well as the .science of construction, for upon 
the /"A?// depends the economy of construction; the plan 
rules the construction, not the construction the plan, in 
nine cases out of ten ; and to a more or less extent — 
generally more the plan is ruled by the client rather 
than by the architect. 

A well-known real estate man recently said, " I know 
more about the planning and recpiirements of an office 
building than any architect in my city. " Wc have seen the 
plans of a large office building being erected for the said 
real estate man, and we know that if the plan had been 
based upon true economics of constrviction, on a system 
of units, and of solid ma.sonry construction, that the 
building would cost at least ten per cent less, would last 
five times as many years, and be a much more profitable 
investment. We do not believe that the exigencies of 
modern business, now or in the future, demand excess- 
ive spans or unrestricted floor areas. We do believe 
that life and property should be protected, and that 
money invested should l)e wisely spent and lasting as an 
investment, and not put into a system of construction 
of exceedingly doubtful stability and durability. We 
also believe that more buildings, such as residences and 
public and semi-public .structures, should be built fi/'c- 
proofi in respect to safety, durability and economy- 

At the present time there are three systems of fire- 
proof construction, so called, in general use. 

{a) The steel frame, with burnt clay encasement, is a 
structural anomal)', fundamentally so; for in this, that 
element of structure the frame — which should be the 
mo^st enduring as to structure, and the most efficient in 
resistance to fire, is the least enduring as to structure 
and one of the weakest as to resistance to fire; and be- 
sides, supports the encasement -wlticli is designed to protect 
it ; if human ingenuity had .set itself the task to devise 
a system utterly illogical it could not have met with 
more unvarnished success. 

In structural iirinci])lcs this systcni stands practi- 
cally where it did at liie start, the general dements be- 
ing, as originally, I beams with flat or segment arches, 
supported by metal columns, and protected, to a more or 
less extent, by terra-cotta encasement. In so far as the 
system, as a system, is concerned, it has had a mar- 
velous development, but along with this iiave come de- 
fects of structure which hardly compensate for other 
advantages. 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



In so far as the encasement, per sc, is concerned, 
there is not much room for improvement, in that, as a 
part of this system, when properly provided for and 
placed; the prime defect, in the majority of cases, being, 
not in the clay product as a product and protection in 
itself, but in the aiuoiiiit employed, and the careless 
way in which most of it is put in place. This defect 
is not the fault of the makers of terra-cotta products, 
for, if architects do not specify an adequate amount of 
protection and contractors neglect to exercise due and 
proper care in the setting of the material, no one else is 
to blame. 

It would be undoul)tcdiy quite a step in advance, in 
so far as this system is concerned, if the makers of the 
encasement insisted upon setting the material in place; 
they at least would have concern in its proper installation. 

It is the steel system, as a system, which does not 
meet with our approval; and the contention is that the 
same amount of brains and cost that is now put into steel 
and its encasement would produce in brick and terra-cotta 
alone, better results and a higher class of fireproof con- 
struction. 

It cannot be successfully maintained that Ijurnt clay 
products are less valuable than any other material, either 
as to structural application, resistance to fire or permea- 
bility. The evidence of centuries is unquestionably on 
the side of burnt clay, and if the producers of burnt clay 
products will bend their brains and energies to the de- 
velopment of the great possibilities of the raw material, 
to the re-establishment of older types of structure and 
their evolutions, and new and sane principles; they will 
produce buildings which will stand, long after the steel 
frame has gone to the junk heap, and which will be the 
wonder of ages yet unborn, because of their inherent 
scientific principles, permanency and adaptability to 
modern requirements. And herein it seems to us lies 
the success, profit and future of the burnt clay in- 
terests. 

For instance, we have in mind a system of vault con- 
struction quite feasible to produce in terra-cotta, adapt- 
able to single spans, varying from small to large areas, 
and for any class of building with a considerable reduc- 
tion in stock, weight, labor and cost, and which would be 
quite an advance \r\ fireproof construction. 

(b) The concrete systems, good, bad and indifferent, 
the bad predominating to a large extent. Concrete is in 
some respects one of the best materials that man has pro- 
duced, but it has its limitations, especially for large 
spans, and unless manipulated with the greatest care is 
untrustworthy, especially so when cost enters so much 
into competition as it does in the prevailing hustle "to 
get the job." 

{c) The Giiastavino systcjii. In this the principles of 
structure are thoroughly logical, scientific, unlimited in 
scope, rightly economical in application of means to ends. 

The economic science of fireproof building depends 
upon six elements of primal importance: (i) resistance 
to fire, (2) strength, (3) lightness, (4) cohesiveness, 
(5) adaptability, (6) low cost. If we have 2, 3, 4, 5, we 
will have 6. 

Low cost is not confined to product solely, for it is so 
correlated to other and combined elements of structure 
that it has its effect on the cost of other structural ele- 



ments from the roof down. For instance, a type of floor 
construction may be selected the cost of which per .scjuare 
foot is less than that of other types, yet the design and 
weight of it may require such increase in the carrying and 
supporting members of construction as to considerably 
more than offset the difference in cost of several other 
types of floors. 

If we can gain ten per cent in coefficient of strength 
and ten per cent less in dead weight of material, we .save 
something like twelve and one-half per cent in the cost 
of the material in place and a corresponding saving in 
other parts. This is quite an apprecialile factor in net 
per cent income in these days of close figuring and con- 
servative dividends, when an additional one-eighth of one 
per cent is nf)t to be ignored. 

In burnt clay products we have, unquestionably, fire- 
proof materials, and with proper selections of raw mate- 
rial and scientific manipulation it is quite possible to pro- 
duce finished products of ultimate strength and lightness; 
the gain in strength and weight is a gain in cost. 

One of the most important essentials recjuisite in the 
general run of terra-cotta systems is the rf)/f<-.v/Tv principle 
as a basic clement of hoiiu\i^eiieity, for in respect to floors 
especially the systems are, as now employed, limited to 
relatively short spans and dependent on I beam construc- 
tion. This element of eo/iesioii as a factor of strength, 
self-sustaining quality, and its bearing upon the cost of 
other elements of structure should be taken account of 
and allied with resistance to compression. With such 
an alliance we will gain in adaptability of material, in 
logical and intelligent design, larger functions and the 
elimination of other and needless materials and members 
inherent in present systems, which are the reverse of sci- 
entific, of questionable expediency and costly in produc- 
tion. 

Aside fnjm the question, as to whether or not a ten 
or twenty story building is the best dividend payer, ac- 
cording to its life, there is the more important question 
of permanency as to investment; the ultimate value of a 
fireproof building is, not only that it shall be fireproof 
but that it shall be permanent as well. A building may 
stand for twenty-five years without damage by fire — 
there are many such — and while the fireproofing enca.se- 
ment, if rightly designed and properly installed, may 
prevent fire damage to a steel frame, such encasement 
will not prevent or eliminate the deterioration of the 
steel by rust. 

The average steel- frame building, as erected nowa- 
days, will pass the safety limit of stability inside of 
twenty-five years, in all probability eighteen to twenty 
years is the limit, unless considerably more costly 
and efficient means of protection are devised than those 
in practice at the present time. 

If the life of a fireproof building can be increa.sed to 
fifty or one hundred years by the adoption of more intel- 
ligent principles of construction, the investment will be 
more sure and profitable. 

For instance, let us take the ca.se of an office building 
costing $600,000. If the life of the steel frame building 
be twenty-five years, it will have cost at the end of 
twenty-five years (at four per cent compound interest) 
$1,599,000; and supposing that another building, to re- 
place the first one, can be built for a like sum (/. e.. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



$600,000), the investment for buildino-s, at the end of 
fifty years (at four per cent compound interest) will foot 
up to a total of $5,860,335. Now, supposing, instead of 
a steel frame structure, we erect the same office build- 
ing in solid masonry construction, using and adjusting 
burnt clay products to their best advantage, which will 
last fifty years, and this is quite feasible, and suppos- 
ing that at the end of twenty-five years the interior of 
the building is refinished and new mechanical plants 
installed (allowing forty per cent of cost for such refin- 
ishing and installation), we shall then have the building 
good for another twenty-five years of life; and at the 
end of fifty years the total investment foots up to (with 
four per cent compound interest) $4,900,935, or a saving 
of $959,400. 

It certainly cannot be claimed that it is a wise ex- 
penditure of money to erect buildings the life of which 
cannot be depended upon in excess of from eighteen to 
twenty-five years. We maintain that so far as the con- 
struction and architectural design of such a building are 
concerned, that it can be designed so as to be just as 
available for business purposes at the end of fifty years 
as at the end of twenty-five years; the prolonged life 
of such a building depends upon the coitstrnction; conse- 
quently it is of imperative importance that more intelli- 
gent, progressive and scientific principles of construction 
should come to be adopted; and to this end the pro- 
ducers of burnt clay products should bend their energies 
to the broadening of their field and a very much larger 
output. 

It is quite within practical limits for bricks to be 
made that will sustain loads^of from sixty to one hundred 
per cent greater than allowed at present, and for terra- 
cotta arches to be designed and made which will be 
twenty to thirty per cent lighter in weight and carry 
more load than those in use to-day, with the resultant 
gain in elimination of useless and needless material, and 
a considerable gain in cost of individual buildings, which 
will be to the advantage of architects, producers and 
builders, in the more general erection of better buildings 
and more of them. 



Selected Miscellany. 



A FIREPROOF HOTEL. 

AN interesting occurrence was related to us and 
vouched for as having happened in one of the 
largest of the Boston hotels. One morning some time 
since the chambermaid on one of the upper floors hav- 
ing occasion to enter a room which had been vacant for 
two days discovered, to her amazement, that the interior 
finish and the contents of the room had been entirely con- 
sumed by fire. The conflagration had started unknown 
to any one, had spread, slowly but surely, until every- 
thing combustible within reach was ablaze and had then 
quietly burned itself out without giving any indication 
to any one that there was any trouble. The room was so 
situated that the smoke found its way out through the 
window opening rather than through the doors, and 
when the room was entered by the maid the fire was 
not only dead out but the embers were cold. While 
this incident does not reflect very favorably ui>i.n the 
supervision maintained in this hotel, it certainly speaks 
volumes for the merit of the construction. 



NEW YORK NOTES. 

We regret to have to chronicle the death of Mr. Hugh 
Laml). Mr. Lamb was for many years associated in 
partnershi]) with Mr. Charles A. Rich in the firm of 
Lamb iV Rich, which liad a large and lucrative ]')racticc. 




PANEL HV HKKTS * TAI.I.ANT, ARCHITKCIS. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

consisting mostly of residence work, both city and 
country, although they built some important large build- 
ings, among them being the Barnard College buildings 
in this citv. 




up;taii., executed bv sr. louis uekka-coita compa.w. 

The American News Company has purchased a large 
piece of property on Park Place, extending through to 
Murray Street, upon which they intend to erect a large 




DETAir. 1!V VICTOR HfdO KOEHl.EK, ARCH ITI'.CI'. 
New Jersey Tcrra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



84 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




f.NTRANCE TO DORMITORY FOR CINCINNATI COLLEGE OF MUSIC. 

Gustave W. Drach, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta furnished by Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company. 




business building, but no architect has been 
selected as yet. The price paid for the land 
was $600,000. 

Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan has bought the 
Win. E. Dodge residence adjoining his own on 
Madison Avenue. He now owns one-quarter 
of the block bounded by Madison and Park 
avenues, 36th and 37th streets. 

A month ago plans for a $300,000 marble 
library building were drawn up for Mr. Morgan 
by McKim, Mead & White. This structure is 
to be T shaped ; 115 feet on 36th vStreet and 
73 feet deep. It is rumored that he will erect 
a handsome residence adjacent to and in har- 
mony with this library. 

Columbia College is to have a new dormi- 
tory building to cost §250,000, which it is 
proposed to have ready for occupancy by 
( )ctober i. The plans will be drawn by 
McKim, Mead & White, who planned all the 
other college buildings. There will be two 
hundred rooms. Some apartments will be in 
suites consisting of a bedroom and study, and 
in many instances of two and three rooms and 
a studv. The name of the dormitorv will be 




MASONIC TE.MI'LE, NEW kOCUKI.l.K, N. V. 

George K. Thompson, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta furnished by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 



OFFICES FOR (il.UECK KKEWINtJ lOMl'ANV, MIN- 
NEAPOLIS, MINN. 
Boehme & Cordelia, Architects, 
lintire front of Terra-Cotta. Winkle Terra-Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



85 




Knowlton Hall, in mem- 
ory of (ieneral Knowl- 
ton, an officer in the 
Continental army which 
cnjia^ed in the battle of 
Harlem Heijjhts on the 
site of the proposed 
biiiklinjj. 

Tiffany & Company, 
one of the larg^est jewel- 
ry establishments in the 
world, is .soon to move 
from L'nion Scjuare, 
where they have been for 
many years. They have 
bought a lot on 5th 
Avenue between ;/)th 
and 37th streets, 160 feet 
front and 1 50 feet deep. 
The price paid for the 
property was $2,000,000. 
They will build at once. 
The plans of the build- 
ing have not been com- 
pleted finally, but they 
provide for a structure 
which will be architec- 
turally an ornament to 
this conspicuous site. 

William B. Tubby & 
Brother are planning- a 
fourteen story building 
to be erected for the 
"Town Topics" Com- 
pany on 38th Street, near 
Sth Avenue. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
PLANS, HOARD OK TRADK. |:IM I.DrNG, BOSTON. 



WinslDW & Bigelow, Architfcls. 



P.ARK STREET 
CHURCH. 

IN our last issue ref- 
erence was made to 
the possible di.sappear- 
ance of Park .Street 
Cliurch. Since then it 
has transpired that the 
real estate operators, who 
were reported as having 
purchased the property, 
had acquired only an 
o])tion, and the option 
having expired on the 
I St of April, the whole 
(leal was declared off and 
the present prospects are 
tluil tlie church will con- 
tinue for an indefinite 
period to adorn the cor-' 
ner of Park and Tremont 
streets. Every one who 
has the beauty of the 
city at heart will rejoice 
that the church is to 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




EiANK AND INSURANCK BUILDING, DUBUgUE, U)\V, 

\V. W. Hoyington & Co., Architects. 
Terra-Cotla by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company 



remain. There are so few momnnents of that sort that 
we cannot afford to lose any of them. The chnrch society 
is the gainer by a forfeit of twenty-five thousand dollars, 
but is also immeasurably more the gainer by reason of 
the spontaneous expression of public opinion which has 
called so loudly and unmistakably for the preservation 
of this monument, and it is hoped that not only may the 
church remain substantially in its present condition, but 
that the congregation, though widely dispersed as to 
residence, may continue to be identified with the edifice. 
In these days of rapid transit and 
numerous trolley lines, it really makes 
comparatively little difference how far 
one goes to church. 

The cause publicly announced as 
having led to the failure of this real 
estate operation was the disturbed 
condition of the money market, which 
made investors very shy. During the 
past fifteen years buildings in Boston 
have been almost without exception 
erected and operated by syndicates or 
trusts, and even the large real estate 
holding estates have been disposed to 
prefer shares in a trust to entire 
ownership of one property. Conse- 
quently the promoters of this enter- 
prise did not expect to furnish all the 
means themselves, but counted up(jn 
the support of the investing public. 
But in addition to the poor money 
market the public sentiment against 
the disappearance of the church was 
undoubtedly a deterrent factor, beside 
which a bill was pending in the legisla- 



P turc looking toward the appropriating 
of the property for public domain, and 
investors would naturally fear that a 
l)urchase of shares in such a trust 
might mean buying into a lawsuit; 
and though a considerable portif)n of 
the money needed was actually sub- 
scribed, the public as a whole failed 
to respond. 

Tile failure of the Park Street 
Church syndicate raises the query as 
to the prospect of the future in real 
estate. 'I'his country has passed 
through several successive years of 
exceptionally high prices and easy 
markets. The prices of labor have 
been steadily increasing, and nearly 
all materials have advanced from ten 
to fifty or sixty per cent. It is inevi- 
table that a reaction must ensue, and 
llie indications point, in our judgment, 
to a beginning of hard times in the 
real estate market. This means fewer 
buildings, less work for contractors 
and less labor employed generally. 
'• There is no one industry which 

affects so large and varied a class of 
individuals as building. We do not 
believe the country will ever see hard times in the sense 
that such occurred years ago. The wealth acquired dur- 
ing the past generation is in so tangible a form, in- 
vestments as a whole are on such solid bases, that it would 
be extremely difficult to materially upset the fabric of 
our real estate inve.stment market. But the effect of 
slackness in the real estate market will be to greatly re- 
duce the cost of building, which will be, in many respects, 
an advantage, and will tend to restrain excess in building 
operations, which restraint surely is not to be deplored. 




KNTRANC 



SI. 



N K W \ (> R K 



CIIAKI.KS HORKDMKO iHlRCIi, 
(ieorge H. Streeton, Architect. 
Terra-Cotta executed by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



87 




DETAIL BY BENJAMIN FRENCH, ARCHIIECT. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 

IN GENERAL. 

The .school conimissioner.s of Boston ihrough their 
chairman, Mr. R. Clipston Sturgis, offer a prize to the 
members of the Boston Architectural Club, in competition 
for the best design for a door handle to be used in the 
public schools of Boston. 

The design is to include the escutcheon plate and the 
knob ; the knob to be about 2 1 inches diameter. 

The competitor is free to choose at to style, finish or 




HOUSE AT DUFFALO, MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION. 

BUILT IN 1870. 

Akron Star Brand Cement used; after thirty-three years, 

shows no Check or Break. 

material, the only suggestion offered being the possibility 
of utilizing some local insignia or letters as he may select. 

A prize of $15. 00 will be awarded the design placed 
first if of sufficient merit, and first and second mentions 
will be made for the two designs placed next in the award. 

Mr. C. Howard Walker is to judge of the designs and 
award the prize and mentions. 

The Rhode Island Chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects held an exhibition of architectural drawings 
at the Rhode Island School of Design, which closed 
March 28. In collecting the.se drawings an attcm])t 



was made to illustrate, as far as possible, the progress of 
a building through the architect's office, and in following 
out this idea many very effective scries of drawings were 
presented. The exhibits, therefore, were not limited to 
perspective and show drawings, but included preliminary 
sketches, pencil drawings, water colors, pen and inks, 
working drawings, scale details, blue prints and photo- 
graphs of finished work. The exhibition was further 
varied by a few academic drawings by members of the 
Chapter and an exhibit of photographs of the masterly 
rendered drawings by Brune and other I-'rench draughts- 
men copied from the collection of the Massachusetts In- 




ROOM IN STABLE OK CLARENCE MACKAV, ES(^ , SHOWING 
GUASTAVINO SMOOTH BUFF TILF. CEII.IN(;. 

stitute of Technology. Nineteen Chajncr members en- 
tered their drawings. 

The work of the American School of Correspondence 
connected with the Armour Institute at Chicago, while 
starting with the fundamental studies of a general educa- 
tion, carry the student far along into the most exact 
scientific studies. The instruction j^apers on heating 
and ventilation are not only such as to present a compre- 
hensive survey of the whole science to the student, but 




AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY BUILI)IN(;, NEW YORK I IIV, 
SIIOWlN(; USE OF KREISCHER P.RICK. 



88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



they are also so essentially practical in their details and 
their presentation that they can be easily made of con- 
siderable value to the architect and the engineer for use 
in daily practice. This is only one of the many courses 
which this most excellenl school places within the reach 
of young men with limited means and large ambitions. 

Front bricks, manufactured by the Columbus Brick 
and Terra-Cotta Company, will be used in the following 
new buildings : The Powers Building. Chicago, light 
gray brick ; the McKinley High School, Chicago, W. B. 
Mundie, architect, light and dark gray brick (this will be 




DETAIL BV HEINS & LA FAROE, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta C<)mpanj\ Makers. 

one of the finest school buildings in the world) ; Frisco 
Building, »St. Louis, Eames & Young, architects, gray 
.speckled brick ; Chapter House, Cornell University, 
George R. Dean, architect, light gray Roman brick laid 
with one-inch mortar joints ; residence and stable for F. 
T. F. Lovejoy, Esq., Wilkinsburg, Pa., Alden & Harlow, 
architects, dark gray Norman brick (this is to be one of 
the finest residences of the middle west) : Y. M. C. A. 
Building, Columbus, Ga., T. W. Smith & Co., architects, 
light gray brick ; First National Bank Building, Birming- 
ham, Ala., dark buff brick ; large factory building for the 




INTERIOR OF STABLE, SHOWING USE OK TIKFANV ENAM- 
ELED BRICK. 
V. W. Perkins, .Architect. 

National Cash Register Company, Uayton, Ohio, Frank 
M. Andrews, architect, light buff brick ; Engineering 
Building, Ohio State University, light gray brick. 

At the annual meeting of the Celadon Roofing Tile 
Company, held April 7, the following officers were 
elected : William R. Clarke, New York, President ; C. 
Layton Ford, Plainficld, N. J., First Vice-President; 
Henry S. Harris, Chicago, Second Vice-President ; E. S. 




DETAIL BY PAUL J. PELZ, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstroug Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Marvin, New York, Treasurer; Eugenia L. Babcock, 
Plainfield, N. J., Secretary; Alvord B. Clarke, Ottawa. 
111., (ieneral Superintendent. 

A. A. Crowell, architect, has opened an office at 
Enid, Okla. , and would be glad to receive manufacturers' 
catalogues and samples. 

John Mackav & Co'v, of The Canadian Bank of 
Commerce Building, Toronto, Canada, would like to 

1!E PLACED IN communication WITH A FIRM OF ARCHITECTS 
OF THE HIGHEST PROFESSIONAL STANDING, AND OF SPECIAL 
E.XPERIENCE IN THE ERECTION OF MODERN BAKERIES. COM- 
MUNICATIONS WILL BE HELD IN THE STRICTEST CONFIDENCE. 



WANTED. — Permanent position with an archi- 
tect, BY A thoroughly COMPETENT DRAUGHTSMAN; CAN 
TAKE CHARGE OF DRAUGHTING ROOM, WRITE SPECIFICA- 
TIONS OR SUPERINTEND WORK. 

Address P. O. Box 436, Station G, 

Washin(;ton, D. C. 



DRAWING 



ARCHITECTURAL PERSPECTIVE MECHANICAL 

THE courses in Drawing are of especial value 
to office men and students. Correspondence 
courses are also offered in Electrical. Steam 
and Civil Engineering, Heating, Ventilation and 
Plumbing, Architecture, Carpentry and Building, and 
a full curriculum of other engineering courses. 

/« iiMi/ioti /(> Iht' ii't;iilar instruction papers, slttilcnls 
in full tnj^niurin/r courses arc furnished a Techni- 
cal Reference Library (in ten I'oluincs) as a help in 
their studies, ll'rile at once for catalogue. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 

at 

ARMOUR institute OF TECHNOLOGY 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

MAY, 

1903. 




CL, 
'J3 



;3 



5 



< 
'■J 




THE BRICKBVILDER 




DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTSOF 
ARCHITECTVREINMATERIALS or CLAY 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BV 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPVRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHI.NO CO.MPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed fl.it to subscrlicrs in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 56. 00 per year 

SUBSCKIPTIO.VS P.\Y.\BLE IN ADVANl i:. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements .... ... IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE problem of providing schoolhou.se accommoda- 
tion for the children of a large city is a serious 
one, the best solution of which has received most careful 
consideration from different parts of the country. In 
Boston up to a short time since the schoolhouses were all 
designed by the city architect. During the period in 
which Mr. E. M. Wheelwright held this position, some 
most excellent results were accompli.shed, and the build- 
ings which he designed were in many respects models of 
their kind. Apolitical upheaval abolished the city archi- 
tect's office, since which time there has been a great lack 
of uniformity in the schools of Boston, the various build- 
ings being designed without much reference to each other 
or to carefully preconceived programs. In 1901, how- 
ever, a radical change was made and the whole matter of 
schoolhou.se construction, maintenance and repair was 
placed in the hands of a commission composed originally 
of three laymen, but modified at an early date by the 
resignation of one member and the appointment in his 
stead of Mr. R. Clipston Sturgis, who has acted as chair- 
man of the commission and to whose incentive is due the 
excellent results which have been accomplished. The 
first report of the commission has just been made public. 



This report shows that the problems have been studied 
in a most careful, conscientious manner, and that out of 
tlie ma.ss of data which the commission has collected, both 
in Boston and from personal investigations in all the 
principal cities of the country, a perfectly clear, compre- 
hensive and well-studied general plan has been evolved, in 
accordance with which all of the more recent schoolhoii.ses 
are being constructed. The report contains a mass of ex- 
tremely valuable general information which serves as a 
basis for all the new schoolhouse work and which can be 
studied to great advantage by any one interested in such 
work. The report al.so contains illustrations of the prin- 
cipal biiildings which have been planned by architects 
under the direction of the commission. The appointment 
of architects rests entirely in the hands of the commis- 
sion, who have exercised their discretion entirely in the 
interests of the city, selecting in every case architects 
whose work has been a credit to the community and to 
themselves, and making such selection entirely on the 
merit of the individual and his record rather than upon 
the result of any more or less haphazard competition. 
The commission has, furthermore, employed experts to 
advise with them and take charge of all heating and ven- 
tilation and all electric work in both new and old work, 
thus insuring a high degree of efficiency in these most 
essential features of schoolhouse construction. The city 
is certainly to be congratulated upon having on the com- 
mission a thoroughly trained architect like Mr. vSturgis, 
who is willing to give so much time and serious thought 
to such problems, and the work of the commission cer- 
tainly deserves the encouragement and support of every 
one who is interested, not merely in schoolhou.se construc- 
tion, but in good architecture as well. 



R()T(M1 TRAVELIXC- SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE annual competition for the Rotch Traveling 
Scholarship has resulted in the choice of Mr. Ed- 
ward T. Foulkes to hold the .scholarship for the ensuing 
two years. Mr. Foulkes is a westerner by birth. He 
graduated with honor at the Institute of Technology in 
1898, and has had a long and thorough training in the 
offices of C. H. Blackall, Boston, and Cass (Jilbert and 
Carrfere & Hastings, New York. He la.st year won the 
gold medal of the Beaux Arts Society, and his work in 
the competition is of a most satisfactory character. He 
will be the twentieth holder of this excellent .scholar- 
ship. The .second prize, offered by the Boston .Society 
of Architects, goes this year to Mr. H. .S. Pitts, from the 
office of Wheelwright & Haven. 



90 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Planning of Hospitals. 

HV KRNKST ll,A<;<;. 

BEF'ORE attempting to plan a hospital, the architect 
should, of course, make himself familiar with what 
are now thought to be the best conditions for the recovery 
of the sick and to work into his plan as many of these 
conditions as he can. At the outset he will find that one 
prime condition, viz., isolation from 
unfavorable surroundings, cannot be 
attained. The hospital system itself, 
or the bringing together of many sick 
people into a confined area, is not 
conducive to recovery, and is more- 
over fraught with many dangers. 
The whole theory of hospital con- 
struction, planning and management, 
so far as the sanitation is concerned, 
is based on the knowledge of this fact. 
Hospitals are planned, built and op- 
erated with a view to overcoming, as 
far as may be, the evils inherent in 
the system. These evils can only be 
overcome, if at all, by the most pains- 
taking care in the construction and 
arrangement of the hospital, and by 
eternal vigilance in its management. 
The architect's part in the war which 

must constantly be waged against contamination and 
infection is most important. Upon the judicious dis- 
tribution of the plan, the proper arrangement of the 
ventilating system, the skillful selection and use of an- 
ti.septic substances for the interior, and the avoidance of 
all places where dust and dirt can lodge, must depend to 




are transmitted by living germs, which can be destroyed 
by aseptic treatment, or rendered less harmful by dissem- 
ination, as when they are scattered or carried off by a 
large volume of pure air. These germs are transmitted 
from one person or thing to another by means of air, 
water and insects, as well as by direct contact with con- 
taminated instruments, clothing, or other substances. 
The dangers which lurk in the hospital system are ad- 
mirably set forth by Parkes in his 
work on Practical Hygiene as follows: 
"Although the establishment of hos- 
pitals is a necessity, and marks the 
era of an advanced civilization, it 
must always be remembered that if 
the crowding of healthy men has its 
danger, the bringing together of 
many sick persons within a confined 
area is far more perilous. The risks 
of contamination of the air, and of 
impregnation of the materials of the 
building with morbid substances, are 
so greatly increased, that the greatest 
care is necessary that hospitals sliall 
not become pesthouses, and do more 
harm than good. We must always 
remember, indeed, that a number of 
sick persons are merely brought 
together in order that medical attend- 



PLAN OK HOSPITAL AT ANCiKRS. 




FIG. 2. SECTION OK HOSPITAL AT ANCIERS. 

a great extent the healthfulness of the institution. It is 
therefore absolutely necessary that the planner should 
understand the dangers which he is to help combat, and 
how they can best be overcome. 

Modern discoveries in bacteriology have shed a great 
light on this subject. We now know that most diseases 



ance and nursing may 
be more easily and 
perfectly performed. 
The risks of aggrega- 
tion are encountered 
for this reason ; other- 
wise it would be far 
better that sick per- 
sons should be sepa- 
rately treated, and 
that there should be 
no chance that the 
rapidly changing, and 
in many instances 
putrefying substances 
of one sick body 
should pass into the 
bodies of the neigh- 
boring patients. There 
is, indeed, a continual 
sacrifice of life from 
diseases caught in or 
aggravated by hospi- 
tal.s. The many advan- 
tages of hospitals 
more than counterbal- 
ance this sacrifice, but 
it should be the first 
object to lessen the 
chance of injury to 
the utmost. The risk 
of transference or ag- 
gravation of disease is 
least in the best venti- 
lated hospitals. A 




kk;. 3. 



PLAN OK HOSPITAL 
OURSCAMP. 



AT 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



91 



great supply of air, by immediately dilutinj,-- and rapidly 
carrying away the morbid substances evolved in such 
quantities from the bodies and excretions of the sick, 
reduces the risk to its minimum, and perhaps removes 
it altogether." 

Formerly it was the custom to build hospitals in single 
blocks, often of great size, where vitiated air from one 
part could circulate into and contaminate the air of other 




FIG. 4. SECTION OF HOSPITAL AT OURSCAMP. 

parts, and where, from the very nature of things, there 
could not be that abundance of air and sunlight which it 
is now thought so neces.sary to have. At pi-esent the 
approved plan is to .scatter the sick over as great an area 
as possible, by separating the institution into a number 
of small detached or semi-detached pavilions, arranged to 
permit of the freest play of air and sunlight on all sides of 
and around them, and so contrived that any part or num- 
ber of parts may be readily cut off and isolated from the 
rest in case of the outbreak of contagious diseases. The 
modern ho.spital is therefore a very complicated affair, 
calling for much ingenuity and judgment in its arrange- 
ment. For the planner, while complying with all the 
sanitary requirements, must also have due regard to 
economy of construction, of management and in the use of 
the land. He must reduce the distances to a minimum, 
he must arrange the various parts conveniently with re- 
spect to one another, so that the institution may be oper- 
ated smoothly and economically, and at the same time he 
should pay due attention to the design. It is the habit 
of many to pass lightly over the latter consideration, 
holding that the other requisites are of such paramount 
importance that the jcsthstic side may, and ])erhaps ought 
to be, disregarded. But this most certainly should not 
be the attitude of the architect. The love of and care 
for the beautiful need never be abandoned or neglected 
for any other consideration ; it is compatible with all and 
need conflict with none. In no place is beauty of design 
and cheerfulness of aspect more desirable than in a hos- 
pital. The properly planned hospital is one that is .satis- 



factory to every one of the interests enumerated, that is 
to say, wholesome, economical and beautiful. 

The ward system is by no means a pleasant one to 
contemplate. The placing of a number of sick people 
in a single room is not the happiest arrangement that can 
be imagined. There is a lack of privacy revolting to the 
sensitive mind, and no little discomfort for all concerned. 
The S3'stem can only be defended on the ground of neces- 
sity, for as compared with separate treatment the suffer- 
ing is increased, and recovery is often retarded, even 
if new disease is not contracted. There is, indeed, 
nothing to recommend it but economy. In this con- 
nection it is rather disconcerting to ob.serve the arrange- 
ment of the wards of many hospitals of the Middle Ages; 
the study of some of these might well force upon one 
the conviction tliat the progress of the last few centuries 
in this l)ranch, at least, has been in a retrograde direction. 
The ample proportions, the excellent lighting and the 








FIG. 5. PLAN OF HOSPITAL AT TONNERRF.. 

arrangements for the privacy and for the comfort of the 
l)atients in these beautiful halls, when compared with 
even the best of our modern hospitals, are so striking in 
their perfection that one is forced to ask himself, where 
is the boasted progress of these later days? France still 
pos.sesses several fine examples of her mediaeval hos- 
uO, iptals. Those of Chartres, Angersrscamp, .Soissons, 



92 



THE BR ICK BU I LDER. 



Beaune and Tonnerre are alike remarkable for the 
beauty of their architecture and the sanitary excellence 
of their plans. Figures i and 2 represent respectively 
the plan and section of the hospital at Angers; Figures 
3 and 4, the plan and section of the one at Ourscamp; 
Figures 5 and 6, the plan and section of the hospital at 
Tonnerre, all from Viollet le Due. 

The hospital at Tonnerre deserves especial attention. 
The great hall, or ward, is about 60 feet wide by 270 feet 
long, exclusive of the sanctuary. It is intended for only 
forty beds. Each patient has his own private compart- 
ment, as shown in the perspective view (Figure 7). A 
balcony running along the wall at the level of the sills of 
the great windows serves as a gallery of observation, from 
which the patients in the compartments can be seen with- 
out disturbing them, and also as a screen to intercept the 
light and to keep the glare from their eyes. The enor- 
mous cube of 16,000 cubic feet is supplied for each patient. 
Moreaver, the space between the inner and outer cover- 
ing of the roof is pierced by numerous apertures to 
facilitate ventilation. 

Many different types of ward have been suggested and 
are in general use in modern hospitals. The most com- 



The ward dependencies, consisting of the neces.sary toilet 
rooms and latrines, the nurses' room and the doctor's 
room are either at one end near the entrance or else dis- 
tributed so that the rooms containing the plumbing fix- 
tures are at the far end. The nurses' room is sometimes 




FIG. 6. SF.CTION OF HOSPITAL AT TONNERRE. 

mon of these is the oblong rectangular room with two rows 
of beds. It is from twenty-five to thirty feet wide and has 
windows along both sides and sometimes at one end. The 
beds are at right angles to the longitudinal walls and are 
placed either singly or in pairs between the windows ; their 
heads are from eighteen inches to two feet from the walls. 




FIG. 7. WARD, HOSPITAL AT TONNERRE. 

fitted up as a diet kitchen, and the doctor's room may 
contain a bed for any patient which by his condition might 
disturb the others if left in the ward. Sometimes the de- 
pendencies are more numerous, and besides the rooms 
mentioned the ward may have attached to it a ward din- 
ing room, a day room, a room for two beds for special 
cases, a serving room, etc. Figures 8, 9 and 10 show 
types of plan for wards of this kind. 

Some writers recommend round or octagonal wards, 
but they are not much used ; such wards can only hold a 
limited number of beds, as their area increases in a much 
greater ratio than their perimeter when the circle is en- 
larged, and circular buildings are expensive to build. No 
matter what the form or arrangement of the ward may 
be, all authorities seem to agree on two points: first, 
that there should be the greatest practicable area for each 
patient; and second, that the head of his bed should be 
close to a window. The minimum area generally pre- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



93 



scribed is loo square feet, or 1,200 cubic feet, but many 
think it should be much more. One of the best French 
authorities prescribes 45 cubic meters for each ordinary 
patient and 67 cubic meters for each surg-ical or fever pa- 
tient. In hot climates the cube should be sjrcater. In 



more ecomonical as rejjards construction and administra- 
tion. If the beds are placed in four rows, the ward need 
be only one-half as lonja^ for a given number of patients 
as if there are but two rows, and it will therefore cost 
a good deal less to build. The distances will be only one- 



9ATIMENT DE MALADES 




KIG. 8. 



Italy they give ordinarily 75 cubic meters per bed and 
sometimes as much as 100 cubic meters. Some authorities 
maintain that the cubic space allowed for each patient 
should be more in wards containing a large number of 
beds than in those having a less number. Thus, if 45 
cubic meters per patient 
are allowed in a ward 
of ten beds, 55 cubic 
meters per patient should 
be allowed in a ward 
containing twenty beds, 
and so on. The argu- 
ment is logical, for the 
greater the number of 
patients the greater the 
risk of contamination. 
It is undoubtedly true 
that there cannot be too 
great an allowance of air 
space, but just why the 
beds should be arranged 
as they are in wards the 
world over it is not .so 
easy to .see. Whatever 
virtue there may be in 
placing the heads of the 
beds of a ward close to 
and between windows, 
where the patient is ex- 
posed to every current of 
air and where the glare 
from the opposite win- 
dows of the ward is di- 
rectly in his eyes, it is 
certain that the same 

reasons do not hold good in the estimation of physi- 
cians for the sick in their own homes or even for patients 
in the private rooms of a hospital. 

Here again it seems to the writer that the medijcval 
arrangement of the ward as shown in Figures 2 and 3 is 
better both for the patient's health and comfort and also 




■Ent 



FIG. 9. 



half as great for the nurses and attendants, and there 
will be a further economy in its care, as the co.st of both 
cleaning and heating will be reduced by almost a 
third. Being wider, the patients will not be .so much 
annoyed by the light from the windows on the op- 
posite side of the ward, 
and at least one-half of 
them will be so placed as 
to l)c less exposed to 
danger from draughts 
about the windows. If 
there arc serious objec- 
tions to this kind of ward, 
the writer has been un- 
able to learn what they 
are. Many physicians 
with whom the matter 
has been discussed have 
agreed in thinking the 
arrangement better than 
the one in common use, 
both as regards the 
patient's health and com- 
fort. There is a ward 
pavilion of the sort at- 
tached to the Xaval 
Hospital at Brooklyn, 
X. \'., which gives ex- 
cellent satisfaction, and 
it is the intention of the 
I)ei)artment to build 
more like it. When 
such wide wards are 
'^"'- '°- used, their ceilings may 

be somewhat higher than 
those of wards for only two rows of beds. The latter 
are usually 12 feet high; wards for four rows of 
beds might, with advantage, be 16 to 18 feet high. 
The cubic space above the tops of the windows is not 
usually thought to be of much value, therefore the win- 
dowsare generally carried very near the ceilings. In nar- 



Er.t 



ranoe. 



94 



THE BR I CKBU I LDER. 




r^snce. 



row wards the higher 
the windows the more 
the light from them 
annoys the patients, 
because it brings it 
more directly within 
the range of vision of 
one lying in a bed at 
the opposite side of 
the room, but in wide 
wards the windows 
may be higher without 
this inconvenience. 
The extra cubic space 
obtained by raising 
the ceiling would cost 
CO m p a r a t i V e 1 y little 
and might be used to 
increase the cubic 
space allowed for each 
patient, or to expect 
an economy by slight- 
ly reducing the floor 
area per bed, while 






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TTl 


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retaining the desired cubic 
area. 

Beside these advantages 
of utility and economy the 
wide ward lends itself bet- 
ter to a successful architec- 
tural treatment, for with 
such wards the dependen- 
cies need not be wider than 
the ward, and project in 
the awkward way they do 
in most wards of two rows 
of beds. Figure 1 1 repre- 
sents a ward of this sort for 
twenty beds, and F'igure 12 
a ward of the ordinary 
kind for the same number 
of beds in two rows. In 
both these wards the floor 
area is the same per bed. 
The dependencies are of 
equal size in both plans, 
yet the number of running 
feet of exterior wall re- 
el u i r e d by the 
plan Figure 1 1 is 
twenty-five per 
cent less than the 
other plan calls 
for. 

A very desir- 
able adjunct of 
all wards is the 
sheltered loggia 
or piazza marked 




CJa>rci 



MP 




Aut 




MP 





J I I 


Ant 


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ir')fi 

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IM 


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Y TO PLANS 


■J a. 


ENTRANCE. 


— 


WARDS. 


/ — 


CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 


'^'^tt 


ADMINISTRATION. 


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CHAPEL. 


MP t-t 


PAY PATIENTS. 


M rn 


MATERNITY. 


/M -" 


MATERNITY INFIRMARY. 


Ant 3 


AUTOPSY AND MORGUE. 


n c 


DISINFECTION. 


B -*- 


LAUNDRY. 




GALLERIES OF COMMUNICATION. 


:^::n:r; 


GARDENS AND PATHS. 



13- 



A " in both of these plans. 
If the ends of the wards have an exposure to 
the south, southeast or southwest, so that the 
place can Vje warmed by the sun, and protected 
on three sides against northerly winds, it is 
sure to be a great boon to the patients, who 
naturally seek every opportunity, when able 
to do so, to escape from the depressing atmos- 
phere of the ward. 

There is no doubt that where the conditions 
will permit, the ward pavilion should not be 
more than a single story high. If the wards 
are placed over each other, there is danger 
that vitiated air from a lower ward will find 
entrance into one above. If by no other means, 
the staircase will serve as a duct, but few 
buildings are built which will not permit of 
the circulation of air through the floor. Though 
wards of one story are more costly for the 
accommodation provided than those of two 
stories, there are several compensating advan- 
tages besides that of their superior healthful- 
ness. The abolition of the staircase and eleva- 
tor is an economy both on account of their 
cost and the space they occupy. And the sav- 
ing in labor and consequent cost of adminis- 
tration is considerable if all the parts are on 
the same level, and if food and the patients 
can be wheeled directly from one part to 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



95 



another without change of grade. These advantages 
probably fully offset the saving in foundation and roof 
w^hich is effected by placing one ward over another. 

To obtain an abundance of cheap land, hospitals 
should, when practicable, be located in the suburbs of 




cities, where the wards can not only be spread over a 
sufficient area, but where there may be fairly extensive 
grounds about the buildings for the use of the patients. 
In such places the architect has only to choose a happy 
mean between too great separation and too great con- 
centration of the parts, that is, a separation sufificient to 
meet the hygienic requirements for air and sunlight 
without overstepping the bounds of economy in admin- 
istration by too great a lengthening of distances. If 
the distances are too great, there will be a loss of labor 
and consequent increase of expense. Many different 
methods of arrangement for the pavilions have been 
tried and suggested. Figure 13 shows some ingenious 
ones by M. Toilet, a French writer on the subject. 




The ward pavilions arc separated to accomplish two 
distinct objects: first, to secure light and air around 
them; second, to prevent the mixing of the air of one 
ward with that of another. In order to accomplish the 
latter object, means must be taken to prevent the 
passageways from acting as circulating ducts through 
which the air can pass from one part to another. There 
are three ways to do this: first, to break the corridor at 
intervals with what maybe called " fresh air cut-offs," 



or places open on at least one side to the outer air; 
second, to leave the corridors themselves open on one 
or both sides, which is impracticable in a cold climate; 
third, to separate the buildings from tlie corridor by 
open vestibules, as shown in Figure 14. These vestibules 
can be arranged so that the window on the leeward side 
remains open automatically. Some time ago the writer 
visited a hospital celebrated for the supposed excellence 
of its hygienic arrangement. The various pavilions 
were not really separated from each other at all. To be 
sure there were long enclosed ways, but the asmosphere 
was the same throughout ; the passages served no other 
purpose than a means of communication, for the circula- 
tion of air was nowhere interrupted. They had cost 
a great deal to build, and must have been expen- 







Kii;. 16. 

sive to heat. The ventilating system was also costly 
and inefficient, for everywhere there was the same un- 
pleasant hospital odor. At onl)' one place was there relief, 
— one building had not j'et been connected up to the 
general system of communication, and it was necessary to 
step out of doors to reach it. The distance was only 
three or four feet. I shall never forget that one breath of 
fresh air. It occurred to nic then, how much better and 
more effective was a break of this kind for the purpose 
of separation than any length of enclosed corridor. 

One often sees an almost brutal disregard of beauty 
and symmetry in the plans of hospitals. Wards are fre- 
cjuently arranged as shown in Figure 15. This kind of 
plan is apt to appeal strongly to the board of managers 
or the building committee. They see that the arrange- 
ment is ugly. Evidently the architect has not let his 
{esthetic tendencies lead him astray; he has sacrificed 
symmetry and order to more .solid considerations of 
a practical kind, for the wards are apparently arranged 
.solely to procure for them the best exposure. If a plan 
is ugly, however, it is pretty sure to have other defects 
which a little study will disclose. If these same wards 
were arranged, for instance, as shown in F'igure 16, 
they would continue to have every advantage which 
could be claimed for the other arrangement, for the sides 
of those on the left of the axis would have precisely 
the same exposure as those cm the right of it, and the 
length of the corridors would be reduced by one-half. 
( To be continued.) 



96 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



Interesting Brick and Terra-Cotta 
Architecture in St. Louis. III. 

COMMERCIAL, INSTITUTIONAL, ETC. 

BY S. L. SHERER. 

IT is only in the past ten years that the use of brick, 
other than red, has become a factor in building in 
vSt. Louis ; and while its riotous use by speculative build- 
ers has been distressing, the more intelligent use of it by 
architects has added variety of color to design and has 
served to preserve the streets from the monotonous ap- 
pearance that unintelligent use of red brick alone gives. 

The Judge & Dolph building, by R. M. Milligan, is a 
pleasing example of the use of a mottled Roman brick 
and terra-cotta of the same color. The central grouping 
of the windows is a clever feature and affords a maximum 




BUILDIN(; FOR ST. LOUIS DAIRY CO. 
\V. A. Swasey, Architect. 

amoimt of light without robbing the end piers of suflhcient 
width to give that air of stability which every building 
should possess. 

The use of terra-cotta for entire facades has not been 
extensive in St. Louis, but in the Lindell Real Estate 
building, Mauran, Russell & Garden have used a semi- 
glazed terra-cotta of a grayish color. St. Louis is fortu- 
nate in possessing many commercial warehouses that will 
rank with the best work of the kind elsewhere, but none 
of them excel this building in fitness and beauty of de- 
sign. Where ample light is a desideratum, piers must ne- 
cessarily be reduced to a minimum, generally to the detri- 
ment of architectural appearance. Here this objectionable 
feature has been minimized by the deep reveal of the 
terra-cotta architraves, which gives the building an ap- 
pearance of stability, instead of the veneered look that 
usually accompanies a less intelligent use of that mate- 
rial. 

In this age of commercial dominance it is seldom that 




STUDIO BUILDING. 
Eames & Young, Architects. 

an architect is permitted to design a store building in 
which commercial necessities do not override architec- 
tural beauty. That the beauty and the necessities can 
be happily combined is demonstrated in the Knox build- 
ing, by Mauran, Russell & Garden. Here a picturesque- 
ness, in a well-controlled way, has resulted from the use 
of gables, seldom met with in modern commercial struc- 
tures, and a building has been created which is a welcome 
departure from the usual type. The brick is dark mot- 
tled, a color that weathers best in the St. Louis atmos- 
phere. 

No mention has been made of the Cupples system of 
brick warehouses by Eames & Young, as they have been 
fully described in a previous number of this journal, but 
the Cupples office building, that seems lost between its 




w!.»auL--:.^ 



gMii.iiiiii.iii 




MISSOURI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY. 
Eames & Young, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 





.INI.iirH rilKIMlONE BUILDING 
Isaac S. Taylor, Architect. 



HKI.I, TKI.EI'IIONE BRANCH BUILDINCi 
Eames & YouiiK, Architects. 





BRANCH BUILDIN(;, METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE CO. 
N. LeBrun & Sons, Architects. 



AkMi)K\ . 
W. M. and L. C. Buckley, Architects. 




CHRISTIAN scienc;k L.HUKCH. 
T. C. Link, Architect. 




ST. LOUIS CLUB (oI.D Bl' 1 1.1)1 N( , ). 
Pcabodv & Stearns, Architects. 



BRICKWORK IN .ST. LOUIS, MO. 



98 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



huge neighbors, deserves illustration because of its 
architectural beauty. The facade is encased in dark 
brown terra-cotta and possesses a refinement that is in 
interesting contrast to its surroundings. 

By the same architects the Chapman building, lately 
converted to the uses of the Post-Dispatcli, is one of the most 
successful buildings of its class, and exhibits individuality 
in design and a refined use of buff terra-cotta of attrac- 
tive detail, in the upper story and frieze. The deep 
reveals enhance the appearance of strength and add 
immeasurably to the character of the design. 

Although Washington Avenue is lined with structures 
of the same general type and devoted to like purposes, 
mention can be made of a few of the buildings that are 
making it one of the monumental streets of the country. 

The Boyle building, by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 
and J. Lawrence Mauran, exhibits extensive use of terra- 
cotta for the embellishment of the fac^ade. The red 
brick in combination with the butf terra-cotta affords a 
pleasing contrast of color. 

The most pretentious of recent examples is the Fer- 
guson-McKinney building, by Eames & Young. The de- 
sign is a variation of the usual treatment in the increased 
number of stringcourses and the somewhat unusual 




DODDS SANITARIUM. 
M. P. McArdle, Architect. 




l.INDEI.L REAL ESTATE COMPANY BUILDING. 

Mauran. RusseU &■ Oarden, Architects. 



handling of the large consols supporting the cornice. 
The admirable treatment of the corners gives an appear- 
ance of support to the superstructure, and coherence to 
the design of the first .story. The brick is brown with 
terra-cotta trimmings of a much darker shade, — a color 
that weathers well in our smoky atmosphere, but one 
that does not lend itself so well to the best expression of 
detail. 

Weber & Groves building, for the Norvell-Shap- 
leigh Hardware Company, differs from the usual ware- 
house type in that the light area does not seem to have 
dominated the design above the first story, with the re- 
sult that a more massive appearance fittingly character- 
izes the structure. The white terra-cotta sill courses 
accentuate the horizontal instead of the vertical treat- 
ment used in the other buildings. 

The Newcomb building, by Shepley, Rutan c\: Coolidge, 
recalls the influence of the great Richardson, and al- 
though erected many years ago it retains its interest as 
one of the best examples of all brick design in the city; 
brick being used for ornamentation in a way that tests 
but does not exceed the limitations of the material. 

It augurs well for architecture when buildings are 
erected by business firms who recognize the importance of 
associating their name with buildings of individual char- 
acter. vSpecial purposes impart an individuality to a 
building which is necessarily absent when it is planned 
to meet any one of a dozen recjuirements. 

This result has been realized by the St. Louis Dairy 
Company, for whom W. Albert Swasey has designed a 
piciuresque building whose style recalls the half-timbered 
buildings in the South of France. The openings have 
been accentuated by the u.se of a Roman brick of a much 
darker color than the wall, but springing the entrance 
arches directly from the pavement line mars what is 
otherwise an exceedingly interesting design. The brown 
tile roof, long and low, with gables and dormers well sub- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



99 




BOYLE BUILDING. 
Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



CUPPLES OFFICE BUILDING. 
Eames & Young, Architects. 



POST-DISPATCH BUILDING. 
Eames & Voting, Architects. 




IIKNKR HUILDING. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



SCHUYLER MEMORIAL HOUSE. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

BRICKWOHK IN ST. LOUIS, MO. 



JUDGE * DOLPH BUILDING. 
K. M. Milligan, Arcliilect. 



lOO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FERGUSON-MCKINNEY BUILDING. 
Eames & Young, Architects. 

ordinatcd, adds a picturesque note seldom seen in com- 
mercial buildings. 

A like result was attained by the owners in the erec- 
tion of the Studio building by Eames & Young. The 
upper floors are devoted to studios for artists, and this 
purpose is fittingly suggested by the design of the de- 
tail of the terra-cotta panels and architraves that frame 
the windows. If such beautiful buildings were more nu- 
merous the streets would have the same interest as art 
galleries, for they not only make for education, but for a 
well-ordered city as well. 

The value of this idea has also received recognition 




in the building of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany, by N. LeBrun & Sons of New York, which exhibits 
their interpretation of the Colonial style, and employed 
by them in the numerous buildings erected in various 
cities for the same compan}-. 

It is fitting that this article should make some mention 
of the Turner building, erected many years ago by Pea- 
body & Stearns. The first of our modern fireproof office 
buildings, its beauty has not saved it from falling a vic- 
tim to the inexorable demand for light. It is unfortunate 
that so beautiful and interesting a structure should dis- 
appear from view, for the educational influence of such 
a monimient is beyond computation in money. 

While St. Louis possesses numerous institutions de- 








NEWCO.MH liL li.l)i.\i,. 
Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



N()K\EL-SHAI'LKI(;U li L 1 1.DINc;. 
Weber & Groves, Architects. 

voted to all the uses of civilization, it is unfortunate that 
they are rarely of architectural merit. The churches are 
generally of stone construction, which precludes their 
illustration in this article. vSeveral of them are of dis- 
tinct merit, especially Christ Church Cathedral, designed 
by Leopold Eidlitz in 1859. The Schuyler Memorial 
House, which adjoins it, is the work of Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge, and while it is of brick and terra-cotta, it is in 
harmonious keeping with the early English Gothic design 
of the stone church. Like many commercial buildings its 
architectue does not extend beyond the facade; never- 
theless it posses.ses an architectural treatment which be- 
speaks its purpose — that of ;i mission house to the 
cathedral. 

The Dodds Sanitarium, by M. P. McArdle, is an at- 
tempt to depart from precedent, and as such merits the 
respect which should be accorded earnest study and 
honest endeavor. Illustration in black and white fails 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



lOI 



to convey an adequate idea of the color scheme, without 
which a correct idea of any building- cannot be had, 
since color plays no unimportant part in every architec- 
tural composition. 

The Christian Science Church, by Theodore C. Link, 
is a well managed design of unusual interest. While it 
does not convey the idea of a chiirch, it clearly expresses 
the purpose of a mission house or place of assemblage 
for a religious society. 

The old St. Louis Club, by Peabody & Stearns, has 
been abandoned for a more pretentious structure. It is 
a very dignified and successful building, and although in 
a style whose vogue has passed, it is charged with that 
indefinable quality called style which will cause it to re- 
tain its charm as an architectural composition as long as 
it stands. 

The attached buildings of the St. Louis Medical Col- 
lege and the Missouri Dental College are worthy of re- 
mark for their well-controlled design. They exhibit a 
discriminating use of buff terra-cotta for ornamental pur- 
poses, a color that harmonizes well with the mottled 
brick of the walls and one that shows the refined detail to 
the best advantage. 

Armories of atrocious design have been the common 
infliction of all cities large enough to justify their exist- 
ence, but St. Louis has been more fortunate in her ar- 
mory than many cities. Why they should be so unsightly 
is beyond comprehension, for they offer a fine opportunity 
for architectural treatment. The one illustrated is un- 
objectionable save for the weak label mold over the win- 
dows and portal — a piece of detail out of keeping with 
the feudal style and character of the building. 

New purpo.ses call into existence new kinds of build- 
ings which express these requirements and in time be- 
come fixed types. In the Bell Telephone branch by 
Eames & Young, and the Kinloch Telephone Building by 
Isaac S. Taylor, may be seen practically the same problem 
interpreted by different architects. The former building 
has received formal and dignified treatment in a vitreous 
looking brick of varying shades of red with trimmings of 
white terra-cotta, while the designer of the latter build- 
ing has had recourse to the freer English style for a 
model. The brickwork of both buildings invites attention 
because of unconventional treatment. 

Until recent years our public schools were badly 
planned, badly designed and badly built, "as bad as 
bad can be," but with the advent of Commissioner Ittner 
we have fallen upon happier lines. In the Field, Wyman 
and Emerson schools we have buildings that show a 
marked advance upon previous work and bear favor- 
able comparison with similar work elsewhere. The same 
careful study that entered into the plan and design is ahso 
manifested in the handling of the brick, with the result 
that they are among the most interesting examples of 
brickwork in the city. As they constitute a class in them- 
selves they will be described in a future number of Tmk 
Brickbuiluer. 

In passing it may be said that the invasion of outside 
architects has been, on the whole, of advantage to 
the city, as it has infused new ideas which have added to 
its architectural interest. It cannot be noted, however, 
that it has had any appreciable effect upon the style of 
local designers. 



The New Schlesinger and Mayer 
Building, Chicago. 

SUBSTRL'CTURE, STRUCTURE, DESICX AND 
FI REPROOFING MAKING AN ARCHITEC- 
TURAL UNIT. 

BY a rare combination of artistic design, constructive 
skill and ingenuity, Louis H. vSulHvan has just 
completed at Chicago the second section of the vSchles- 
inger and Mayer department store building. He alone has 
not only designed it, but has devised all the mechanical 
expedients necessary to accompli.sh its completion within 
a given time. He has made his own time table and has 
lived up to it, as the truthful photographs will show. 
But this, however, has not been possible without the 
executive collaboration of the contractors. His experi- 
ence is the latest illustration of a new method of time 
saving (which means money saving) when applied to the 
construction of large commercial buildings. It is no 
less than commencing the foundations for a new building 
ninety feet below the surface of the ground while the 
old one is in use, and completing them before it is torn 
down. The .saving in rental value has been many times 
greater than the extra cost of doing the work under such 
disadvantages. This process is only possible when the 
new method of erecting high buildings on "concrete 
wells," now almost universal at Chicago, is employed. 

Mr. Sullivan is, above all things, an op])ortunist. He 
accepts every exigency prescribed by nnxlern commer- 
cialism. He solves every problem from the economic's 
standpoint. He adojjts the best materials for his pur- 
pose before designing, and then bends them to his will. 
He conceives the building as a whole and the way in 
which it should be built as essential features to control 
his final design. He accepts the modern machine, and 
demonstrates its capacity to assi.st him in evolving a work 
of art. He does not despise the task of designing a com- 
mercial building, but rejoices in it. Neither does he 
neglect to use hand work, but encourages it where prac- 
ticable. He is an artist him.self and has a following of 
skilled artists whom he uses in their proper vocation. In 
these respects he lives in the twentieth century. 

The vSchlcsinger and Mayer building, a plan of the 
old and new foundations of which is given (F'ig. i), 
was three years ago a conglomeration of old retail stores 
covering an area of 182 by 140 feet on the most valuable 
corner in the city of Chicago. The.se buildings had to be 
increa.sed from four and five stories in height to .seven 
stories, and liad, by removing most of the party walls, 
been thrown into one building. It was a very dangerous 
fire risk and not altogether a very safe Iniilding in other 
respects. Three years ago Section i was rebuilt nine 
stories in height, being a thoroughly fireproof structure 
on a foundation of fifty-foot piles, except on the party 
lines, where the foimdations were concrete wells four feet 
in diameter, designed to carry a nine-story building. 
When ready to proceed with Section 2, which has just 
been completed, it was decided to build the whole twelve 
stories high. The general plans were made when .Section 
I was built, and when the owners concluded last summer 
to begin Section 2 there was still plenty of time to pre- 
pare the plans and get out the material.s. But it was 



I02 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ie O 



SECTl(7N NO 1 



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ye- 



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O O 



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o' 
o 



o d 



o o 



o o 



o o 



o o o— (b 



8 . 

O O 



■SECTION NO 3 

o o 



Q- 



O O . O • (}) o o_ 

i 

i 

_fOlO" ■ O *"0_' -(()■■ O - 'Ci 



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5-AT£ ST3CC.T 



greatly to the interest of their business to continue to use 
the corner section until Christmas of 1902. Then it was 
that Mr. Sullivan conceived the idea of building the foun- 
dations, not only of Section 2, but also of vSection 3, be- 
fore the first floor of the store shoTild be vacated. He 
knew that it would take longer to dig the wells and put 
in the concrete under such disadvantages than if the 
work should be done on cleared ground, and also that it 
would cost more to do it, but nothing like the value of 
the use of the old building during the time required for 
this part of the work. 

In the middle of August, 1902, the architect received 
definite orders to proceed with the work. He was obliged 
to change the construction of a nine-story building, al- 
ready planned, to twelve stories, both as re- 
gards Section i, which had been erected 
three years ago, and Sections 2 and 3. Sec- 
tion 2 was required for use May i, 1903, and 
Section 3 on October i, 1903, without serious 
interruption of the business carried on in the 
building. On October 6, 1902, he was ready 
to commence work. Accordingly the base- 
ment of Section 2 was cleared of stock and 
fixtures, and as soon as the basement of Sec- 
tion 3 was recjuired by the builders, that also 
was cleared. On the basement plan (Fig. 
i) the piles and concrete wells that had 
been used for the foundations of {Section i 
are shown in full black; the piers and col- 
umns forming the support of the old build- 
ings covering Sections 2 and 3, which were 
to be removed, are also shown in full black. 
The new permanent concrete wells on which 
the whole of the new sections are to be sup- 
ported, including the new concrete wells re- 
quired to reinforce those under the boundary 
line of Section i, are all shown in outline 



only. The latter are numbered 25A, 26A, 
27 A, 28A, 29A, 37A, 44A, 53A, 60A and 71A, 
and became necessary by reason of the fact 
that the original wells on these lines, put in to 
carry a nine-story building, were not deemed 
strong enough to carry twelve stories. The 
weight of these columns is transferred to all 
the wells by a system of steel cantilevers and 
lintels, which will not be here described in 
detail, but those interested will find a descrip- 
ption prepared by Mr. Sullivan in the I'^nt^i- 
iiccriiig^ Rtcord of February 21, 1903, giving 
full statistics. 

It will be seen that a great number of the 
new piers fortunately came between the old 
columns and even between the piers of the ex- 
terior walls. But some of them had to be in 
the same place, making it necessary to place 
a considerable part of the old seven-story build- 
ing on shores and screws. This was compli- 
cated by the necessity for keeping the whole 
building from the first story up supplied with 
■ water, drainage, heat and electric lights, as 
well as operating many elevators. Mr. Sul- 
livan says; "The underlying soil was filled 
with a motley assortment of discarded foundations, dis- 
carded sewers and water pipes, and operating sewers, 
water pipes, underground sprinkler system pipes, etc." 
All the work was done through two towers built on the 
sidewalk on the State Street side, furnished with ele- 
vators. All the surplus earth and materials were taken 
out and all the new materials were taken in through these, 
and nothing was ever laid down in the street. The new 
cellar is deeper than the old one, and that was the cause 
of another complication to be overcome. A very large 
part of the old material to be removed was crushed in the 
cellar and used in the concrete of the piers, and all new 
concrete was made with pebble gravel instead of crushed 
stone. The apparent secrecy with which the foundation 
work was done was another peculiar feature of the oper- 



O O' 




PHOTO TAKEN JANUARY 15, 1 9OO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



103 




ation. The object was to avoid any interference with 
the business being- carried on above the work, of which 
the show windows for holiday displays were an impor- 
tant feature. 

Mr. Sullivan says: "It was not considered expedient 
to sink more than five or six wells at one time, as the op- 
eration of a greater number would require a larger gang 
of men than could have been used effectively. Work on 
both shoring and wells was pushed night and day with 




three eight-hoiu- shifts, and was suspended only between 
the hours of midnight Saturday and midnight Sundaj'. 
The work was kept steadily under way until January i, 
i(;o3, at which date fifty-three out of the fifty-nine foun- 
dation piers, built in wells, were in place. After due 
consideration it was determined to postpone the sinking 
of the six remaining wells, which would come under op- 
erating passenger elevators, freight elevators, package 
conveyor and smokestack, until the time should come 
for the demolition of Section 3. It was found that 
well sinking progressed at an average of about one well 
per day, or in other words it recpiired about six days to 
sink and fill one well. Wherever possible the piers and 
columns of the old buildings were reset upon the new con- 
crete piers. The south line wall of the adjoining building 
was put on drums, a small section at a time, and the new 
foundation inserted at a lower level ; after allowing 
proper time for the setting of the cement the wall was 
again underpinned and allowed to rest upon the new 




rX 

M 







kk;. 4. 



PHOTO TAKKN .MARCH 31, T 903. 



Kit;. 5. PHOrO TAKKN APK1I,^13, I903. 

foundation. The south wall of the new building is to be 
built within the lot lines of the property. The .south row 
of new steel columns will therefore be cantilevered ac- 
cording to the method that now prevails." 

On January 6, 1903, the wrecking of the corner build- 
ing occupying the site of Section 2 was commenced and 
was completed in nine days of sixteen working hours 
each, operations at night being conducted by the aid of 
electric lights. The illustration (l"ig. 2) is from a ])hoto- 
graph taken January 15. On tlic left is seen the com- 
pleted Section i, and on the right the old building on 
Section 3, still in use, and connected internally with Sec- 
tion I. '{'he fireproof columns seen are of the "(iray" 
pattern, 'i'hese, having been designed for a nine-story 
building, have since been removed, and cast iron columns 
substituted. In figuring out a time schedule in August, 
1902, it was found that while steel girders and lloor 
beams could be obtained by January i, 1903, it would be 
impossible to procure steel columns in that time. Con- 



I04 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



sequently cast iron columns are used in vSection 2, and Z 
bar columns will be used as originally contemplated in 
Section 3, which is not yet commenced. These are now 
ready to be used as soon as Section 3 is torn down. 

The illustration (Fig. 3) shows the condition of the 
work on Section 2 on March 23. This also shows the 
Section i, nine stories high, completed in 1900, and Sec- 
tion 3 not yet demolished. Seven days after this, on 
March 31, the photograph shown in Fig. 4 was taken, 
showing how much work was done in one week. In that 
time the steel work had reached the roof and five stories 
of the white enameled terra-cotta front had been set, 
and nearly all of the elaborate ironwork of the store 
fronts on the first and second stories. On April 6 all the 
terra-cotta except the main cornice had been set and the 
first story iron front had been completed, all the fireproof 
floors had been completed, and five stories had been 



steel framework concealing all the girders and making 
the ceilings continuous throughout the building. These 
will be plastered on metal lath and are for uniform ap- 
pearance only. They are incombustible but not depended 
upon for fireproofing the structural steel, all of which is 
done with porous terra-cotta. The illustration taken from 
the working detail drawing shows the disposition of 
other features of the fireproofing. 

As has been said above, the concrete piers under Sec- 
tion 3 have already been built in wells, though the old 
building above was used up to May 9. Their tops are 
sufficiently below the basement floor to allow for setting 
the spreaders on which the steel columns will stand, and 
they are five feet in diameter. Since putting them in 
it has been decided to excavate a sub-basement 50 by 140 
feet in dimensions below the basements of Section 3 for a 
boiler and power plant, and to give it a clear height of 




^g 


m^ ^ 


1 


s 

™ 




w 






^ i 



N "9 "^ ^y^ y^ OrrA/t.3 or fi^c /^troor Co/tsrjrt/ cr/on 



f r'lAr /t/fctf rom ^tooit o^ PASiACt jA/a^ 



•JaM /9nl> /9C3 



OerM/£ <y Cet.s /^ Sotrr^ tV/tii. Simt Mi>i/tr3ra*r 






fk;. 6. 



plastered on the suspended iron ceiling. Fig. 5 is from 
a photograph taken April 13, showing the exterior com- 
pleted and most of the glass set. Section 2 was com- 
pleted and opened for business on the nth of the present 
month, and the same day the destruction of Section 3 
was commenced. After this Section i will be carried up 
to twelve stories without disturbing the business carried 
on beneath, and the whole store will be completed in 
time for the fall business. It is well to note here that Sec- 
tion 2, a complete store in itself, has been built in four 
months from the time that the tearing down of the old 
building was commenced. 

It only remains to refer to the fireproof work, all of 
which is carried out in porous terra-cotta. Fig. 6 fully 
illustrates this. Segment floor arches are used through- 
out with very few exceptions, the girders and beams be- 
ing entirely encased. In all of the stories used for sell- 
ing purposes suspended flat ceilings are constructed on a 



twenty feet. This involves a new constructive problem 
that has not yet been solved. It will be necessary to 
build a concrete retaining wall around the excavation to 
resist the pressure of the soft wet clay subsoil, which 
has heretofore been done in only one other building in 
Chicago. It was successfully done in this case, though 
at great expense. The excavation will leave the concrete 
piers that were built in the wells exposed to view in the 
sub-basement. They will be only four diameters in 
height above the floor. It has not yet been decided 
whether to leave them standing as columns supporting 
the steel posts running up through the thirteen stories, 
to cut them off and substitute steel columns in the sub- 
basement, or to reinforce them with steel around the 
outside. One method or the other will have to be fol- 
lowed, and probably the first ; while concrete beams will 
probably be built below the sub-basement floor connecting 
all the exposed piers to brace them laterally at that level. 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) H R 



•05 



Selected Miscellany. 



SLOW BURNING CONSTRUCTION. 

SOME one has made the bright remark that the light- 
ning calculator is not quick enough to keep up with 
the losses on slow(?) burning mill construction. We 
heard one explanation of the difference between the or- 
dinary construction and the slow burning, that in the 
former the floor con- 
struction was of soft 
pine, while in the 
latter it was entirely 
of hard wood. The 
efforts which some 
parties have made to 
reduce the fire risk 
on mills have un- 
doubtedly met with 
great success. ,Slow 
burning construction 
is far better than the 
old system of air 
channels, lack of fire 
stops and general 
c o m b u s t i V e con- 
dition, but the prin- 
ciple is wrong. If we 
are to be literally 
exact, such a thing 
as a fireproof build- 
ing is impossible, for, 
given the proper con- 
ditions, there is noth- 
ing which will ulti- 
mately resist fire ; but 
according to the ac- 
cepted meaning of 
the term, it is so 
perfectly possible 
to construct a fireproof building with a proper steel frame, 
protected by at least one inch of terra-cotta, that it is 
hard to have full sympathy with those who woi:ld advo- 
cate the use of the so-called slow burning construction. 
The Pittsburg Plate Glass Company had one of its large 
mills recently destroyed by fire, entailing a loss of several 
hundred thousand dollars. The new structure which is 




to take its place apparently follows exactly the lines that 
failed before. The advocates of slow burning construc- 
tion cite the fact that a wooden post will stand fire with- 
out failure longer than an iron one ; that since an amount 
of heat far below the melting point of iron will .so weaken 
the material that it will deflect and fail, therefore a 
wooden post which does not deflect until it is almost en- 
tirely consumed is to be preferred. This argument is en- 
tirely wrong. If we can prevent the start of a fire it is 
of far more importance than to have a structure which 

will burn but con- 
tinue to stand u]). 
We maintain that 
experience shows 
even unprotected 
ironwork to be safer 
construction than the 
so-called slow burn- 
ing, and if with such 
un])rotected iron- 
work there is coupled 
a reasonable care in 
the reduction of fire 
risk of the contents 
the iron construction, 
insufficient as it may 
be, is far preferable 
to any wooden con- 
struction which 
would be sure to 
materially aid in the 
spread of the fire. 



SOUTU HA\' .MISSION 
K. C. Sturgis, 



HOUSK, HOSIO.N. 
Architect. 



FIRIC LIMITS. 

A CLAUSE in the 
Hoston build- 
ing law provides that 
in any structure in- 
tended to be used for 
commercial purposes 
the area in each story must be .so divided into compart- 
ments by brick walls that no undivided floor space shall 
exceed 8,000 .square feet if tlie building is of ordinary 
construction, or 10,000 scjuare feet if it is fireproofed. 
A bill has been introduced into the legislature to repeal 
this i)r()vision. The opposition to this clause in the 
building law comes chiefly from real estate operators 





DETAIL BY W. S. STODDART, ARCHITECT. 
Northwe.stern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



DETAIL liV A. K. ROSENHEIM, ARCHITECT. 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



io6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




and commercial men, 
who vehemently claim 
the right to construct 
a department store 
with any floor area 
desired. We believe 
Boston is one of the 
very few cities in 
which such restriction 
is made, but practi- 
cally it is inoperative 
for the reason that 
since it became law no 
department store of 
any size has been 
erected. The Jordan. 



WESTMINSTER 

CHAMBERS, 

BOSTON. 

THE Massa- 
chusetts leg- 
islature has just 
refused to modify 
the laws relative 
to the region about 
Copley Square, 
Boston, and imder 
the provisions of 
the existing law 
the owners of the 
Westminster 
Chambers, a hotel 




DETAIL BV VICTOR HUGO 

KOEHLER, ARCHITECT. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 
Makers. 



Marsh Company, which has per- 
haps the largest department store, 
has a floor area of something- 
like 60,000 square feet, which is 
practically undivided, and there 
are several others nearly as large. 
The repeal of this portion of the 
law is being strongly opposed by 
the Boston Society of Architects, 
the Master Builders Association, 
and the imderwriters, and we 
have yet to hear of any valid ^ 
reason why floor area should not 
be restricted except the one that 
the shopkeepers want no partitions 
of any sort. We fail to see why 




DETAIL BV (i. W. * W. 1), 
Conkling-Arnistrong 1 erra- 



HEWITT, ARCHITECTS. 
Cotta Company, Makers. 



as much business 
would not be done and done as well in eight compart- 
ments of 8,000 square feet each as in one of 64,000 
scjuare feet, and we can hardly believe that the amend- 
ment will prevail. 




DETAIL BV HERTS & TALLANT, ARCHITECTS. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



the site of the 
Westminster 
cannot be carried 
as high by ten 
feet as buildings 
directly across 
the square, and 
the limitation is 
even more severe 
on Co m m o n - 
wealth Avenue 
and the park- 
ways, though, 
by a curious re- 
version of the 
intent of the law, 
a building on a 
corner of Com- 
monwealth Ave. 
nue which has its 
nominal front on 
a side street can 



UKIAIL BV ST. LOUIS TERRA- 
COTTA COMPANY. 

immediately adjoining Trin- 
ity Church, will undoubtedly 
be at once called upon to 
either remove entirely the 
present upper story or to so 
reduce the height thereof 
that it will have little com- 
mercial value. The dam- 
ages in this case, which will 
undoubtedly be very high, 
fall by decision of the Su- 
preme Court upon the city of 
Boston. In some respects 
the Boston building law is 
one of the best in the country, 
but in its application, un- 
fortunately, discriminations 
have been made regarding 
the height of buildngs in 
certain portions of the city, 
so that about Coplej' vSquare, 
for example, the buildings on 




DETAIL BY BUCHiMAN & FOX, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



107 



be carried to a height of one 
hundred and twenty-five 
feet by the simple process of 
setting it back a short dis- 
tance from the avenue build- 
ing line, while its neighbor 
immediately adjoining can go 
only seventy feet. It is a 
great pity that the clauses in 
the building law which re- 
late to the height of build- 
ings cannot be fundamentally 
modified. The city has just 
passed through quite a boom 
in the erection of office build- 
ings. Unfortunately the 
greater portion of these have 
been financed by promoters 
whose chief interest was to 
crowd the greatest amount 
of rental space on to the lot, 
and as the height in each 
case is restricted to one hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet, the 
more recent buildings have 
all been made eleven 
stories, reducing the clear 
height of the offices in some 
cases to less than eight feet 
and a half. The experience in 
every other city in the coun- 
try has shown that ten feet 
is none too much, and any 





GYMNASIUM AND AUDITORIUM FOR UNIVERSITY OK CHICAC.O 

SETTLEMENT, CHICAGO. 

Dwiglit H. Perkins, Architect. 




BOVS' CLUB, PAWTUCKET, R. I. 
Stone, Carpenter & Willson. Architects. 



ers and builders that 
the limitation should 
be a relative rather 
than absolute one. 
The best solution of 
tlie problem we have 
seen is that offered by 
Mr. Carrere to the New 
York legislature some 
years since, proposing 
that the height of a 
building should be re- 
stricted so as not to 
extend at any point in 
the lot above a line 
drawn from the prop- 
erty line on the oppo- 
site side of the street, 
making an angle of 
sixty degrees with the 
horizontal. This would 
permit of structures 
being carried to any 
desired height, pro- 
vided only that as the 
height was increased 
the building or por- 
tions of it at lea.st be 
correspondingly set 
l)ack from the line. 
Such a provision would 
have two beneficial 
effects: it would ab- 
solutely prevent the 



DETAIL HY WINSLOW & 
BIGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, Makers. 



one who has had the pleasure of 
working for years in offices with a 
height of eleven or twelve feet 
can readily appreciate how disa- 
greeably oppressive is the effect 
of the modern low studding. It 
would be an excellent move if the 
statutory limitation could be made 
either one hundred and twenty 
feet, which would effectually pre- 
vent anything more than ten 
stories, or else one hundred and 
thirty feet, which would permit 
of eleven stories far better than 
are at present possible. 

As regards the height of build- 
ings, we .share the conviction of 
many architects, real estate own- 



stifling, canon-like treatment 
which is becoming so marked in 
cities like New York and Chicago, 
and it would tend to encourage 
consolidations of interest and 
building of a few large structures 
rather than .several very small 
ones. 



NEW YORK BUILDING 
DEPARTMENT. 

MR. PEREZ M. STEWART, 
who for several years has 
acted as a most efficient head of 
the building department f)f New 
York City, has been summarily 
removed by Cantor, the president 
of the borough of Manhattan. 




DETAIL HY WILLIAM 

W. ROSE, ARCHITECT. 

American Terra-Cotta and 
Ceramic Company, Makers. 



io8 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




REPRESENTATIVE TYPE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL BUILDING. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta furnished for about twenty such buildings during 

past two years by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

One of the New York papers, commenting- on this 
action, has very fitting!}- described the New York build- 
ing law as one of the most efficient vehicles for muni- 
cipal corruption that has ever been devised. According 
to the law there is not a building regulation which cannot 
be temporarily or locally waived at the discretion of the 
inspector, and he also has the right of passing upon mate- 
rials, refusing to accept or giving a preference for what- 
ever he sees fit. The large contractors and building com- 
panies which have been formed during the past few years 
have often been charged with a perfect readiness to contrib- 
ute liberally to the municipal authorities, provided such 
contribution will expedite building operations or make the 
task of building an easier one. And there is no doubt 




that such contributions have been made on a large scale 
to many who have been in the past connected with the 
building department. It is greatly to Mr. Stewart's 
credit, however, that no such charges have been brought 
against him and that he leaves his office with a clean 
reputation. His removal seems to be due chiefly to 
politics. 



NEW YORK. 



There probably never was a time in our history when 
the architects and builders of New York have been so 
busy as they are now. There is work for every one, and 
even the " journeyman draughtsman " is happy as he flits 
from one office to another, holding his position for a 
month at a time, never longer, but always employed. 




THE IROgUOIS APARTMENTS, PITTSBURfi. 

P. J. Osterling, Architect. 

Faced with "Ironclay" Brick, made by Ironclay Brick 

Company, Columbus, Ohio. 



DEAN BUILDING, BOSTON. 
Built of Kittanning Bull Brick. Fiske & Co., Boston Agents. 

The Architcriural Record in commenting on the late-st 
" aberration " makes an appropriate simile which is worth 
quoting. After commenting on the modern tendency to 
design a beautiful fa(^ade for a building and to leave the 
sides and rear bare and uninteresting, it says: "vSo would 
the fabled ostrich behave, if the ostrich were an architect, 
excepting that the ostrich tries to conceal as much as pos- 
sible of his front elevation, forgetting that his rear eleva- 
tion is still visible and conspicuous, while the architect 
makes his front elevation as conspicuous as may be, trust- 
ing that nobody will observe the rest of his awkward anat- 
omy. " 

Two great modern fireproof hotels for Broadway, an 
eleven-story office and loft building for Twenty-third 
Street, a twelve-story apartment hotel for the Boulevard, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



109 



and last, but not least, a twenty-story 
office building on the site of the old Trinity 
Building, in Broadway, are enterprises 
which are to begin at once under the aus- 
pices of the United States Realty and Con- 
struction Company. 

The combined engineering societies of 
New York are to have a new home to cost 
about $600,000. This is made possible by 
the generosity of Andrew Carnegie, who has 
offered to pay for a building to cost $1,000,000 
if necessary. 

It is about time that this city had a city 
hall or municipal building large enough to 
contain all the city departments, which are 
now scattered in rented offices all over the 

HOI 

city. There have been many schemes sug- 
gested, but it seems to be the universal 
sentiment that the present city hall, which 
is a beautiful specimen of architecture, should remain 
as it is, and that a new building should be built up 
around it. 

There has been one really fine scheme presented 





AT CINCINNATI, OHIO. Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

Roofed with American S Tile. 



for the solution of the problem in this way in the plans 
made by the late Charles B. Atwood some ten or twelve 
years ago. Nothing which has since been proposed 
can equal this in any way. A wild and absurd design 
appeared in one of our monthly magazines 
recently, in an article by Mr. Cantor, the 
president of the borough. The architect's 
name was not signed to the sketch, and wisely. 

Petit & Green have formed a partncrshij) 
with Henry P. Kirby, one of the best and most 
celebrated draughtsmen of the day. The firm 
has on the boards plans for a twenty-four story 
office building for the New York Journal, and 
also a large hotel to be built in P>rooklyn. 



Clinton & Russell seem to be very busy. 
They are drawing plans for an eleven-story 
store and loft building to be erected on the 
southwest corner of Twenty-third Street and 
Fourth Avenue, the site of the old Young 
Men's Christian Association headciuarters. 
The Association has vacated the building and 
will soon occupy their new home on Twenty- 
third Street, planned by Parish & Schroeder. 
Clinton & Russell are also preparing plans 
for a twelve-story hotel to be erected on the 
southeast corner of Broadway and Twenty- 
ninth Street, the site of the old Sturtcvant 
House. The new building will be in the style 
of the French Renaissance, and will resemble 
the new Hotel Astor on Longacrc Scpuire. 
The .same architects are working on plans for 
a twelve-story apartment house to be erected 
at the corner of Broadway and Sixty-ninth 
Street. 



IN GENERAL. 



HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. Grosvcnor Attcrbury, Architect. 

Built of Ridgway " Dutch" Brick, Robert C. Martin & Son, New York Agents. 



Ward c't Turner, architects, are associated 
with Olin W. Cutter in the building of the new 
courthouse at Utica, N. V., illustrations of 
which were given in Tmk P>kk:khuii.I)Kk for 
March. 



I lO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Cass Gilbert announces the removal of his New York 
office from 1 1 1 Fifth Avenue to 79 Wall Street. 

W. S. Ackerman and W. T. Partridge have formed a 
copartnership for the practice of architecture under the 
firm name of Ackerman & Partridge. Offices, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

Louis R. Christie, architect, vSteubenville, Ohio, has 
succeeded to the business of Christie & Webster, retain- 
ing the old firm's offices in the (lill Building. 

Monson & Schaub, architects, Logan, Utah, would 
like to receive manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

Uhling & Linde, architects, Milwaukee, Wis., have 
taken offices in the Wells Building and are desirous of re- 
ceiving manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

The Society of Beaux-Arts Architects has established 
a course of study for architectural draughtsmen, modeled 
on the sytsem adopted by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, with 
the intention of cultivating among them the principles of 
their art which the members of the society have learned 
in Paris. Any group of students may choose a master 




TTOUSF., DKTROIT, MICH. 
Mason *■ Rice, Architects. 
Roofed with Ludowici RoofinR Tile. 

under whom they wish to study, and under the auspices 
of the society they may exhibit their work done in com- 
petition with other groups of students studying under 
other masters. A jury drawn from members of the so- 
ciety will judge their work and give awards to the draw- 
ings which merit them. It is not the object of the society 
at present to provide a complete course in architecture, as 
this is done by several universities throughout the coun- 
try, but so to prepare draughtsmen in offices that they 
shall be familiar with the general principles of architec- 
tural composition in plan and in decoration, and a suffi- 
cient knowledge of archccology, or the study of styles, to 
enable them to discriminate between the different epochs 
of design. 

The course is divided into two classes: 

Class B, into which any one of either sex may enter 
without any preliminary examination. 

Class A, which the student reaches after having re- 
ceived certain awards in Class B. 

On completing the course, the society awards a cer- 



tificate of proficiency. 
The course is not lim- 
ited by time, the stu- 
dent being allowed to 
pursue his study at his 
own will or whenever 
he has the opportunity 
to do the work. 

The competitions 
of the society are ar- 
ranged just as at the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 
The students all 
present themselves at 
one time and place 
with T square, triangle 
and drawing board, 
and to every one is 
given the program 
of the current prob- 
lem. From midday 
till nine o'clock they 
are at liberty to study 

its conditions, and at that time they must hand in to 
the person in charge a small sketch of their solution, 
taking away a copy of their sketch with them. They 
then have two months to work up their sketch, and at 
the expiration of that time it must be delivered for exhi- 
bition and judgment. The drawings are shown for a 
week and the jury criticises and makes its awards. 

During the year there are given out five problems in 
plan, three in csijuissc-esquisscs or nine-hour competitions 
rendered iii logc and. two in archaeology; there is also a 
class in modeling, a class in. drawing from the cast, an 
examination in general history, and a competition for two 
prizes in planning. — - Lloyd Warren, Chairman Committee 
on Education, 3 East 33d Street, New York. 




GARDEN VASE. 

White-Brick and Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, 



Makers. 



THE SOCIETY OF BEAUX ARTS ARCHITECTS 

//AS /■.STAFi/./S///-:/) A /■/</:/: iOLKS/-: O/-' .S/ (/))', (>/V-.'.\' 

ru /)A'Aco//rsA//-:A- a\/) s/r/)/':x/s o/-' axy c/'/v, 
A/ o /)/■:/. /./■:/) ox rii/-: g/-:x/:rai. flax /TA'sf/-:/) at 

ri/K /-.CO/.E D/-: HEACX-A/i/S /X I\\ /{/S. AX /^ CO.U/'/k'/S- 
/Xa /■7y'E{)rEXy /'A'0/i/.E.\/.S /X 0A'/)EA'S. /JES/OXS. 

AA'c//.'Eo/oa )', E re. 

EOA' /X/-OA'.\/A/7(>X A/'/'/.V /O ////< SECA'E/'AA'y OF 
r//E CO.\/A//r/EE ox EDUCATIOX.jEASTjjDSTKEET, 

XEir voAA- c//y. 



DRAWING 



ARCHITECTURAL PERSPECTIVE MECHANICAL 

THE courses in Drawing are of especial value 
to office men and students. Correspondence 
courses are also offered in Electrical, Steam 
and Civil Enjjineering, Heating, Ventilation and 
Plumbing, Architecture, Carpentry and Building, and 
a full curriculum of other engineering courses. 

/« luliSilion to the rij^it/cir inslitiction papers, slutiiitls 
in full iiigiiiitiiu^ roursi-s arf /iiniis/iicl it /W/uii- 
iiil A'l'/'rriiitr /.ihrary [in ten Tolii»ii\<) as a help in 
tluir sitiiiiis. Ill ill- at oncifor tiiliilinfii,-. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 

at 

ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JUNE, 

1903. 










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THE BRICKBVILDER 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTSOF 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN- MATERIALS • OF CLAY 



VOL 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHI.NG COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed rt.it to subscrbrrs in the United States and 

Canada ......... JS-oo per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union . . . . . .56.00 per year 

Subscriptions pay.\ble in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... 11 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled . . . Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ....... IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



STRIKE LOSSEvS. 

THE loss of money during the past year on account of 
strikes is something appalling. There .seems to be 
some perverse tendency in trade unions which will not al- 
low them to keep quiet while times are good and the work- 
men have an opportunity to earn money and which com- 
pels them to order a strike or somehow or other insist 
ujoon a snarl with employers ju.st about the time when for 
every economic reason the workmen should be busily em- 
ployed and laying up a store for the dull time which is 
sure to come in the future. The strikes which are now 
under way in New York City, it is estimated, have in 
thirty-two days tied Lip capital amounting to over two 
hundred million and involved a loss in wages to the work- 
men of something over thirteen million dollars, simply 
because of the persistence of the Board of Building Trades 
in supporting the unreasonable demands of a small union 
of un.skilled men, the Building Material Drivers' Union. 
As to the right or wrong of these demands we would not 
undertake to say, but it would be useless to deny that 
mechanics about a building are to-day paid such wages 
that there ought to be no question of .strike on that .score. 
Bricklavers who, only a few years since, considered them- 



selves well paid at tliirty-five cents an hour are now re- 
ceiving sixty-five and threaten to strike unless they get 
seventy. Plasterers are receiving five dollars a day, and 
the helpers, who can hardly rank as more than common 
laborers, three dollars and a half. Carpenters, plumbers 
and ironworkers receive four dollars and a half a day. 
What all these strikes will ultimately lead to is a question 
no one can determine, but the action of the General Con- 
tractors' Association in New York, in combining to pro- 
tect themselves against the bad faith and extortion as 
])ractised by the workmen and by the imions, shows that 
there is a limit which might easily be reached, and that 
if wages advance very much more the inevitable result 
will be a general shutdown of all the building trades. 



HOSPITAL PLANNING. 

THE series of articles which Mr. Flagg has written 
for The Brickkuilder, which are now appearing in 
serial form, relating to the jjlanning of hospitals, empha- 
sizes one point which is too fretiuently overlooked in the 
design of our modern structures of this sort, namely, 
the fact that at the best a hosjiital is a compromise, and 
that if the conditions could be ideal sick peojile instead of 
being brought together would be isolated entirely. The 
common ward in which from twenty to forty or fifty peo- 
ple are aggregated has absolutely nothing to recommend 
it except econoiuy. Mr. Flagg calls attention to the 
mediaival hospital at Tonnerre, which in every resjject of 
privacy is certainly far better than the most modern of 
our hos])itals. In our endeavors to make our wards what 
we term germ-proof and to eliminate any fancied lurking 
places for noxious germs we do not always succeed in 
making the rooms attractive or of a nature which will 
hel]) the patient to hel]) himself by setting his mind at 
rest in peaceful, congenial surroundings. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

THE University of Pennsylvnnia announces that M. 
Paul P. Cret will become assistant professor of de- 
sign in the {School of Architecture U])on the opening of 
the next session. M. Cret is a native of Lyons, a jjrize 
graduate from the Lyons Fine Art School, and entered 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris in 1897, ranking num- 
ber one among the candidates admitted. He received the. 
Grande Medaille d'Emulation for 1900 and 1901, and is 
Architecte Uiplome par le Gouvernement Fran^ais. He 
comes to his new field of work with the highest recom- 
mendations of his ])rofessional a.s.sociates, both com])atri()t 
and American. M. Pascal, his patron, gives him his dis- 
tinguished and uufiualified indorsement. 



112 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



BRUCE PRICE. 

BY the dcatli of Mr. Bruce Price, which occurred a few 
day.s .since in Pari.s, the profc.s.sion lo.se.s a very 
illustrious member. Mr. Price was essentially a self-edu- 
cated man, and one of the most instructive addresses we 
ever heard was a talk he made to the Boston Architectural 
Club a numljcr of years since, in the course of which he 
described his early struffs^les to olitain an architectural 
education, and pictured his own lack of the helps which 
are now so readily within the reach of every student. 
He was born in Cumberland, Md., in 1845, '^"^ beg^an 
his professional work in the ofifice of Mr. Niernse'e. He 
was in the late seventies recognized as a brilliant archi- 
tect with great j^ossibilities for original work. It was 
not, however, until 
some |f if teen or 
twenty years later 
that his work found 
its best ex])ression. 
About iSyo he mack- 
plans for a build- 
ing for the New 
York S////, in whicli 
he carried out in the 
most clever manner 
an adai)talion of the 
spirit of the Cam- 
panile of St. Mark's. 
The design attracted 
a great deal of atten" 
tion and really 
marked a distinct 
change in the man- 
ner of designing ex- 
cessively tall build- 
ings, the structure 
being treated as a 
tower with distinct 
base, shaft and 
crowning capital. 
Later on a modifi- 
cation of the san.e 
idea was develoj^ed 
into the design for 
the building of the 
American Surety '"^'^' 

Com])any, which can fairly take rank as in many respects 
the most consistent and certainly the most interesting 
tall building in this country. His name is also associated 
with the remarkal)le group of buildings which he designed 
near Lakewood for Mr. George Ciould. The St. James 
Building in New York, O.sborn Hall at Yale University, 
the station of the Canadian Pacific Railroad in Mon- 
treal, and the extremely successful and ]Mctures(jue hotel 
in Ouebec known as the Chateau I^'rontcnac, are only 
a few of the many imi)ortant structures which he was 
called upon to construct. Mr. Price's work was always 
characterized by great purity and refinement in all the 
details, and though during the later years of his life his 
business increased to a remarkable extent, he always put 
his personal imprint upon everything which left his 
office, .so that there is a consistency throughout in his 



buildings. With the exception of a .short partnership with 
Mr. Freeman and an earlier partnership with Mr, Baldwin, 
he was alone in business until about a year ago, when Mr. 
J. H. de Sibour was admitted to the firm. Mr. Price has 
been president of the New York Architectural League, 
and was identified with everything which stood for 
progress in the arts. Notwithstanding his large business 
he w-as always ready to speak a kind word to a young 
man, and many will remember him with feelings of grati- 
tude for the help he has given to l)eginners. 



P 




PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE. 

ROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE has retired from 
the directorshi]) of the Architectural Department of 

Columbia Univer- 
sity, of which he 
has been the head 
for twenty-two 
years. The i)osition 
Professor Ware has 
occupied has been 
unicjue. It is safe 
to say that nearly 
every jirominent 
architect in this 
country over thirty- 
five years of age, 
and a vast number 
who are under that 
age, owe the greater 
])art of their archi- 
tectural education 
cither directly or in- 
directly to him. He 
created the Archi- 
tectural Dc])art- 
ment of tlic Massa- 
chusetts Institute 
of Tcclinology in 
1867, and guided its 
grtnvth for sixteen 
years. During that 
period there was no 
other architectural 
school in the country 
'"'''"-''■■• which could at all 

comjiarc with it. and the list of the names of those who 
have gone out from its ranks, couj)led with thf)se who ha\-e 
studied under and learned from Profcs.sor Ware's students, 
makes a roll of honor of which the jjrofessiim may be proud 
and in which Professor Ware can feel a strong creative 
interest. Probably no one man is so well and so favor- 
ably known to the ])rofessi()n. While in partnershi]) with 
Mr. Henry Van Brunt the firm did the largest and most 
successful business in Boston, including such structures as 
the Memorial Hall at Harvard, which in its way is one 
of the best of the university buildings. During the 
later years he has been tacitly acknowledged as a sort 
of general referee for all matters architectural, and has 
assisted in a great number of c(jmpetitions both as ad- 
viser and judge, invariably winning the esteem of all 
upon whose work he has been called to pass. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 1 



The Planning of Hospitals. 

{Colli /mltii.) 
BY ERNEST KLAG(;. 

IN the plans of French hospitals one will generally 
find beauty of arrangement combined with practical 
common sense and convenience. The logical bent of the 
French mind, with the artistic training which every 
French architect receives, is well calculated to produce 
good results. Figures 17 and 18 arc typical French 
plans, admirable alike from the hygienic and artistic 
.standpoints. 

When hospitals are built in the midst of cities where 
land is expensive and where the area available is re- 
stricted and the wants are large, as is usually the case, 
the problem of hospital planning becomes more difficult, 
and the planner will have need of an uncommon endow- 
ment of intelligence and ingenuity to comply even im- 
perfectly with the hygienic requirements without making 
what is thought to be too great a sacrifice of space, and in 
the number of beds. Under such circumstances it is too 
often the custom here to revert to the old block plan and 
to rely upon aseptic solutions and artificial ventilation to 
offset its bad qualities. 

Figure 19 represents a type of plan used by the writer 
on very expensive land. The central block represents 
the Administration Building and the others the outlying 
pavilions, wards, etc. The buildings are all several 
stories high ; the only staircases are in the Administra- 
tion Building; the.se occupy the two lateral semicircular 
projections, and are within easy reach of the other pavil- 
ions. As there are no stairs or elevator shafts in the 
ward pavilions, and as great care was taken to make the 
floors air-tight, there is little chance of the air from one 
of the lower wards finding its way into one above. 
The connection between the Administration Building 
and the outlying pavilions is made at each floor level by 
diagonal jDassages open on both sides so that the air can 
circulate freely through them and around each pavilion, 
thus forming complete fresh air cut-offs, permitting the 
isolation of any ward or group of wards at pleasure. 
For the protection of the inmates in inclement weather 
each of these passages is fiirnished with a low covered 
way not high enough to interfere too much with the 
cross circulation of the air. This covered way is roofed 
and glazed and fitted with a contrivance which automati- 
cally opens a sash on its leeward side. Figure 20 rep- 
resents a transverse section through one of these passages 
on one of the stories; "a" is the passage, "b" is the 
movable sash on the windward side, and "c" the corre- 
sponding sa.sh on the leeward side. This sash remains 
open in the manner indicated, held there by the pressure 
of the wind on sash "b"; "d " is the floor above, and 
"e" the floor below, the full story height being indi- 
cated by "f. " Figure 21 is an elevation of the same 
passage, the semicircular part of the opening being un- 
obstructed for free passage of air as indicated by the 
arrows of Figure 20. 

On expensive land the four-row arrangement of beds 
for wards will be found to have peculiar advantages. For 
instance, let us suppose a given plot of restricted dimen- 
sions, upon which it is desired to obtain as large a num- 



ber of wards as possible. Let Figure 22 represent such 
a plot. Suppose we place upon it four wards of the ordi- 
nary kind for twenty beds each, as shown in Figure 23. 
Now suppose we place upon it the same number of wards 
of the other kind also for twenty beds each, as shown in 
Figure 24. Any one can see at a glance what an immense 
saving is effected in construction and how much more 
serviceable the two large shallow courts " a " of Figure 24 
are for the proper lighting of the wards than are the three 
narrow courts " a" of Figure 23. It might even be pos- 
sible to place six wards of this .sort on the plot, as shown 
in Figure 25, and still have them better lighted than those 
of F'igure 23, because although the courts are of the 
same width on both plans, those of Figure 25 are shal- 
lower and there is more chance for the light to enter the 
windows of the wards. This would seem to indicate an 
economy of fifty per cent in favor of the wide wards 
over those of the ordinary kind, as regards land occupied, 
and there would probal)ly be a corresponding saving in 
the cost of construction. 

Having determined the general arrangement of the 
plan, the architect's next care should be to decide upon 
the system of ventilation. The artificial ventilating sy.s- 
tcm is a matter second only in importance to the general 
arrangement, and should receive attention and be in- 
corporated into the plan at the very outset. It is too 
often a matter with which the architect does not much 
concern himself, and which is turned over to the venti- 
lating expert after the preliminary plans are finished, 
to be installed by him as best he can. No place has been 
set aside or provided for the necessary ducts, and the 
expert is free to avail himself of any odd corners he 
can find or to make chases in the external walls where 
that can l)e done without too greatly weakening the 
piers. Sometimes the ducts have to be exposed, which 
is always unsightly and sometimes unsanitary, as the 
spaces between them and the walls and ceilings afford 
lodging places for dust and dirt. Under these conditions 
the ventilating engineer must necessarily w<jrk at a 
disadvantage, which is doubtless the cause of the un- 
satisfactory, complicated and unsanitary ventilating 
systems found in some of our most expensive hospitals. 
If the ventilating system is to be successful it should 
above all things be simple, which most of them are not. 
Vertical discharge flues of ample proportions should be 
provided, easj' to clean and not in the exterior walls, 
where they are liable to be chilled and to work backwards 
u])on any stoppage of the fans. Horizontal ducts should 
be avoided wherever possible, and when they are used 
care should be taken to arrange them .so tliat they can 
be cleaned. Floor registers should not lie used, nor 
should any system which works in a direction contrary 
to nature. vSome hospitals have ventilating systems 
which draw the air down into the basement before 
it is discharged. Any such system must call for a large 
amount of horizontal ducts difficult to clean. It stands 
to rea.son that such ducts will soon accumulate ([uantities 
of hosj)ital dust; then if anything ha])pcns to the ma- 
chinery or if the fans are stopped for any cau.sc the 
natural tendency of the system is to work backwards, 
and air enters the hospital after having passed through 
ducts coated perhaps with di.sea.se germs. 

It is amazing to see to what an extent theory takes 



114 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIG. 17. PLAN OF HOTEL DIEU, PARIS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



'15 




CO 

6 



ii6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




precedence of practical common sense in the 
arrangement of ventilating systems for hos- 
pitals. Very respectable authorities gravely 
argue that the exhaust ventilating ducts 
should be located in the floor under each 
patient's bed, on the theory that the air he 
exhales may be thus drawn down and dis- 
charged without passing over the bed of any 
other patient, and such systems are often 
put in at great expense. One would think 
that any one could see that no power short 
of a small whirlwind would accomplish the 
desired result, but if he were in doubt, a 
little smoke of the same temperature as the 
breath discharged from the place where the 
patient's head is to lie would afford a suffi- 
ciently convincing demonstration of the 
utter fallacy of the theory. Systems of 
this kind are apt to become a menace to the health of 
the institution; dust and dirt readily find entrance 
through the floor registers, and if great care is not taken 
the ducts will soon be very fonl. 

One often wonders why the open fireplace is .so little 
used in hospital wards. It is the mo.st simple and best 
of all ventilating agents. It cheers the ward, benefits 
the patients, and purifies all foul atoms which are drawn 
into it. With a properly constructed chimney, an open 
fireplace may be made to do an immense amount of ven- 
tilating, besides discharging the air which is drawn into 
it over the fire. The writer has an arrangement in his 
own house whereby every open fireplace, when lighted, 
is made to ventilate several rooms besides the one in 

which the fire 
is burning. 
The contriv- 
ance is simple 
and inexpen- 
s i V e , and 
might easily 
be applied to 
hospital 
22. wards, espe- 



cially to tho.se of small hospitals in coimtry places where 
an electric current to operate the ventilating fans either 
cannot be had or is too expensive. Figure 26 repre- 
sents a section through one of the chimneys spoken of. 
Figi:re 27 is a plan at the level "a," and F'igure 28 a plan 
at the level "b"; " c " is the fireplace. For about two- 
thirds of the way up, the chimney is divided into a 
number of flues, some serving for fireplaces and some 
for ventilation ; the upper third is in one large fine, into 
which all the other flues discharge. When a fire is 
lighted in the fireplace "c," all the ventilating flues 
begin to operate, and the suction is soon so great that if 
a pocket handkerchief were spread out on one of the 
exhaust registers it will be held in place. 

The method of taking in fresh air is not so important 
as that of exhaust, for there is not the same danger of 
contamination by foul ducts; but if the fresh air is taken 
in below and heated before entering the rooms, care should 
be taken not to draw it from directly oft' the ground, as is 
often done. It should be taken from a height of at least 

six or eight feet above the 
ground, and the higher the 
better, as the air will be purer 
and more free from dust and 
other impurities than if taken 
from near the ground. For 




Sectt 



ton. 



this reason, and also 
as a matter of econ- 
omy, there is much to 
recommend what is 
called the "direct- 
indirect " system, or 
the taking in of the 
air by openings at each 
floor level and passing 
it through box-base 
ventilating radiators, 
or by some other 
method heating it as 
it enters. But where 
this system is used 
there must be cflicient 
valves for regulating 
the intake, and there 
is danger that nurses 
will use them to close 
the supply altogether. 
It is surprising to see 
how little many nurses 
and physicians under- 




ELlev2\-t:iorTL 




PavSS&vOe- 



1 m l==»fe 



PI 



^Kr-\ 



!■ 11.. J 1 . 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



II' 




FIG. 23. 



Stand or care 
for ventila- 
tion. Any 
one who has 
had mnch to 
do with lios- 
}) i t a 1 s will 
recall nnmer- 
ous instance-s 
of costly and 
efficient ventilating- systems which are either habitnally 
out of use or altogether abandoned and standing idle, 
but of course this is not the architect's fault. If possible, 
both the ventilating and heating systems ought to be 
under thermostatic control. A plant of this kind installed 
at St. Luke's Hospital, New York, works so well that one 
of the nurses complained to the superintendent about the 
thermometers of the wards; she said she was sure they 
were out of order, for she had been watching them for 
weeks and they never moved at all. 





Cor 



L<lor- 





Flu. 24. 

Some writers argue that the cross sections of wards 
should be in the form of a pointed arch, as shown in Fig- 
ure 29. They arg^ue that the air from the patients' lungs, 
being warmer than the surrounding air, has a tendency 
to rise, and care should be taken not to interfere with its 
progress upward until it escapes through an aperture 
along the ridge. This upward tendency, they say, may 
be facilitated by making openings along the sides under 
the eaves, so that air striking the sides of the building 
may be forced upward between the inner and outer cover- 
ing of the roof until it escapes at the ridge, drawing with 
it the air from the interior. While it is undoubtedly true 




that this arrangement would work well in mild weather, 
and that this form of interior aids wonderfully in facili- 
tating natural ventilation, it is ecpially true that it would 
not work well in cold weather, when ventilation is most 
needed. At such times all the heated air would immedi- 
ately escape from the top, and its place be taken l)y a cat- 



aract of cold air falling 
from the ridge. Wards of 
this sort are practical, 
therefore, only in warm 
climates. 

The best method of 
ventilating the wards, in 
our climate at least, seems 
to be to draw off the viti- 
ated air through one or 
more apertures placed 
close to the floor, but not 
in the floor, opening into 
simple vertical ducts or 
aspirating flues, smooth 
on the inside and having 
a door at their base, so 
that they can be readily 
cleaned. The openings in- 
to the shaft are placed near 
tlie floor for the reason 
that the incoming fresh 
heated air lies near the 
ceiling, and as it gradually 
becomes cooled it falls. 
The air which has liecn 

longest in the room, being the coolest, lies nearest the 
floor and should be drawn off; the taking away of this cool 
stratum luis a tendency to draw down the warm air and 
thus equalize the heat. It is best that the fresh heated 
air should be admitted at a point near the ceiling, so that 
it may not mi.\ with the stale air near the floor. Where 
the direct-indirect system of heating is used the coils may 
either be suspended near the ceiling or else placed on the 
floor and encased with a metallic or other covering, having 
an outlet near the ceiling. Writers do not all agree upon 




2(). 



^n 



PI2^n at- V PI 



2\-n. dv 



t ^^k>" 



jS. 



the amount of air which should be furnished for each 
patient per hour, but they do agree that there cannot be 
too much. Parkes .says : " There can be no doubt that the 
necessity for an unlimited supply of air is the cardinal 
consideration in the erection of hospitals, and in fact must 
govern the construction of the buildings. For many dis- 
ea.ses, especially the acute, the merest hovels with ])lcnty 
of air are better than the most costly hos])itals without it." 
After the ventilation the next matter of imjiortance to 
consider is the manner of construction and the choice of 
materials. For the exterior of course anything will do, 
but as it is desiraVjle to give the buildings as cheerful an 
appearance as possible, it is best to choose some light- 
colored substance for the walls. Light-colored materials 
also have the advantage of reflecting more of the sun's 
rays, thus making the interior somewhat cooler in sum- 
mer than if the exterior covering were dark. One very 
important matter is the damp-proofing. This should be 
extended across the cellar floor, through the walls and 
up the outside of them to the ground level. It is very 



ii8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




Ku;. 29. 



usual to take this pre- 
caution for almost all 
kinds of buildings in the 
larger eastern cities, but 
in smaller towns and in 
the South and West it is 
not so common. For 
hospitals it ought never 
to be omitted. If this 
precaution is not taken 
it would be better to 
omit the cellar altogeth- 
er, at least under the 
ward pavilions. Most 



people have a mistaken notion that a cellar adds to the 
healthfulness of a building, while the contrary is the 
truth imless it has been damp-proofed. 

When the Back Bay district of Boston was first laid 
out, many people were afraid to live in the houses because 
they could have no cellars, but experience soon demon- 
strated that they were the most healthful in the city. 
There is always a great deal of moisture in any soil, even 
the driest. If it were not so, trees and other vegetation 
could not exist. A growing tree recjuires an immense 




1?. 






E.-lK«riim$ 



_L 



COSA R»orr, 



1^ L_' 






Corrvclor 
FIG. 30. PLAN OK OPEK.'VTIXG PAVILION. 

amount of moisture, which it can extract from what ap- 
pears to be very dry earth. One often hears people say 
their cellars are "as dry as a bone," but they are mis- 
taken if the walls and floor have ncjt been damp-proofed. 
The walls are always damp if they are in contact with 
the earth, and these walls are constantly giving off moist- 
ure into the cellar. When a masonry wall is in con- 
tact with the earth, it acts as blotting paper does when 
the edge is dipped in water; the moisture is carried up 
it by molecular or capillary attraction. General Viele 
held that this moisture could be carried to the top of a 
wall of almost any height. Most people do not realize 
it, but it is true that we breathe a great deal of cellar air 
in almost all our houses, especially in the winter when 
the furnace is going. If any one wants a convincing 
demonstration of this, let him create a smoke in his cel- 
lar and see how soon it will be noticed on the floors 
above. It is therefore es.sential that all cellars should 
be wholesome, and doubly so in the case of hospitals. 

For the interior finish of the building it is important 
that the substances used should be non-absorbent and 
easy to clean. Great care should be taken to avoid all 
projecting moldings or other sharp corners and angles 
which are hard to clean, by rounding them. 

For the walls perhaps no better material can be had 



than any one of the several brands of hard plaster in 
general use, painted with enamel paint ; they are then 
non-absorbent and easy to clean. The ideal floor for a 
hospital has yet to be invented. Such a floor would be 
one of about the density of wood, easy for the feet, 
non-absorbent, which could be put down in a plastic state 
and the edges coved up to meet the plaster. Several 
makes of cement floor which meet all but one of these re- 
quirements have recently been put on the market; 
they fail, however, in being absorbent, and are therefore 
useless for the purpose. Dr. Langstaff of Soiithampton, 
England, recommended a paraffin treatment for wooden 
floors, which certainly worked well where it was tried in 
England. Whether it would work ecpially well in this cli- 
mate, and with our method of heating which tends to make 
the wood expand or contract at diff^erent seasons, is, so 
far as the writer knows, yet to be determined. The 
paraffin is put on in a melted state, and ironed into the 
grain and joints with a box iron heated with burning 
charcoal. It is said to penetrate about a quarter of an 
inch into the wood. The excess of paraffin is scraped off 
and the floor is brushed with a hard bru.sh, a little paraffin 
and turpentine are then put on, and the floor is good for 
years ; at least this is the experience at the Southampton 
Infirmary where the method has long been in use. It 
may be that the same treatment applied to the cement 
floors spoken of might render them non-absorbent. 

It is not, however, within the scope of this paper to 
consider in detail the various aseptic materials or methods 
which can be used to advantage, or to discuss the best 
sanitary appliances and their use. To do so would re- 




I'u;. 31. 

quire a volume. It was simply the intention of the writer 
to speak in a general way of some of the more important 
features common to all hospitals. This is an age of spe- 
cialties. We have all sorts of hospitals, — -hospitals for 
women, hospitals for babies, cancer hospitals, eye and ear 
hospitals, lying-in hospitals, etc., — each one of which re- 
quires of the planner special study. All large general hos- 
pitals and most other kinds are made up of many distinct 
parts or buildings, each one of which also re(piires careful 
study for its proper arrangement; there is the nurses' home, 
the out-patients' department, the obstetrical department, 
the pathological building, the administration pavilion, the 
steward's department, lodgings for the employees, etc. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



I 19 



We have considered, in a general way, the wards, their 
arrangement and planning. It may not be amiss to say 
a few words about the operating department. There is 
no part of a hospital where more money is usually spent 
than here. Of course no possible precaution should be 
left untried to make the surroundings as aseptic as possi- 
ble, but the means employed, althongh they may be the 
most costly, are not always the best. Many of the mate- 
rials used are more antiseptic in appearance than in 
reality. Marble doors, as heavy and hard to open as 
those of a safe, are often used, in spite of the fact that 
wooden ones, varnished, are much less absorbent, and 
that a surgeon ready to operate should not be obliged to 
handle a heavy door or, in fact, anything el.se. The 
doors ought to be so light and nicely balanced that they 
can be opened by a touch of the elbow. Tile floors, 
although they may look well and seem easy to clean, are 
really full of joints which are objectionable. Floors cov- 
ered with sheet lead have been suggested for operat- 
ing rooms, and although this does not sound very 
attractive, there is really a good deal to be said in its 
favor. It is smooth, need have no joints, is easy to clean, 
is noiseless, can be coved up to meet the wall surfaces, is 
non-absorbent, and is not affected by any of the acids 
used in an operating room. The only thing against it 
seems to be its appearance. 

The arrangement of the operating department is a 
matter about which surgeons are very particular, and un- 
less the planner has had a good deal of experience he is 
apt to have unpleasant things said about his work. For 
private operations the room need not be more than eight- 
een feet square. The lighting should be from the north. 
This side of the room should be practically entirely of 
glass, starting from abot:t three feet from the floor; the 
window should be vertical for about three feet more, then 
slope back at an angle of about sixty degrees until it 
meets the ceiling, so that the operating table may be 
placed close under the light. The panes should be large 
and set in thin metallic muntins. There should be a 
room for the operating surgeons, opening from the oper- 
ating room, with a light fly door which can be opened 
with a touch. This room should have a shower bath and 
basins with faucets and stoppers which can be oper- 
ated by the feet. In large hospitals there should be 
another room for the house surgeons, the room for in- 
struments and bandages and the sterilizing room should 
both open from the operating room, and the latter should 
connect with the nurses' workroom. The etherizing room 
and the recovery room should open directly from the cor- 
ridor. 

In operating theaters as generally planned the lighting 
is bad. Some operating theaters have glass roofs, but 
this makes the room too hot in summer, and the light is 
too high up. 

Figures 30 and 3 1 represent a plan and a section of 
an operating theater and its dependencies arranged toover- 
come these difficulties. The lighting is the same as that 
recommended for the private operating room ; a strong 
light is obtained for the operating table without interfer- 
ing much with the comfort of the spectators in the am- 
phitheater. The dependencies are arranged so as to bring 
each into convenient relationshij) with the others and 
with the operating room. 



Hints on Design in lY^ra-Cotta. 

HV I'. WAdNK.K. 

TERRA COTTA has characteristic (jualitics which 
distinguish it from stone. Some will try to hide 
them and imitate stone; the artist will emphasize them. 
The former get results which are "almost as good as 
stone"; the latter creates terra-cotta architecture. 




SUHSTITUTE FOR THK I'URE CI.ASSICAI. ri.UTK AND I'l I.I.KT. 

Terra-cotta is in many respects a better Iniilding mate- 
rial than stone, and there is no good reason for conceal- 
ing its identity; but on the contrary the more it asserts its 
specific qualities in a design the better is the result. 




SECTION THROt'GH A MAIN COKMCE. 

Lookouts A held clown by contimious L, B and rods C. D is a 
wall plate. Modillions are suspended frnm JDokouls A, by means of 
clips and hangers. 

As compared with stone, terra-cotta jiresents the fol- 
lowing characteristics : 

rirst. It has but one surface, which once destroyed can 
never be restored. This precludes the dressing of exposed 
surfaces of the finished ware. 



N<)i K. -The aceoinjianyinK illustrations were furnished by terra- 
cotta manufacturers and are considered by them to be good examples 
of terra-cotta construction. 



120 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




su(;(;ksti()n for 'ierka-cotta entrance — elenaik^n. 



Second. It has a tendency to warp during the process 
of drying and burning. This tendency increases almost 
as the square of the larger axis, but decreases with the 
cross section. For this reason twelve-inch moldings can 



be made longer than four-inch moldings. In order to be 
filled with brick and for other practical reasons terra- 
cotta is usually open on the back. This, together with 
the irregular profiles of moldings, etc., increases the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



12 I 



I 




mwm'/'!'}f//mi'/ 



X7n. /i 






:r:fr 




;j^^ 




£^ 



' ■)) 



ten by twenty-four inches, althc^nijli for cornices and para- 
pets, where slight defects are not noticeable, larger sizes 
may be nsed. 

The comparative shortness of pieces led to tlie roll or 
lip joint for exposed washes, and this is a feature charac- 
teristic of terra-cotta. Many designers try to hide it, but 
it would be better to give it an artistic treatment and em- 
phasize it. 

Third. The size of tcrra-cotta decreases almost an inch 
to the foot from the time it is molded until it is burned. 
This shrinkage is carefully determined by experiment 
and provided for in making the molds; but it is al- 
ways subject to slight variations, which are practi- 
cally beyond human control: These deviations from 
the calculated shrinkage are approximately in pro- 
portion with the size of the pieces. In very long pieces, 
which are set up on end in the kiln, the weight assists 
the tendency to contraction, while the friction counteracts 
it to some extent on the ends upon which the j^ieces rest 
while drying and burning. In order to reduce these vari- 
ations in shrinkage and the resulting imperfect alignment 
of the adjoining pieces to a minimum, the moldings should 




so F Kir PLAN OK CORNICE AT TOP OI' FRIEZE. 




SOFFIT PLAN SHOWINC, PANEL IN ENTAHLATURF 



SECTION BETWEEN END 

PILASTER AND COLUMN, 

LOOKING TOWARD 

PEDIMENT. 




SECTION THROUGH 
CENTER. 



PLAN THR0U(;H PILASTER AND COLUMN. 

DETAILS,, SUGGESTION FOR A TERRA-COTTA ENTRANCE. 



chances for waqjing. Circular columns, in which the 
tension is uniform in all directions, can therefore be 
made much longer, the practical limit being about ten 
feet. Three feet is unusually long for a twelve by twelve 
inch molding, while about one-half that length is the 
limit for a four by four inch molding. A plain ashlar is 
also open on the back and is very apt to warp, so that 
good results can hardly be expected if the size exceeds 



be .so profiled that courses in clo.se proximity to the eye 
should not be more than twelve inches high, and the same 
holds good of the arises of moldings around jianels which 
cannot be separated. For work more remote from the 
eye this limit may be increased by about one-half. 

As a rule, columns over six feet high are divided 
horizontally into a number of drums, depending on the 
length of the shaft, and up to a diameter of about two 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



feet it is possible, with the greatest care and at consider- 
able expense, to make a fairly good fit of one drum upon 
the other, although a perfect fit can hardly be counted on 
when the diameter is more than sixteen inches. For 
columns more than two feet in diameter it becomes neces- 
sary to make vertical joints, in order to permit of the fit- 
ting and grinding of the v'arious pieces, so as to produce 
a perfect alignment of the fillets. The most convenient 
way for the architect is to use the classic column, putting 
the joints in the flutes; but in this way terra-cotta 



lines are impossible. If vertical joints are objectionable, 
projecting or receding bands can be inserted between 
such blocks, thereby hiding the variation in length ; or 
the ends of the blocks may be profiled so that the jamb 
can form a separate piece, then the ashlar between these 
jambs can be trimmed to proper size, and perfect joints 
and straight lines will be the result. 

h'oiirtli. Inasmuch as terra-cotta is nearly always 
made from molds, decorated surfaces can be obtained at 
a comparatively moderate cost. They not only enrich 




-t'lt- « .-/»-—!(! /'s---^ - —/.'i-'- k.—/V--it. 2:/f-'- — 

PLAN ATAB -*: PLAN AT 'CD' 



■j^-- -/<?-)( 



SECTION AT XX 



M ill 



^ 



3CALE or FELT 

A triple window of somewhat ornate design can l)e made an attractive feature in any composition where surroundinR conditions are at all 
favorable. The example here given could be introduced in many instances as a motif, subsidiary members lieing made to harmonize in jjroportion 
to the taste and dexterity of the designer. It has variety and symmetry to a greater degree than is usually met with, even in designs that would 
more than double the cost of execution. In the hands' of a man familiar with the technical minutia of production, an elaborate design may be 
simplified and rearranged, from the manufacturer's point of view, without perceptible change in the general effect. On the other hand, over- 
elaboration is too often associated with unnecessary, time-consuming intricacy tliat renders the desired article impracticable on commercial 
grounds. This window is composed of forty pieces, which, with a few easily made changes in the clay, could be turned out of fourteen molds. 
Where two or three such windows could be 'used on the same building, or group of buildings, the cost would not exceed the average for compara- 
tively plain work. Even for one window, it should not be a very abnormal figure. With a little modification in the height and proportions of 
columns and pilasters, lintels, etc., could be substituted for semicircular arches without appreciable increase in cost. 



columns are not produced, they are simply imitations of 
marble columns. A true terra-cotta column should have 
a treatment which will allow of the use of vertical joint 
without making it an eyesore; or it should have project- 
ing bands between the drums, which will make a perfect 
fit unnecessary. 

A very neat substitute for the pure classical ilute and 
fillet is shown in the accompanying sketch. 

It is not difficult to produce pier blocks, .say three 
feet long and twelve by twelve inches in section; but the 
length of these blocks will vary some, and if the ends 
are exposed and cannot be trimmed down to size, perfect 




SECTION THROUGH SOFKIT, 
MAIN KNTRANCK. 




TVl'ICAI. SKI 1 ION 
FOR COLON N A UK 
ARCHITF.CTURF.. 



the design, but also assist in making the casual defects 
less conspicuous than in plain work. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



123 




>5tDC ViEW 




Front VTew 



LOhiaiTUT/NAL iSEcrroH 




aecrioN Thkoa a 



jQpU 




PLAN THROUGH BALUSTERS. PLAN OF SOFFIT. 

SUGGESTION FOR A Ti;Kk.\-COTT A HALCONY. 




EL,E^-i^>CT-IO>^ 




S'^^c-rio.M 



UKTAII.S or CONSTRUCTION lOK A CENTRAL I'AVII.ION. 



124 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




"t 



Sr 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



125 




Fireproofing. 



SECTION THROUGH A MAIN CORNICE. 




SECTION THROUOH A MAIN CORNICE. 

It is hardly necessary to add that tcrra-cotta, f,dazcd, 
enameled and plain, offers an almost endless -variety of 
colors, which can be used to emphasize the various archi- 
tectural members, as well as to relieve the ornamentation 
by giving it a color different from that of the background. 



Economics of Construction. II. 

HV JOHN I.VMAN lAXON. 

IT may be well to preface this paper by saying that any 
building erected for income cannot be divorced from 
its business aspect as a paying investment ; its construc- 
tion and cost are primal factors which bear upon its char- 
acter as an investment: its construction as to its life and 
repairs; its cost, life and repairs as to its gross and net 
per cent income. In the consideration of the subject in 
hand we base our estimates and conclusions on the ii.se of 
the best and only the best materials, which adapt them- 
selves to the different functions of structure, and that 
such estimates and conclusions are based upon computa- 
tion, not guesswork. It is to be noted in nearly all pa- 
pers which have been published on fireproof construction 
that the terms iron and stiil have l)een used indiscrimi- 
nately, sj'nonymou.sly, of same value and ecpiivalent, 
when in fact there is an es.sential difference in respect to 
their structural value. 

Of the buildings usually erected by the .v/ccAframe 
system, oflfice buildings, hotels and apartments predomi- 
nate, and the general system of planning and construction 
is in the main so similar that they may be clas.sed, con- 
structively, as of one kind. In this and the next paper, 
after comn'cnting on some elements more or less effective 
or impracticable, we will take up, for illustration, the con- 
struction, cost, rentals and per cent return of a simple 
type of oflfice building. 

In 1902 Profes.sor C. L. Norton made .some inter- 
esting and valuable experiments (see Report IV of 
the Insurance Engineering Experiment vStation, al.so 
Engineering Record of November 8, 1902) in respect 
to the corrosion of steel and its prevention. Profes 
sor Norton opens his report by saying: "The constantly 
inrceasing use of steel as a structural member in 
modern buildings has led to many ([uestions as to the 
permanency of the steel as sometimes u.sed for this pur- 
pose. The examination of buildings ten to fifteen years 
old, when during alterations the steel framework has 
been exposed to view, reveals all stages and conditions 
of disintegration of the steel, etc. . . . But surely when 
a steel plate one-half inch in thickness lo.ses more than 
one-eighth of an inch in five years there arises a question 
as to the ability of the structure to last more than twenty- 
five" years. " Further, in respect to the experiments: 
"The cleaning of the steel was the most troul)lcsomc 
problem met with. It was necessary to scour the pieces, 
then pickle in hot dilute .sulphuric acid, and finally dip 
into hot milk of lime; v.'hen cold the lime was removed 
with a wire brush. This left the steel clean and briglit, 
ready to put into the test bricks." 

Fancy, if one can, such a process as that for the steel 
frame of any building, especially a skyscraper, also the 
cost. Also, "/•'/////, it is of the utmost in//>or/tt//ee tha.t 
the steel be r/nr// when bedded in concrete. Scraping, 
pickling, a sand blast and lime should be u.sed, if neces- 
sary, to have the metal i/rtjn when built into the wall." 

We have italicized the words "utmost importance" 
and "clean" to emphasize what is unciuestionably true. 



126 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



We have a high regard for Professor Norton's ability, 
integrity of purpose and the vahie of his investigations: 
as we are also indebted to him for emphasizing by analogy 
our position, that a building of solid masonr}- construc- 
tion in brick and terra-cotta is superior. 

The value of his experiments and deductions is not 
only from the data obtained, but also in showing the im- 
practicability of application; for to obtain the results 
illustrated by his experiments we need to be assured of 
three things: (i) that every member of a steel frame be 
absolutelj- free of corrosion before the cement coating 
is applied, which is out of the question so long as manu- 
facturers of steel persist in putting the job and shop 
marks on the bare metal and so long as frames are erected 
in such manner as is now customary; (2) that all cement 
used be free of sulphates or sulphites of lime, which 
would involve the labor and expense, time and money, in 
testing every pound of cement used for the purpose; (3) 
an assurance of the very perfect ion of care in contractors 
and workmen, in the handling and assembling of mem- 
bers ; that no piece be subject to abrasion and elements 
of atmospheric attack. Such a process and such care are 
not practicable in the nature of everyday affairs, short 
time contracts and competition in profits; for the extra 
cost involved would be prohibitive, and, expressed in busi- 
ness parlance, "will not pay "; for such extra cost means 
a material reduction in net per cent income. 

Professor Norton in his experiments deals in labora- 
tory science, not with the cold hard facts, demands and 
shortcomings of everyday practice, profit and loss, and 
hustle to get there. If such prevention of corrosion 
could be obtained, that alone will not insure a steel-frame 
building as a. f reproof one \ and that it is not, and can- 
not be as compared with solid masonry construction. 
Besides the steel-frame building is subject to other ele- 
ments which in time will seriou.sly affect its structural 
stability, especially .so in excessively high buildings; one 
of the most potent is vibration, not alone from high 
winds, but by the constant, ceaseless, eternal vibration 
of the world, which will rack and strain the joints of 
structure to breaking pitch. No isolated part (jf a steel- 
frame structure should exceed in bulk proportions of six 
to four in length to width, or five to three in height to 
width ; and aside from this, if an architect desires to pro- 
long the life of steel supports, he should not design the 
columns with their bases below the level of the second 
fioor for outside columns, or below the first floor for in- 
side columns. 

One of the most notable, able and experienced of 
American architects said some ten years back, " If I had 
my way, I would never again erect a steel-frame build- 
ing." He spoke with a prophetic vision of a time to come. 
We are not inclined to be pessimistic or to condemn an}' 
system of building which is designed upon logical and 
sane principles ; we are dealing with facts and imminent 
probabilities, known values and results; for the combined 
advantage of investors, architects and materials of 
tried and known consistency, tried by fire, the wear of 
time and the rack of the elements. Our endeavor is to 
bring architects to a sense of the signs of the times, a 
just conception of their responsibilities as leaders in 
thought and investigation — as it is their right of place 
to be — and owners and investors to a wise economy in 



the science of structure and lasting values of invest, 
ments in buildings of right constrflction. 

Time has demonstrated the inherent defect and dan- 
ger — corrosion — of the steel-frame structure, and no 
process known at the present time will effect the elimi- 
nation of such defect and danger or make such structures 
safe and permanent, except at such cost as to place such 
structures out of consideration from an investment point 
of view. 

The question of .structural stability and life can not be 
too urgently emphasized, not only in respect to first and 
secondary cost, but also in respect to the damage in case 
of collapse in the destruction of property and human 
lives; such damage is conceivable in terms of dollars and 
cents, but one may well stand appalled at the sum of con- 
-sequences. The older buildings of the steel-frame sys- 
tem have now covered a span of time, or are rapidly ap- 
proaching it, in which the destructive force of corrosion 
has been going on steadily, inexorably, to a degree ex- 
ceeding 50 per cent of the original structural efficiency, 
and no one can say when the day or hour cometh when 
some of these buildings will come down in a confused, 
disorganized and awful heap of dust and junk, a shapeless 
and hideous commentary on the vanity of human efforts, 
destroying millions of property and hundreds, perhaps 
thousands, of our fellow beings. 

Disasters never come heralded from the house tops. 
Such a disaster will be instantaneous in effect, — a weird 
and ghastly tragedy. 

A building may catch fire with some good chance of 
95 per cent of the occupants getting out alive and the sav- 
ing of property, but in case of a collapse of a steel-frame 
building there is small likelihood of any premonitory 
signs. It will give way in an instant and be down in the 
time of a wink. 

The time has come, and now is, when the owners of 
existing buildings and those contemplated should stop 
and think, and guard against present and future dangers, 
and take measures of prevention by investigating the 
present conditions of buildings ten to twelve years old, 
and the adoption in new buildings of a S3-stem of struc- 
ture that will be safe and permanent. 

The total fire loss in Boston in 1902 was $1,570,533.25 
in buildings and contents, not including loss of rentals 
and business; total insurance, $18,986,710.95; total in- 
surance loss, $1,481,723.88. Such loss would build five 
or six small office buildings absolutely fireproof. 

The loss by the conflagration at Paterson, N. J., ap- 
proximated $10,000,000 (loss and interest) and covered an 
area of about fifteen acres. This loss would build eight- 
story fireproof buildings over about a third of the building 
area of burnt district. This fire also emphasized the value 
of an approximation to all masonry construction, also the 
value of cast iron columns over steel columns. Cast iron 
columns rightly made and protected with four inches of 
terra-cotta encasement are superior to steel and almost, 
if not quite, as good as piers of solid masonry in respect 
to fire attack and are indestructible by corrosion. 

Another point : under pre.sent practice it is customary 
to erect steel frames weeks and months before the encase- 
ment is placed around them, thus exposing the frames to 
atmo.spheric attacks, storms, vibrations and damage by 
working on it, hoisting and shifting all .sorts of heavy 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



12' 



materials over and against it. The frame should not go 
up in advance of the encasement if one desires to attain 
some prevention of corrosion, minimize damage and pro- 
long life. We note in some buildings now being erected 
the practice of painting the encasement of the steel sup- 
porting members (on the inside of the building) ; this is 
a mistake, for it will simply retard the evaporation of the 
moisture within the encasement and accelerate the propa- 
gation of corrosion. 

No encasement of columns should be other than of 
circular form; also such members should be used in the 
make-up of columns as are best adapted to the maximum 
amount of fireproofing, the smallest number of joints and 
minimum exposure of surface to corrosion and fire attack. 
The sections for columns in general use may be classed 
under two heads, the open and the closed or box types. 

Of all of them, 
the + and the sim- 
ple H (without 
flanges) are the 
best types. 

In general it 



1 



T 



I 



\~ A 



c. 



OPEN TYPKS. 



HHl 








50 feet, 60 feet lengths 
ciable saving in cost. 



F. 

BOX TYPES. 

maybe said that no columns hav- 
ing iiitcnial air cells, or made 
with flange members so placed 
that terra-cotta blocks cannot be 
easily placed against inside mem- 
bers, should be used. Alsotliat 
no box girders should be used ; 
ihat the single I type of girders 
should be used, not II or III. 

Another element of economy 
in construction in any class of 
building, and especially so in a 
steel frame, is that the plan 
should be laid out on a system of 
units, having right angles, and 
with close approximation of eco- 
nomical use of standard lengths 
of I'sand plates, 30 feet, 40 feet, 
This makes for quite an apprc- 



FI REPROOF' HOTEL.S. 

THE building law.-, of our larger cities now rccjuire 
all hotels to be l)uilt of fireproof construction. 
The tendency is moreover in most of the cities to insist 
upcm firej^roof constructi<m for schoolhouses. The state- 
ment is often made that firejiroof construction for a 
.schoolhouse is a luxury, for the reason that so far as the 
records show human life has never been lost as a result of 
a fire in a schoolhouse. As against this we find noted in 
one of our exchanges a statement of the fact that during 
the past year in this country 546 schoolhou.ses were de- 
stroyed by fire and 1,378 hotels were burned down. 



Selected Miscellany. 



CHR"A(;()'S PARKS. 

AvS a result of the election held in Chicago on the 
first day of this month (June) the city has an as- 
surance that not less than five hundred acres will be 
added to its jiark area without any delay whatsoever. 
Time was when Chicago Jiad the largest park area in 
proportion to population of any city in the country. 
The enormous growth of the city both in population and 
acreage, without a corresponding increase in jiarks and 




GUASTAVINO CORRUGATED TILE SHOWING LIGHT 
AND SHADE EFFECTS. 

boulevards, has brought it down to the lowest rank as 
compared with other American cities. The increase has 
only been in mileage of new l)()ulevards, or streets under 
the control of the several ixirk CDUimissions, l)ut that lias 




V. .M. C. A. HUlLDlNCi, TOLEDO, OHIO. 

K. (). Kallis, Architect. 

Tcrra-Ci)tta by the New York Architectural Tcrra-Cotla Co. 



128 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ArAKIMKNJ, NKW YORK L[l\. 
Huiit of ■■Shavvnci;" Urick. Thorn & Wilson, Ari-hitects. 

not been enough to keep pace with the progress of other 
large cities. At the session of the forty-third General 
Assembly of Illinois just closed there were passed no 
less than ten acts affecting the parks of Chicago. Five 
of them provided for the enlargement of the South Park 
system ; one provided for the enlargement of Lincoln 
Park by accretions from the lake of two hundred and 
twenty-five acres; one provided for connecting the Lin- 
coln and South Park systems by a boulevard, either over 
or under the mouth of the Chicago River, as may be 
hereafter determined; one bill provided for a large num- 
ber of additional small parks; one provided the manner 
in which the New Field Columbian Museum can be 




ORNA.MKNT.\L W INDOW. 

Victor Hugo Koehler, Architect. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



located in the new 
(irant Park in the 
heart of the city and 
fronting on Lake 
Michigan; and lastly 
another bill made it 
possible to erect the 
new John Crerar Li- 
brary on the site se- 
lected for it two 
years ago. 

It can well be 
said that when Chi- 
cago does things it 
is not by halves. 
She has waited a 
long time for this 
consummation, and 
it has all come at 
once. The money to 
carry out all these 
improvements by 
park commissions 
will be provided by 
the issue of bonds. 
It will be a large sum. 
At the election re- 
ferred to the voters 
confirmed the au- 
thority to issue $3,- 
000,000 in bonds for 
the South Parks and 
$1,000,000 for Lin- 
coln Park. An act 
of the General As- 
sembly also author- 
ized the Board of 
County Commission- 
ers to issue bonds 
to the amount of $1,200,000 for various purposes, about 
$500,000 of which will be for buildings. As if this were 
not enough the Field 
Columbian Museum 
bills included a pro- 
vision for adding a 
fraction of a mill to 
the taxation of the 
city, which will pro- 
vide an income of 
about $50,000 per an- 
num for the muse- 
um, and another 
$50,000 per annum 
for the Art Institute, 
which has never be- 
fore been assisted 
from the tax levy. 
Then the Trustees of 
the Drainage Canal 
will be authorized to 
issue about $10,000,- 

000 in bonds for the terka-coi ta carukn vase. 

enlargement and im- Made by White Brick * Terra-Cotta Co. 




lIi.URE, KM.cLXEU IN Ti;RR..\-Ct)T T.\ 
BY CONKLING-ARMSTRONG TERRA- 
COTTA CO. 
Bruce Price, Architect. 




T H Ef B^R ICKBUILDER. 



129 




PUMPING SI ATION, CHICAGO. 
R. Bruce Watson, Architect. Terra-Cotta made bv Northwestern Terra-Cdtta Co 



provement of the Chicago River and the development of 
power at the controlling works. 

The result of this legislation in the aggregate has been 
to place the whole water front of Chicago on Lake Michi- 
gan for a distance of about twenty miles under control of 
the park boards, together with all the lands under water 
belonging to the state, with privilege to fill in the same 
where necessary. 

The people of Chicago probably will not realize for 
some time the full value of all these acquisitions. At 



^"^ present they can only value 
them in money, employing 
millions for units. For in- 
stance, the park additions 
will cost four millions, tlic 
Jolin Crerar Library will cost 
one million, and all estimates 
of the cost of the Field Co- 
lumbian Museum are ba.sed 
on a prospective outlay of 
five millions for buildings, 
with a five million endow- 
ment. The County l^oard 
w ill ex])end half a million for 
'^1 buildings, and the Trustees 

of the Drainage Canal will 

spend ten millions more. 
These are rough figures, 
given without exact statistics 
for handy reference. 

The greatest of all Chi- 
cago's improvements will be 
the new Grant I'ark. It is 
located very much as Battery 
Park is in New York. But 
to realize its possibilities we 
must imagine Battery Park covering the whole ground 
.south of a line drawn east and west through Wall Street. 
It is one and one-quarter miles long and abovithalf a mile 
wide, and will have a sea wall on the long side and one 
end. This is the site once talked of for the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition, and the late Mr. Root made the first 
.sketching for the buildings for that great enterpri.se to be 
here located on piles. For economy it was proposed to 
leave the water under the buildings and to fill in the earth 





INTKRIOR OV STABLE, SHOWINC; USE OF I'.l.l K KIO'.K .'..v ,v aI K 
BRICK, CREAM TINT. 
Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 



KN 1 i~ ANCI-. 10 UORMITORV, CINCINNAll COI.i.Ki.K <)l .\l I SU, 

Terra-Cotta made by Indiunupolis Torra-Cotta Co. 

(liistave W. Drach, Architect. 



I JO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HOUSES, ClllLAi;i). 
Built of Tiffany Knamclcd Brick. 

Vjctween them. The whole area was then withoiit any 
shore protection except the government breakwater, half 
a mile away, enclosing the roadstead or anchorage for 
vessels seeking shelter from storms. In 1895, 1896 and 
1897 the whole area now to be used as a park was enclosed 
with a cob dock, built with two rows of piles, with crib- 
work on top and filled in with stone. This will be the 
fcnmdation of the sea wall that is to be. AboiTt half the 
area of the park is now filled in with dnmpage from the 
city and some material from the drainage canal. Part of 
the area was retained by the state of Illinois for a drill 
ground and armory site, and the state has expended $100,- 
000 within the last two years in filling it in. But that has 
now been turned over to the park commissioners for the 
use of the citv, and there will be no armories on it. 









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This entire park will have to be made from nothing, 
and the opportunity to develop a magnificent design is 
extroardinary. If, by good fortune, it should grow into 
a thing of beauty, it is safe to say that it will be a great 
surprise to the people of Chicago, for its possibilities are 
l^eyond the conception of even the best informed men and 
women. 



NEW YORK INSPECTOR OF BUILDINGS. 

MR. WALTER T. SMITH, who has for several years 
held a position as superintendent for Carrbre & 
Hastings, and who had general oversight of the construc- 
tion of the buildings at Buffalo for the Pan-American 
Exposition, has been appointed to the position of chief 
inspector of buildings in New York City. This appoint- 
ment was made by Mr. Thompson, the new superintendent 




FIUELITV TRUST BUILDING, BUFFALO. 

Brickwork and Fireproofing laid in Akron Star Brand Cement. 

Green & Weeks, Architects. 

of buildings, upon the nomination of a number of the 
leading architects of New York City. However much 
we might wonder at an architect of so much experience 
and ability being willing to accept a political appointment 
of this sort, we can certainly congratulate the city most 
heartily upon .securing his services, and the superintend- 
ent has taken a most wise course in acting in coopera- 
tion with the architects of the city. 



IN GENERAL. 



PENNSYLVANIA SUGAR REFINERY, PHILADELPHIA. 
Brick furnished by O. W. Ketcham. 



What is probably the largest architectural commission 
ever awarded in the building line to a Boston firm has 
just come to Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, who have 
been selected as architects to remodel the buildings and 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



M> 



grounds of the military academy at West Point. The 
work will involve an oittlay of $5,500,000. 

The committee selected to pa,ss upon the plans sub- 
mitted in competition consisted of General Schofield, pres- 
ident of the West Point Alumni Association; Col. A. L. 
Mills, superintendent of the academy ; George B. Post, 
Cass Gilbert and Walter Cook, all architects of New York. 
The committee was unanimous in its selection of the ])lans 
of the B(jston firm, and its choice was last week ratified by 
the secretary of war. 



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DETAIL BY GEORGE H. STREETON, ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Francis S. Swales is announced as the winner of the 
Washington University Traveling vScholarship, Albert 
D. Millar receiving Honorable Mention. The competi- 
tion consisted of three rendered and three sketch prob- 
lems. For a S]:)ecial study Mr. Swales has chosen the 
great theaters of Eurc^pe. 



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DETAIL BY CLINTON & RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 

Charles T. Harris has retired from the office of presi- 
dent of the Celadon Roofing Tile Company and is suc- 
ceeded by William R. Clarke, former first vice-president 
and treasurer. Mr. Clarke has been actively engaged 
with the company since its inception in i8«.S, and is ad- 
mirably fitted both by experience and ability to take 
charge of its large and growing l)usiness. He is suc- 
ceeded by C. Layton Ford as first vice-j^resident, and by 
E. S. Marvin, former superintendent of the American Tem- 
perance Life Insurance Association, as treasurer. Both of 
these gentlemen have taken large interests in the company. 



Henry S. Harris, second vice-i)resident, and Alvord B. 
Clarke, general manager, remain in cliarge of tlie Chicago 
office and Western Department. 

A copartnership has been formed by Henry H. Meyers 
and Clarence R. Ward, architects, 532 Market Street, San 
Franci.sco. They desire sam])lesand catalogues from ma- 
terial men. 




KlIil'.IAII. HV HEINS <V LA KAR(;K. A kC H LI K ' ^^'. 
.•\tlaiuic Terra-Ci>tta Company, Makers. 

A. J. Blix, architect, has opened an office at 17 Fifth 
Avenue S., St. Cloud, Minn., and desires manufacturers' 
catalogues and sami)les. 

William H. Gruen, architect, St. Louis, has taken of- 
fices in the Chemical Building, and desires manufacturers' 
catalogues and sam])les. 

The M o n k s 
Building and the 
Home for Cri])i)led 
Children, Boston, 
P e a b o d y & 
Stearns, architects, 
will be built of 
Sayre & Fisher 
Company brick ; 
also the new library 
at Marlboro, Mas.s., 
by the same archi- 
tects. A large 
(|uantity of their 
enameled brick- 
will be used in the 
new Edison Build- 
ing, Boston, Wins- 
low -& Bigelow, 
architects, and the 
Penn Mutual In- 
surance iiuilding, 
Boston, E. y. 
Seeler, architect. 



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DEIAIL HV HERTS A I'ALI.ANr, 

ARCHITECTS. 

I'erth Aniboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



THE SOCIETY OF P.ICAL'X ARTS ARCHITECTS 
////.V ESTAHI.lsm-.l^ A I- REE VOLKSE OE STl /)■)'. O/'EX 

TO DRACGiirsMEX AXD sr('/)EA'ys OE Axv c'/vy, 

.MOnELI.ED OX THE CEXEKAl. /'/.AX /'I'/y'Sl'E/) AT 
/7/A ECO/.E /)E HEAl'X-A/<rS /X /'A /k'/S, A X /) COA//'A'/S- 
/Xa EREOlEXr /'RO/i/.EA/S /X OR/)ER.S\ /)ES/(;XS. 
ARCHyEO/. OG )', E TC. 

EOR /XEORA/A/IOX A/'/'/.y TO T//E .SECRETARy OE 
T//E COA/M/TTEE OX E/)CCA/70X,jEA.STjj/).S7REET, 

XEiv yoRk' c/Ty. 



I J2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Competition for a Public Library 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $10 




PROGRAM 

|T is assumed that a public library is to be presented to a town located in the m die west. 
This town occupies a picturesque position in a rolling country bordering one oihe Great 
Lakes and is the seat of a small but important college. The public square is a irk which 
is assumed to be 300 feet wide and upwards of 1,000 feet long. At one end is a eady built 
the town hall, and at the opposite end will be placed the library. The ground i;es gently 
towards the proposed site, so that the position will be a commanding one. The ^holefront- 

^^ age of 300 feet will be given to the library and its approaches, and the entire dep of the lot 

is 200 feet. The total rise from the curb line to the center of the lot is 10 feet, ar the grade 

falls off towards the rear i foot in 40. Sidewise the grade falls off equally each way fron the center 

10 feet to the boundary lines. The building must set back a distance of 75 feet from thi front line, 

and the approach must be treated in an architectural manner. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and colored tca-cotta or 
faience may be introduced as a feature of the design. 

The following accommodation is to be provided for in plan. The dimensions given -e only ap- 
proximate and may be modified as required by the exigencies of the design : 

First Story. Vestibule, 200 sq. ft. ; periodical room, 1,000 sq. ft.; reference library nd reading 
room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; general delivery room, 600 sq. ft.; trustees' room, 350 sq. ft.; libra an's room, 
350 sq. ft. ; stack room, 1,500 sq. ft. 

Second Story. Children's room, 500 sq. ft. ; music room, 500 sq. ft. ; exhibition roor 500 sq. ft. ; 
two rooms for special collections, 500 sq. ft. each. 

It is assumed that the lavatories, storerooms, etc., are all to be located in the basem it, which is 
to be raised sufficiently above the finished grade to allow of fair lighting. The stairs 1 iding to the 
second story are to be double, but are not to be made a prominent feature. It will be .sumed that 
the heating plant is entirely distinct from the building, there being consequently no pr vision made 
for a chimney, but space should be provided for ample ventilation flues. 

Drawings Required. A perspective, taken from the left corner of the building, w:i the picture 
plane forming an angle of 30 degrees with the main line of the front, and also sketch pk s of the first 
and second floors at a scale of 1-32 in. to the foot. The perspective is to show tre ment of ap- 
proaches. These drawings to appear upon one sheet 16 in. wide and 20 in. high, the peipective to be 
placed in the upper three-quarters of the sheet and the plans in the lower quarter of ti sheet. De- 
tails, drawn at a scale of 3-4 in. to the foot, showing the character of the design and th construction 
of the terra-cotta, are to be shown on another sheet of the same size, /, e., 16 in. wide i d 20 in. high. 
These drawings are to be made in black ink without wash. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to enco "age the study 
of the use of architectural terra-cotta. No limitation of cost need be considered, but th designs must 
be made such as ^vould be suitable for the location, for the character of the building an for the mate- 
rial in which it is to be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the ointing of the 
terra-cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cott will be a point 
taken largely into consideration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompai'ing same is to 
be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true n£ le and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, i Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., on or before October 31, 1903. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural pnession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize o'$500. 

For the design pl&ced second a prize of S200 

For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

All drawings submitted in this competition are to become the property of THE BI CKBUILDER, 
and the right is reserved to publish any or ail of them. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through tl liberality of the 
terra-cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BlICKBUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

JULY, 

1903. 



THE BRICKBVILDERi 




DEyOTED -TOTHE • INTERESTS OF!^^ 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN- MATEfUALS Of CLAYP 



JULY 1903 



m 



SS3S!;afS5Si5fiSS[^^»^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
8s Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass.,' Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 1 2, 1 892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... S6. 00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advanik. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architecniral Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



BRICKBUILDER COMPETITION. 

WE wish to call the attention of our readers to a 
slight change in the program for the library 
competition, detailed announcement of which will be 
found elsewhere in this issue. At the recjuest of several 
of our subscribers we have modified the conditions b) 
substituting a line elevation for the required perspective. 
We have also modified the restrictions as to the size of 
sheets, giving each competitor a better opportunity to 
present his work in what seems to him the best manner. 



w 



THE ROYAL ACADEMY (iOLD MEDAL. 
E have alluded in a previous issue to the bestowal 



of the Royal (zold Medal of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects upon Mr. C. F. McKim of New 
York. The first recipient of this medal was Profes.sor 
Cockerell, to whom it was given in 1848. The succes- 
sive recipients have been chosen with a great deal of wis- 
dom and the bestowal has recognized the best talent 
which the architectural profession throughout the world 
has manifested during the last half century. Among 
those to whom it has gone are included vSir Charles Barry, 
Owen Jones, Sir Gilbert Scott, Viollet le Due, Sir James 
Pennethorne, George Edmund Street, John Pearson, 
Baron von Ferstel, F. C. Penrose, H. .Schliemann, Charles 



r 



(larnicr. Baron von Hansen, R. M. Hunt, Lord Leighlon. 
It has become an unwritten rule to select in rotation an 
Engli.sh architect, a foreign arcliitect, and a literary man 
with arcliitectural instincts. 

Mr. Aston Webb, in presenting the medal to Mr. 
McKim, gave a very felicitous .sketch of the recipient's 
career, and stated that the selection was made of him as 
" a highly distingui.shed American architect, a very near 
relation of ours and a representative man, in order that 
we may show to him personally and to the whole world 
of American artists our high ap])reciation and admiration 
of the great work that marvelous country is doing on the 
other side of the world, an ajjpreciation not only of what 
they are doing, but also of what we expect them to do, 
untrammeled by traditions, full of youth, energy, imagi- 
nation and initiative, and supported by almost boundless 
resources; and we are confident that as time goes on they 
will not only develop fresh ty])es and plans of buildings, 
but that they will, though still mindful of the past, clothe 
those buildings in a language that will be distinctly tlieir 
own." While a certain amount of this extremely flatter- 
ing generalizaticm can be ])ut down to the courtesy which 
was so charming an accompaniment of this occasion, it is 
(juite certain that Englishmen, and especially English ar- 
chitects, are looking to this country for a kind of devel- 
opment in our profession which has not been found in 
what we choose to call the older countries. It is also evi- 
dent that their expectations have not been entirely disap- 
pointed, and that others have found in our work some of 
the elements which we have fondly felt ourselves were 
not consjiicuous by their absence. 

(Juoting still further from Mr. Wel)l)'s introductory 
address, Mr. McKim was born in Chester County, Penn., 
six-and-fifty years ago, and at eighteen entered Harvard 
University with a view to beccmiing a mining engineer. 
A year later, finding the work uncongenial, he entered 
the office of Mr. Russell vSturgis, architect, New York, 
and, in the autumn of the same year, the Atelier Daumet 
in Paris, where he was prepared for and admitted to the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, remaining until the outbreak of 
the war some three years later. During this time Mr. 
McKim also traveled in Europe and visited England in 
1869, during which time he was made an honorary mem- 
ber of the Architectural Association. Returning to New 
York in 1870, Mr. McKim entered the office of the well- 
known archictect, H. H. Richardson, and in 1S72, at the 
age of twenty-five, commenced practice on his own ac- 
count, being joined in 1877 l)y Mr. William Rutherford 
Mead, and in 1879 by Mr. Stanford White, and since that 
time they liave continued their ])ractice as " McKim, 
Mead & White." 



134 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Orientation of Hospital 
Buildings. 

liV WILLIAM ATKINSON. 

A HEALTHY hospital has been defined as "A hos- 
pital which does not by any fault of its own aj>^gra- 
vate ever so little the recovery of persons who are prop- 
erly its inmates, and this, the only right sense of the 
absolute word, governs the word's comparative applica- 
tions, so that when we compare them together with ref- 
erence to their ' healthfulness ' and call one of them the 
' unhealthier ' hospital, our meaning is that in this hos- 
pital, by means of some faults of its own, disease cannot 
be treated as successfully as in the other hospital ; and the 
fault of its own, through which an ' unhealthy ' hospital 
fails to attain the best results for its medical and surgical 
treatment, is of two kinds — either it is an iiiluroit fault, 
as of site and construction ; or else it is a fault of kccpiitf^, 
as dirtiness or overcrowding or neglect of ventilation." * 

Unquestionably the first requisite for a healthy hospi- 
tal is abundance of sunlight. Not only the exterior wall 
surfaces of the buildings, but also the ground surfaces 
between and around them should have the direct rays of 
the sun for as long a time as possible each day. 

" vSecond only to air is light and sunshine essential 
for growth and health, and it is one of nature's most 
powerful assistants in enabling the body to throw off 
those conditions which we call disease. Not only day- 
light, but sunlight; indeed fresh air must be sun-warmed, 
sun-penetrated air. The sunshine of a December day has 
been recently shown to kill the spores of the anthrax 
bacillus." f 

Wall surfaces, especially brick walls, absorb a large 
amount of moisture during rains. This moisture is 
quickly dried out by exposure to sunlight, but is retained 
for a long time in walls which are not exposed to the sun 
and creates an imhealthy condition; for dampness, with 
lack of sunlight, is a combination favorable to the growth 
of low forms of vegetable life and should be avoided in 
hospital buildings. 

To secure sunlight in the fullest measure requires 
that the general plan of the buildings shall be carefully 
studied with this end in view. 

Several years ago in a little book on hospitals, |. in 
which I had the honor to be the collaborator of Dr. Alfred 
Worcester, I stated as follows the principles to be ob- 
served, in the order of their importance, in designing the 
general ground plan of a group of hospital buildings: 

'■'■First. To secure a large amount of sunlight for each 
one. 

"Second. To impede as little as possible the circula- 
tion of air in and around the buildings. 

" Third. To provide for the futi;re enlargement of the 
hospital ; and 

" Fourth. To promote convenience and economy of ad- 
ministration." 

I added further: To study properly the question of 
sunlight, a "sun plan" of the buildings must be drawn 
and their positions considered with reference to the shad- 
ows they cast upon each other and upon the ground. An 

* Si.xth Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council, 1864. 

+ Galton, Healthy Hospitals. 

J Small Hospitals. New York, 1X94, Wiley & Sons. 



astronomical table, showing the path of the sun from 
sunrise to sunset at the different seasons of the year, is 
desirable for this work. 

It is the object of the present essay to illustrate the 
application of the first of the above principles with a few 
diagrams representing some of the principal types of hos- 
pital plans. 

In the latitude of Boston, Mass., the sun rises on the 
longest day of the year about 34 degrees north of east 
and sets at an equal distance north of west, traveling 
during the day over a horizontal circle of about 248 de- 
grees and reaching at noon an altitude of approximately 
72 degrees above the horizon. 

On the shortest day of the year he rises about 34 de- 
grees south of east and .sets an equal distance south of 
west, traveling over a horizontal circle of only 112 de- 
grees and reaching at noon an altitude of only 23 degrees 
above the horizon. 

At the two periods of the year when the days and 
nights are of equal length (in March and September) the 
sun rises in the east and .sets in the west, traveling over 
a horizontal circle of 180 degrees and reaching at noon an 
altitude of 48 degrees (approximately) abov^e the horizon. 

The diagrams in Fig. i give the position of the sun 
at each hour of the day (sundial time) for the four pe- 
riods of the year named. 

Availing ourselves of this diagram, we may develop 
some useful principles to govern the general disposition 
and arrangement of hospital buildings. 

.Suppose " A " in Fig. 2 to represent a building square 
in plan, placed squarely north and south. 

It is clear that the north wall will receive no sunlight 
at any time during the day during half the year (from 
September 22 to March 21) and only a small amount in 
early morning and late afternoon during the other half; 
that the east wall will receive sunlight from sunrise till 
noon all the year round ; that the south wall will receive 
sunlight all day during half the year (from September 22 
to March 21) and a less amount during the other half, and 
that the west wall will receive sunlight from noon until 
sunset all the year round. 

vSuppose "B" in the same figure to represent the 
building placed at an angle of 45 degrees with the me- 
ridian. 

It is clear that all four sides of the building will now 
have sunlight during some portion of the day through- 
out the year. The northeast wall will have the morning 
sun ; the southeast and southwest walls will have the sun 
during the middle of the day, and the northwest wall will 
have the afternoon sun. 

The following table gives the number of hours during 
which the walls in the two figures are exposed to sunlight 
at the four periods of the year named. It is evident that 
this table will serve not only for square buildings but also 
for buildings rectangular in plan.* 

V I c; IRE A . 

June 21. 

,., ,,14 2S a. ni. to 7.41; a. m. 1 ,v, _, 

N. wall - ^ ^ ' ^-J on 40m 

I 4.15 p. m to 7.35 p. m. 1 

E. wall —4.25 a. m. to 12 m 7h ^sm 

S. wall — 7. 45 a. m. to 4.15 p. m 8h 30m 

W. wall — 12 m. to 7.35 p. m 7h 35tn 



*This table is calculated for sundial time, from the sun chart 
(Fig. i), and is sufificiently accurate lor our purposes. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



135 



March 21 and September 22. 

N. wall None 

E. wall — 6 a. m. to 12 m gh 

S. wall — 6 a. m. to 6 p. m j2h 

W. wall — 12 m. to 6 p. m ^^ 

December 21. 

N. wall None 

E. wall— 7.35 a. m. to 12 m 4h 25m 

S. wall— 7.35 a. m. to 4.25 p. m 8h 50m 

W. wall— 12 m. to 4.25 p. m 411 2sm 



Let us now compare the two fij^ures with respect to 
the shadows they cast upon the ground. 

Fig. 3 is the " shadow plan " of a cube, placed in the two 
positions in cjuestion. The shadows are drawn for each 
hour of the day from sunrise to sunset. They are super- 
posed one upon the other, so that the depth of shadow at 
any particlar point corresponds to the length of time that 
point is without sunlight, the lightest tint representing 




p-n- 



An- 




1 — 8 A'i- A-pn 

2 —9 " 5 " 

3 — 10 » 2 " 
4— )1 .. 1 . 



12 n 




PM 



An- 




]-P-M 




P-M 



A-K- 




•December 21' 



MarcK.- 2( ■ - September • ZZ 

VIG. I. SUN CllAR-l. 



June-2.t 



FIGURE n. 
June 21. 

N. E. wall — 4 25 a. m. to 10.45 ^- '" 6h 20m 

S. E wall — 4.25 a. m. to 1.15 p. ni Sli 50m 

S. W. wall— 10.45 a- ™- t" 7-.^5 P '" ^^ 5°"" 

N. W. wall— 1. 15 p. m. to 7.35 p. m 6h 20m 

March 21 and September 22. 

N. E. wall — 6 a. m. to 9.45 a. m 3h 45ni 

S. E. wall— 6 a. m. to 2.15 p. m 8h 15m 

S. W. wall— 9 45 a. m. to 6 p. m 8h 15m 

N. W. waIl--2. 15 p. m. to 6 p. m 3h 4,sm 

December 21. 

N. E. wall — 7.35 a. m. to S.45 a. m ih loiii 

S. E. wall — 7.35 a. m. to 3. 15 p m 7h 40m 

vS. W. wall — 8.45 a. m. to 4.25 p. m 7h 40m 

N. W. wall— 3.15 p. m. to 4. 25 p. m ih lom 

Evidently the arrangement shown at "B" has the 
better sun exposure. 

In " B" all four walls have sunlight at some part of 
the day throughout the year, while in "A " 25 per cent 
of the wall surface is without any sunlight at all during 
one-half the year. 




IK,. 2. 



1.^.6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



area in shadow for one hour or less and the darkest (solid 
blaek) area in shadow for eight hours or more. The Ro- 
man numerals denote the hour for which each shadow is 
drawn.* 

The followinj^- table gives the areas of the shadows 



From an inspection of the figure we see that in the 
case of "A" there is a considerable triangular area to 
the north of the cube (or building) which is exposed to 
the sun for a short time only in the early morning and 
late afternoon, whereas in the case of "B" there is no 




VIII 



IX 



A 

W XII 



/ 



N 



Vr 




L 



s 



fk;. 3. 



SHADOW PLAN OK A CUBE. 



cast upon the ground, supposing the cube to represent a 
building 100 feet square and 100 feet high: 



Area in shadow from 1 to 2 hours 



A. 

sq. ft. 

49,922 

20.275 

-•.05.? 

6.S18 

4,616 

577 

508 

405 

.150 

250 

200 



B. 

sq. ft. 

7'. '75 
22,986 

12,S,U 

.?-9' ' 
2.7.W 
2,292 

2,115 
+ 900 

none. 

none. 

none. 



* In this and all the following diagrams the shadows are drawn for 
the two periods of the year when the days and nights are of equal 
length. 

+ In shadow from 8 to SU hours. 



portion of the area which does not have either the fore- 
noon sun up to 9.45 A. M. or the afternoon sun from 2. 15 
onward. 

It will be instructive to study the elltect of a diminu- 
tion in the height of the building. 

If we draw out the shadow diagram for an object one- 
half the height of a cube (corresponding to a building 100 
feet square and 50 feet high) we shall find that in the 
case of the position "B" a// of the shadow areas are 
diminished in size, whereas in the case of the position 
"A" only those areas are diminished in size which are 
in shadow for six hours or less. (See Fig. 4.) 

From a study of these diagrams we are led to the con- 
clusion that a square building placed squarely north and 
south shades the ground area around it considerably 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



•37 



more than the same building placed at an angle of forty- 
five degrees to the meridian. 

In the series of diagrams which follow are shown the 
principal types of hospital plan placed in various posi- 
tions in regard to the sun. 

As it would be impracticable in the space at my com- 
mand to give a separate shadow plan for each one, I have 
represented for each figure only that portion of the area 
which is without sunlight from 8 a. m. to 4 p. m. or longer, 
the lightest tint indicating area without sunlight from 8 
A. M. to 4 p. M., the medium tint area without sunlight 



The light and medium tinted shadow areas would not 
be affected by an increase in height, but those in .solid 
black would be increased or diminished according to the 
height of the blocks. This is im])()rtant to bear in mind 
in studying the diagrams. 

The single straight l)lock (Fig. 5) may fairly typify a 
single ward pavilion as well as the simplest type of block 
plan. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the best orienta- 
tion for ward pavilions. 

In a description of the Heidelberg University llo.spital, 




A 

IX X Ml D 111 1 




N 



w. 




L 



s 



Fu;. 4. 



from 8 A. M. to 6 p. m. or from 6 a. m. to 4 i'. m., and the 
solid black area without any sunlight whatever during 

the day. 

In these diagrams I have followed Burdetfs classifica- 
tion of hospital plans, to wit: 

The single straight block. 

Two blocks arranged as an L. 

Three blocks arranged as a U. 

Three blocks arranged as an H. 

In the case of the single straight block, the height is 
supposed to be equal to its width, and in the case of the 
compound plans, to be equal to the width of the wings. 



given in Mouatt & Snell's "Hospital Construction and 
Management," it is stated that "the (jucstion of the as- 
pect of the windows of the wards was only settled after 
very great deliberation by the authorities charged with 
the erection of this building, and Dr. Knauff gives in his 
work* a very exhaustive account of the considerations 
which ultimately led to the determination of placing the 
axes of the various pavilions as nearly east and west as 
the shape of the ground would permit. Actually their 
direction is about E. S. R. and \V. N. W. It is remark- 



Uas Neue Academische Krankcnhaus in HtidlebtTK. 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE SINIJLE STRAU;HT BLOCK. 



able that the Friedrichshain biiildinjj authorities, as the 
result of their deliberations on this (inestion, arrived at 
an exactly opposite conclusion, and placed the axes of 
their pavilions directly north and south." 

In a list of 38 hospitals, given in the .same work, there 
are 13 in which the pavilions are placed approximately 
north and south, 15 in which they are placed approxi- 
mately east and west, h in which they are placed approxi- 
mately northwest and southeast, and foiir in which they 
are placed approximately northeast and southwest. 

The following table gives the percentage of wall sur- 



face which is without sun at any time during the da\' for 
the four different positions shown in Fig 5 : 

A — 1 2 '4 % . C — None. 

B— 37>^%- D— None. 

It will be observed that in the case of "A" and " B " 
there is a considerable area of ground to the north of the 
buildings which is in shadow from 8 a. m. until 4 i*. m., 
or practically without any sunlight at all during the day; 
whereas, in the case of either "C " or " D," there is no 
portion of the ground around the buildings which is with- 
out sunlight. 




riO. 6. TWO BLOCKS ARRANOED AS AN L. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'39 




FIG. 



JHREE BI.UCKS ARRANGED AS A U. 



In the position " A " the windows on each of the long 
sides have the sun for an equal amount of time during 
the day, the windows on the east side having the sun dur- 
ing the forenoon and the west windows the afternoon 
sun. For a pavilion divided up into .separate rooms, with 
windows only on one side, this 
might be considered an advan- 
tage. 

Bearing in mind, however, 
that the forenoon sun is more 
prized than the afternoon sun, it 
is suggested that the position 
" D " is equally as good as " A " 
in this respect, inasmuch as one 
of the long sides has the sun from 
stmrise until 9.45 a. m., and the 
other from g.45 a. m. until sunset, 
each long side thus having a share 
of the forenoon sun. 

The plan of two blocks arranged as an L (Fig. 6) is a 
common one for hospitals on the block plan, especially on 
confined sites. 

From an inspection of the diagram it is seen that tlic 
positions "B," "D" and "F" are preferable to any of 
the others, while '* H " is the lea.st good. 

The following table gives the percentage of wall 
surface without sun at any time during the day 
(Fig. 6) ; 



A— 28%. 
B— None. 
C-25%. 
D— None. 



E-257,,. 
F— None. 
G-28%. 
H - 10%. 



WITHOUT SUNLIGHT FROM 8 A. M. 
TO 4 P. M. 

WITHOUT SUNLIGHT 8 A. M. TO 
6 P. M.,OR FROM 6 A. M. TO 4 P. M. 

WITHOUT ANY SUNLIGHT AT ALL 
DURING THE DAY. 




KEY TO FIGURES 5, 6, 7 AND 9 



A good form of block plan is that of three blocks ar- 
ranged as a U, giving a court en- 
clo.sed on three sides (Fig. 7). 

The best position f(;r this type 
of plan is either " I) " or " F," 
which are ecpially good. 

The bad effect of such a court 
with a north aspect is easily seen 
from an inspection of the diagram 
("A"). The northeast ("B") or 
northwest aspect ("II") is nuieli 
better. This may be seen more 
clearly from the isometric view 
(Fig. 9), which contrasts a court 
with a north aspect with one 
having a northeast aspect, the shaded ])ortion in each 
figure denoting the wall and ground surfaces which are 
without sun at any time during the da)'. Note especially 
the small amount of surface in shade in the court with 
the northeast aspect, almost insignificant in tire case of a 
one-story building. 

The following table gives the percentage of wall 
surface without sun at any time during the day 
(I'ig- 7): 



I40 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



A-27% 
B-7% 
C-30% 
D— None. 



E— 22% 
F— None. 
G— 30%. 
H— 7%. 



In the " H " type of block plan {Fig. 8) it is to be ob- 
served that in whatever position it is placed there is a 



We are now prepared to announce our final judgment, 
to wit : That for isolated buildings of all ordinary rectan- 
gular types of plan the location of the main axes of the 
buildings at an angle of 45 degrees to the meridian yields 
in all respects a satisfactory sun exposure for the wall 
and ground surfaces. 




in;. S. IHREE BLOCKS ARRANGKl) AS AN H. 



portion of the wall and ground surface without sunlight, 
and it may therefore be dismis.sed as an unsuitable type 
of plan for hospitals. 

Other forms of block plan maybe made by combining 
the elementary forms above given, such as the cross plan, 



In the above discussion we have considered isolated 
buildings only. 

In the pavilion type of hospital plan, which consists 
of a number of separate buildings of various shapes and 
heights, either entirely isolated or more or less connected 




ISOMK'l Kl( \ ll-W 



which is a combination of two Ls, or the " E " plan, which 
is a combination of two U plans, and others, but the 
elements of nearly all such plans will be found to consist 
of U shape courts enclosed on three sides, or re-entrant 
angles of L shape, both of which have been investigated 
in the foregoing discussion. 



by corridors, the problem becomes more complex, as 
it is necessary to consider the shadows cast by the dif- 
ferent buildings upon each other. A separate and 
careful study of each case upon the lines indicated is 
a necessary preliminary to the creation of a successful 
hospital plan. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 
Rowton House, Whitechapel, London. 



BY R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

A ROWTON HOUSE is an astonishincr example of 
what can be had for a small sum. Working-men can 
stay there for twelve hours, with a clean bed, a place to 
take their meals, a footbath and the advantajjes of read- 
ing and recreation rooms, all for sixpence. And so far 
as the meals themselves are concerned there is no stipu- 
lation even that these shall be bought in the house (though 
this can be done at the cheapest rates), for if they choose 
to do so men may bring in their own food and have the 
use of a cooking stove and frying pans, pots, china, etc., 
without any extra charge. Moreover it should be re- 
membered that " Rowton Houses, Limited, "is not a phil- 
anthropic institution, but a business concern that pays a 
dividend of five per cent on its outlay, all profit in excess 
of that amount going towards the erection of new houses. 
The fifth and latest of these "poor men's hotels "is Row- 
ton House, Whitechapel, in the east of London, which was 
formally opened last year. It has 8i6 cubicles. The first 
of these houses was opened in 1893 at Vauxhall, in the 
southwest of London; it has 475 cubicles. Two years 
later a house was erected at King's Cross, in the west 
central part of London; it has 677 cubicles. Then in 1897 
came one of 805 cubicles at Newington Butts, in the 
southeast of London (by an addition just opened the 
building now has a total of 1,015 cubicles, with an extra 
smoking and writing room) ; then one of 800 cubicles at 
Hammersmith, in the west of London ; and lastly this 
house at Whitechapel. 

It should be explained that these buildings only pay 
a profit when the cubicles are fully occupied every night. 
That they are so occupied — indeed scores of men are 
turned away nightly — proves how exceedingly popular 
the houses are among the men whom they are intended 
to benefit. 



141 







\ 



i 



iiilj, nil 



W 






ROWTON n<;lM:, WHITECHAPKL, LONDON. SKCTION ON 



ENTRANCE FRONT, KOWTON HOUSE, WHITECHAPEL, LONDON. 
Harry B. Measures, Architect. 

At the ninth annual general meeting of Rowton 
Houses, Limited, held in March last, a dividend of three 
per cent only was declared, but this was due to the out- 
break of smallpox in London, for the houses had to be 
closed against newcomers, and the revenue conseciuently 
suffered a good deal. Sir Richard Farrant said at that 
meeting that the company now had 3,993 cubicles and 
that these were not sufficient for the demand. In exist- 
ing circumstances a number of what may be called per- 
manent lodgers are elbowed out from time 
to time by casuals. As a rule the casual is 
not so cleanly a person as a permanent 
lodger, and it would be impossible to pay a 
dividend if the company had to depend on 
him. At present the charge of sixpence per 
night is made irrespective of who the men 
may be, but in the future it is proposed that 
those booking for a week shall be charged 
3.S-. (if/, for that time and others 7c/. per 
night. About .seventy-five per cent of the 
lodgers would be tmaffected by the change, 
so far as the houses at Vauxhall, King's 
Cross, Newington Butts and Hammersmith 
are concerned. At Whitechapel the condi- 
tions are different. The site there cost more 
than the others, the building has been more 
costly, and the assessment is very high. 
The company therefore feel it will be neces- 
sary to charge 4.V. for weekl}- Iiookings in 
that house and .Sc/. for single nights; be- 
sides, the amount of petty pilfering at 
Whitechapel lias been .serioiKS, iind this has 
not been the work of the permanent lodgers, 
but of the casuals. 



142 



THH HRICKBIMLDER 




hm^ 


"^^. 


^ij" 


1 1 


1 


'« 








Ik^ 










KOOTHATHS. 



A CUBICLK. 



LOCKER COKKIDOK. 



The Whitechapel house has its main 
front on Fieldgate Street. (Any one 
desirini^ to visit it sliould i^o on the Un- 
derground Railway to St. Mary's Sta- 
tion.) The site consists of two adjoin- 
ing parallelograms, the larger of which 
has a frontage of 192 feet, with a depth 
of I 29 feet, the smaller having a back 
frontage of 75 feet and a depth of 67 
feet, the total superficial area being 
29,500 feet. On each side are wide fore 
courts, which, with an inner courtyard 
50 feet wide and open at one end, pro- 
vide abundant light and air; while elec- 
tric light is installed throughout, and 
on a system which gives the official on 
each floor of cubicles the control of the 
lights on that floor, with central control 
of all in the office on the ground floor. 

The exterior of the building is of 
red pressed Leicester facing bricks. 





DIMNG UOOiM. 



.MAIN CORRIDOR. 

reliev'ed with 
K 1 e 1 1 o n s a n d 
terra-cotta 
dressings; in- 
side F 1 e 1 1 o n 
(where plas- 
tered) and 
glazed bricks 
a r e u s e d 
t h r o u g h o u t . 
The whole of 
the brickwork 
is set in Port- 
land cement 
mortar, (ireen 
slates are used 
on the roofs to 
the front eleva- 
tion, nailed on 
c oke-br e e z e 
concrete slabs 
carried by steel 



construction. The other roofs are con- 
crete flats covered with asphalt. The 
sanitary work has received special at- 
tention, iron pipes with coated interiors 
being employed wherever it has been 
necessary to carry them under the 
building. 

For administrative ])urposes the 
building is divided into the Ave follow- 
ing sections: superintendent's depart- 
ment; catering section, which includes 
sleeping accommodation for females 
employed in the shop, kitchen and 
scullery; bedmakers; lodgers' day 
rooms; and lodgers' cubicles. The 
superintendent's residence is of two 
stories and self-comprised, with an 
office and clerk's residence adjoining, 
the oflice being immediately inside the 
main entrance to the building. 

The catering department is on the 




DlUCh AM) K.\ ] K A.NCK. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



143 



ground floor and comprises kitchen, scullery, larder, shop, 
service lobbies, storerooms and servants' rooms (one sit- 
ting room, six bedrooms, bathrooms, lavatory and water- 
closet). 

The rooms, other than the sitting room and bedrooms, 
which are plastered, are lined with glazed brickwork from 
floor to ceiling, with a dado in chocolate bricks and white 



top-lights opening into the central courtyard. It is a 
very large room, the floor space being 5,891 feet, and 
seating accommodation at tables is provided for 456 
men. There are four large cooking ranges with ovens, 
hot plates and grilles, and large boilers at the back with 
boiling water for lodgers' cooking, tea, etc. The scullery 
adjoining is intended for lodgers who wisli to i)rcpare 




above. The kitchen measures 
29 feet by 20 feet and has a 
wood block floor with tiled mar- 
gin and hearths. The scullery 
is 27 feet by 22 feet and has 
large teak sinks, draining 
boards, plate racks and dresser ; 
the larder is 15 feet 6 inches by 
8 feet. Adjoining the main 
dining hall is a shop with sa.sh 
windows and counter for ser- 
vice. 

We now come to the lodgers' 
day rooms, which include a 
smoking room, reading room, 
dining room, scullery, etc. 
Leading to the right off" the 
main entrance corridor on the 
ground floor is the smoking 
ro.om. This has a floor space 
of 1,936 feet, and its windows 
look into Fieldgate Street, .so 
that there is ample light. The 

tables and seats, as in the dining room, are of teak and 
seat one hundred and forty lodgers, in addition to which 
' wooden easy-chairs are provided around the two fire- 
places and in bays. Here again the walls have a dado of 
chocolate and cream bricks, with plastering above tinted 
a terra-cotta shade; mantels and overmantels are in 
glazed faience and fitted with large open grates. 

Opposite, on the other side of the corridor, is the din- 
ing room. As well as windows it has large ventilating 




THE LAVATORY. 



^ FIRST FLOOR 



their own food for cooking; in 
fact, every provision seems to 
have been made, so that the 
men may buy their meals 
cooked from the shop, buy raw 
material there and cook it 
themselves, or bring their own 
fof)d and cook it; thus every 
one's personal means and incli- 
nation are considered. Adjoin- 
ing the dining room are also a 
shelved room for crockery, 
cooking utensils, etc. (for the 
free use of lodgers who wish to 
])repare their own food), and a 
large space with more than 
eight hundred lockers, divided 
by seven pas.sages to])-!ightcd 
and ventilated. The lockers 
are 3 feet high by 1 foot 6 
inches square inside and arc 
arranged in three tiers. 

The lavatory is at one end 
of the luiilding and is 38 feet wide by 40 feet long. It is 
lined with glazed brickwork and has eighty basins of 
white enameled fire clay fitted with polished slate tops, 
brass taps, etc., the waste pij^es discharging over an 
open white enameled earthenware channel in the floor, 
which is laid in falls to the channeling for cleansing 
and (piick drying. The hot water pipes are exposed, 
and the heat radiated from them helps to warm the lava- 
tory. 



144 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



The other rooms on the jjroiind tloor include one fitted 
with eleven feet-washing- troujjhs, seven bathrooms, two 
dressing rooms, a wash house where lod,gers may wash 
their own garments, barber's, shoemaker's and tailor's 
shops, a place for cleaning boots and clothes, porters' 
day room, and parcel room ; while outside in the court- 
yard, and cut off by a cross-ventilated lobby, are forty 
water-closets in one l)uilding and ten urinals in another. 



artist in the elevating work of a Rowton House. Close 
by, on the roof over the dining and other rooms, is a 
smoking lounge. 

The cubicles alone remain to be dealt with. They 
are approached by three fireproof staircases, all at the 
ends of the corridors, .so that the lodgers cannot be 
trapped by fire, in addition to which each floor is divided 
by walls into ten sections, which vv(nild check the .spread 




GROUND FLOOK 



A fumigating room is also provided outside the building' 
and a drying room formed where waste heat from the 
furnaces can be utilized. 

Over the smoking room, on the first floor, is the read- 
ing room. Two bookcases are included in it, and the 
books are lent to lodgers on application to the superin- 
tendent. There are pictures on the walls, and, in addi- 
tion, a .series of panels of " The Seasons," painted by Mr. 
H. F. Strachey, given as the practical interest of an 



of a fire horizontally; this sectioning, too, enables isola- 
tion and fumigation to be carried out in the event of an 
outbreak of contagious disease. There are five floors of 
cubicles. Each bed is in a separate cubicle, and each 
cubicle has a window under the control of the occupant. 
The cubicles are divided up by wood partitions painted a 
light color and varnished; the partitions next to the cor- 
ridors are 6 feet 6 inches high, while the divisions are 
7 feet 6 inches high, leaving a space above for ventilation. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



U5 



Economics of Construction. III. 

BY JOHN LYMAN FAXON. 

THE units for office buildings vary somewhat accord- 
ing to demands of local needs or supposed desir- 
able sizes, but, as a rule, the needs of any given line of 
office business are substantially the same, and there is no 




and such disposition takes up more tlian loo per cent of 
rental area over that shown in F'igure ,^ ; also the columns 
in Figure 2 break up the use of office walls. The area of 
building to lot, F'igure 2, is approximately 83 yj per cent; 
that of Figure 3, 81 percent, a saving of 2'/? per cent. 
The rental areas of Figure 2 are approximately 55,",, per 
cent per floor; those of Figure 3 are practically the same, 
yet the wing corridors in Figure 3 are 50 per cent wider 
than in Figure 2, the unit cif corridors in F'igure 2 being 
about I to 3, in Figure 3, 3 to 5. A corridor unit of i to 
3 is too narrow in anj- case, and 3 to 5 is none too large. 
The office units, F"'igure 3, are approximately 4 to 
5, 15 X 19 feet, except the six large offices in left wing, 
15 X 25 feet; 15 x 31 feet; 15 x 37 feet; the small offices 



FIG. I. 

special reason why they should not be the same in Bos- 
ton, New York, Chicago and other large cities, but the 
plans of office buildings show a useless variation in sizes 
of subdivisions, some showing sizes as much too large as 
others too small. 

We have made some extended inquiries in reference to 
desirable units, and the consensus of opinion is that the 
best proportion is 4 to 5 ; that offices approximately 12 feet 
by 15 feet and 14 feet by 18 feet are most desirable; that 
dimensions less than 11 feet wide or 12 feet deep are not 
desirable, except for light business requiring desk room 
only, and that while it is desirable that all office buildings 
have a few small offices, it is not a gotxl scheme to plan a 
whole building on such small units. 
For illustration of the //-'/// system, 
we reproduce some plans, and out- 
line modifications. (See Figs, i, 2, 

3. 3^^-) 

The area and angles of plan shown 

in Figure i are not such as present 
a ready solution at first glance, but 
it is subject to a simikir scale of 
units as shown in Figure 3, in place 
of that as shown in Figure 2, and 
that such solution of the problem is 
better for business purposes and 
would make a material saving in 
cost. The area and shape of Figure 
2 more easily adjust themselves to a 
desirable unit, as shown in Figure 3. 
In this problem we have a lot with 
three open sides, two right angles 
and one side at an off angle. The 
offices in Figure 2 vary from about 
17 X 17 feet to 17 X 30 feet; the 
lay-out is costly as to construc- 
tion. It will also be noted that the 
columns are irregularly disposed as 
to locations in the several offices, 







FIG. 2. 



at ends of corridors, 9 x 10 feet; those at the front serve 
as private offices to suites of three to five offices; those 
at the rear (with borrowed light only) may be used 
as private offices, or are valuable for storage of books 




rROrxT iXREET 



FIG. 3. 



146 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



and papers of large corporations. The 15 x 25 feet ofifices 
are not excessively bad shape; the 15 x 31 feet and 15 X37 
feet offices overrun the mark, but these larger offices gain 
in light by having wall spaces for windows looking to the 
front ; the gain in desirable size, unit of space, of all the 
other offices, and the saving in cost more than outweigh the 
undesirable size of the oversized offices. The saving in 
cost, plan Figure 3, over that of Figure 2, approximates 
§110,000 in a twenty-story building. This saving will 
in twenty-five years amount to about §293,000, to say 
nothing about reduced cost of 
insurance, which will amount 
to quite a penny in twenty-five 
years. 

The e.s.sential elements in 
office buildings as a business 
proposition are : (a) Thoroughly 
fireproof construction, long life 
at minimum cost consistent 
with ([uality. A building of 
solid masonry construction 
meets this, {b) The use of best 
materials regardless of cost, 
which insure the hast amount 
of materials and labcjr when 
rightly employed. (c) The 
omission of every ounce of 
woodwork and finish down to 
bare necessities (which are rela- 
tively small). It would be a 
great improvement if all floor- 
ing throughout were of ter- 
razzo. Such floors are more 
lasting, cleaner, more sanitary 
and more desirable in every 
wa}^ but probably 95 per cent 
of clients would put them out 
of consideration on account of 

first cost. In respect to doors, a metal-faced door on a 
wood core frame is not such a vast improvement over one 
of all wood. Some day some man or company will perfect 
a light fireproof door made of compressed asbestos, [d] 
The maximum amount of rental area consistent with a iDiit 
plan, wide corridors, cost of construction, light, and re- 
duced ])remiums for insurance. (<) Mechanical plants 
that will reduce operating expenses from 16 to 20 per 
cent. This is not a rash statement. The average sum 
of fixed charges and expen.ses for office buildings in 
Boston is, as a rule, 40 per cent of gross income in the 
majority of cases, -to 50 per cent in some ca.ses. We 
know that this amount can be reduced materially without 
loss of efficiency or care. 

As to insurance, the general practice is to insure for 
about <So per cent of cost of building, and the rates vary 
from $1.75 to $2.50 per $1,000, according to location, 
surroundings and risk. On a solid masonry building 25 
per cent would be aiitfilc protection and at lowest rates. 
This item alone means a saving of $28,000 in twenty- 
five years on a building costing $600,000. 

The above means a larger per cent of gross and net 
income, which is the final and telling analysis in lowest 
terms of the value of a real estate investment. 

Some years back one or more ])apers were ])uhlishe(l 



on the basis of imits for <jffice buildings, for lots of dif- 
ferent areas, from which we select a typical plan for a 
])uilding on a lot 50 x 100 feet or 5,000 square feet. As 
will be noted by tlTc plan shown in Figure 4 the front 
offices (i, 2 and 3), 16 x 20 feet, have a four to five unit; 
the other offices have a imit of width of 9 feet 9 inches, 
which is too narrow: ten of them have a length of 15 feet 
and a corridor unit of 5 feet to 9 feet 9 inches. The 
rear wall, in the original, is shown as a dead wall. Offices 



and 



5 :^'"'-' 9 



feet 








KIG. 3<?. 



inches x 21 feet 6 inches, and 
have windows against the cor- 
ner at one end of a long side, 
which would not afford good 
light for offices of such areas 
and dimensions. Offices 16 and 
I 7 are 9 feet 9 inches x 1 7 feet 
6 inches, with windows at the 
ends. 

In this plan (Fig. 4) the 
elevators and stairs are not 
well placed, as the}' are not 
central to all offices, being so 
near to the front that they 
seriously cut into valuable 
rental areas in the basement 
and first and second stories. 
Four elevators are too many 
for size of building, two being 
plenty fc^r twelve stories, of 
this area. In respect to ele- 
vator service, a general good 
rule is, that 2 '4 j^er cent of 
the rental area (of one floor) is 
a fair allowance for a building 
ten to twelve stories high, and 
5 per cent for (me of twenty 
•stories. A larger number of 
small elevators affords better 
service than a smaller number (jf large elevators. 

The water-closets are inconveniently placed, and the 
steel framing is not economical. The outside columns 
are indicated as shown in original, the inside columns 
would need to be located and spaced as shown at A A 
or as at B B. They could not be .spaced otherwise, for 
wash basins and communicating doors in all partitions 
are shown (in original) as indicated at A A. 

Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 show a unit plan of an office 
building, on lot 50 x 125 feet or 6,250 s<juare feet, twelve 
stories, and illustrating four different systems of construc- 
tion, A, B, C and /). 

System A indicates a minimum number of columns, 
maximum cost; steel columns, I beams and tcrra-cotta 
flat arches. 

System />' indicates same number of coUnnns with an- 
other disposition, less cost than ./, steel columns, I beams 
and terra-cotta flat arches. 

System C indicates a larger number of columns, less 
cost than />', I beams and terra-cotta flat arches. 

System D shows same arrangement of su])])orts (C. I. 
columns, firepnxjfed, or brick piers) as L\ of solid masonry 
construction, in single vaults for unit of space, no steel 
frame, and is the least co.stly as will be shown by figures 
lielow. The units of sjjace in D can be covered either 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



H7 



<)-<f " X -2/- <■ 



with terra-cotta vai:lting of requisite shapes or by tlie 
Guastavino system, and of two-centered, four-centered or 
fiat dome vaults. 

In and for such a buildinj^- the question of econom- 
ics is as to that system which will insure the least hazard 
as to life of structure, maximum protection ag-ainst fire, 
low cost and insurance risk ; not only in respect to cost of 
erection per sc, but in respect to cumulative cost as an 
investment, earninp^ capacity and net percent income, for 
a term of years. 

Assuming- that the land costs $100 ])er 
square foot, the total investment at com- 
pletion of building- will amount to (steel 
frame system^.4) $1,215,970 — land, build- 
ing, carrying- charges, architect, taxes, 
and small allowance for contingencies and 
extras. 

To yield 4 per cent net per annum, 
the gross income must approximate 9 '2 
per cent on the investment. Our esti- 
mate of fair rentals amounts to $112,948 
gross or 9j-,;',j per cent, l)ut by the lower 
cost of system I), under system A, and 
the saving in operating expenses, it would 
gain a little over four-fifths of i per cent 
gross, which is quite material. Now, to 
arrive at a determination as to which sys- 
tem of construction is tlie most econom- 
ical, we need to base comparative esti- 
mates, not only on first cost, but for a 
term of twenty-five years (assuming such 
term to be the maximum life of a steel 
frame building as now erected), for there 
are items of cost, charges, rent, interest, 
etc., which are compounded in any fixed 
term of years. 

Assuming that the exterior walls are 
the same as to resistance to fire, either 
within or without the building, that the architectural 
treatment and general finish are the saifie as to quality 
and cost in A, B, C and D, we then have, as determin- 
ing factors as to cost and net per cent, the relative cost 
of supports, floors, roof, fireproofing, architect's commis- 
sion, loss or gain in rental areas, insurance and interest, 
which sum u]d as follows in twenty-five year tcrni : 
Systiii/ A, Fig. 5 (wS. F. and T. C.*), $394,547.91 
7), " 6 " " " 378,621.65 

C, " 7 " " " 298,727.76 

" D, " 7 (all masonry), 266,683.83 

vSo in D as against ./ we have a saving or profit of 
$127,864.08, or 48 per cent. The above amounts, in rela- 
tion to initial investment, are: 

A 32.4 i)er cer.t. />', 31.1 ])er cent. 

C, 24.5 per cent. D, 2\.\ percent. 

And what is of more im])ortance, we have in J) a 
building good for fifty, one hundred or one thousand 
years so far as structural permanency is concerned, in- 
stead of one good for eighteen to twenty-five years. 

This difference in co.st means, reduced rents, or a 
higher rate of gross and net per cent income; tenants do 
not incjuire as to the systitn of ccmstruction. when a 

* J'.teel frame and terra-cotta construction. 



0_^A p_ Wy^t 




STRKET FRONT. 
LOT 50 X 100 FEET 

Fu;. 4. 



building is supposed to l)e fireproof and u]) to date; con- 
sequently there would be no call to reduce rents; on the 
contrary, if it were known that an office building stood 
indestructibly ftrcproof, as it would be under system A 
tenants would undoubtedly pay full as much or more 
rent, as the feeling of security would be enhanced, and 
cost of insui-ance less. 

All of which emphasizes what we .said in the fir.st 
paper, that the burnt clay interests should devote their 
eft'orts, brains, time and money towards 
the ])roduction of materials — terra-cotta 
and bricks — of ultimate strength, light- 
ness and adjustability for solid ma.sonry 
construction, and not stand, as now, the 
s])ousors of the steel frame. 

ICvery architect who has an ounce of 
juidc and imagination in his ])rf)fessional 
efforts naturally desires that the build- 
ings which are the offsprings of his crea- 
tive faculties shall be endowed with as 
large an element of beauty as ]M)Ssible. 
This element does not in all cases de])end 
upon cost, but nevertheless money does 
enter to a considerable degree into its 
jjossibilities; for, in the great majority of 
cases, buildings, whatever their nature or 
cost may be. have a limit, no matter what 
the sum ma}- be, either liccause of the 
demands of business investments and per 
cent of income: ]mblic ap]5ropriations; or 
the limit of a client's ])urse. 

Some architects appear to have the 
happy fortune in clients with a supera- 
bundance of means, but it ma}- be said 
with truth that the results are not invari- 
ably of the highest order either as to 
structural science, architectural expres- 
sion or beauty. The amount of an archi- 
tect's practice does not by any means gage either his .-es- 
thetic or practical ability; there are many examples which 
prove the contrary. The great majority of architects 
are certainly less fortunate in the mone}' at their dis])osal. 
With these the efforts to obtain beauty and to themselves 
at least satisfactory results must depend on two cjuite an- 
tagonistic elements of profe.ssional make-up, — the practi- 
cal and the icsthetic, not an altogether common combi- 
nation in one personality. Either one or both may be a 
gift of nature at the start, more or less evenly balanced 
or unbalanced. They are largely a matter of training, 
experience, observation and knowledge of the market. 
To our mind no American architect ever had the two, 
iiitiiiti't'c/y, in a higher degree than Henry Hobson Rich- 
ardson. We say intuitively, because his mind was evi- 
dently not a practical one by training or otherwise, 
while it was, untiuestionably, a highly organized a-sthetic 
and creative one ; no modern architect had so slight a con- 
ception of the value of nioney as money, yet he designed 
and. erected a remarkable number of buildings solid and 
beautiful, and in respect to their solidity and beauty the 
cost was surprisingly low. 

It is evident, ha\iiig a limit of cost against a liuilding, 
that its element of beauty depends not only on the archi- 
tect's intuitive and trained i)erce])tions and ability to de- 



146 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




3 X cr 



and papers of large corporations. The 15 x 25 feet offices 
are not excessively bad shape; the 15 x 31 feet and 15 X37 
feet offices overrun the mark, but these larger offices gain 
in light by having wall spaces for windows looking to the 
front; the gain in desirable size, unit of space, of all the 
other offices, and the saving in cost more than outweigh the 
undesirable size of the oversized offices. The saving in 
cost, plan Figure 3, over that of Figure 2, approximates 
$1 10,000 in a twenty-story building. This saving will 
in twenty-five years amount to about $293,000, to say 

nothing about reduced cost of 

insurance, which will amount 
to (juite a penny in twenty-five 
years. 

The essential elements in 
office buildings as a business 
jiroposition are: (a) Thoroughly 
fireproof construction, long life 
at minimum cost consistent 
with (juality. A building of 
solid masonry construction 
meets this, (b) The use of best 
materials regardless of cost, 
which insure the hast amount 
of materials and labor when 
rightly employed. (c) The 
omission of every ounce of 
woodwork and finish down t(j 
bare necessities (which are rela- 
tively small). It would be a 
great improvement if all floor- 
ing throughout were of ter- 
razzo. Such floors are more 
lasting, cleaner, more sanitary 
and more desirable in every 
way, but jjrobably 95 per cent 

(jf clients wtnild put them cnit kig. yj. 

of consideration on account oi 

first cost. In respect to d(Kjrs, a metal-faced door on a 
wood core frame is n(jt such a vast improvement over one 
of all wood. Some day some man or company will perfect 
a light fireproof door made of compressed asbestos. {<i) 
The maximum amount of rental area consistent with a unit 
plan, wide c(jrridors, cost of construction, light, and re- 
duced ])remiums for insurance. {c) Mechanical plants 
that will reduce operating expen.ses from 16 to 20 per 
cent. This is not a ra.sh statement. The average sum 
of fixed charges and expenses for office buildings in 
Boston is, as a rule, 40 per cent of gross income in the 
majority of cases, -to 50 per cent in some cases. We 
know that this amount can be reduced materially without 
loss of efficiency or care. 

As to insurance, the general practice is to insure for 
about 80 per cent of cost of building, and the rates vary 
from S1.75 to $2.50 per §1,000, according to location, 
surroundings and risk. On a solid masonry building 25 
per cent would be ainp/c protection and at lowest rates. 
This item alone means a saving of $28,000 in twenty- 
five years on a building costing $600,000. 

The above means a larger per cent of gross and net 
income, which is the final and telling analysis in lowest 
terms of the value of a real estate investment. 

Some years back one or more ])ai3ers were iniblished 







on the basis of units for office buildings, for lots of dif- 
ferent areas, from which we select a typical plan for a 
l)uilding (m a lot 50 x 100 feet or 5,000 scjuare feet. As 
will be noted by the plan shown in Figure 4 the front 
ofTtices (1,2 and 3), 16 x 20 feet, have a four to five unit; 
tlie other offices have a unit of width of 9 feet 9 inches, 
whicli is too narrow; ten of them have a length of 15 feet 
and a corridor unit of 5 feet to 9 feet 9 inches. The 
rear wall, in the original, is shown as a dead wall. Offices 
4 and 5 are 9 feet 9 inches x 21 feet 6 inches, and 
have windows against the cor- 
ner at (me end of a long side, 
which would not afTord good 
light for offices of such areas 
and dimensions. Offices 16 and 
1 7 are 9 feet 9 inches x 1 7 feet 
6 inches, with windows at the 
ends. 

In this ]Dlan (Fig. 4) the 
elevators and stairs are not 
well placed, as they are not 
central to all offices, being so 
near to the front that they 
seriously cut into valuable 
rental areas in the ba.sement 
and first and second stories. 
Four elevators are too many 
for size of building, two being 
])lenty for twelve stories, of 
this area. In respect to ele- 
vator service, a general good 
rule is, that 2)4 per cent of 
the rental area (of one floor) is 
a fair allowance for a building 
ten to twelve stories high, and 
5 per cent for one of twenty 
stories. A larger number of 
stiiall elevators affords better 
.service than a smaller number of large elevators. 

The water-clo.sets are inconveniently placed, and the 
steel framing is not economical. The outside columns 
are indicated as shown in original, the inside columns 
would need lo be located and spaced as shown at A A 
or as at B B. They could not be spaced otherwise, f(jr 
wash basins and communicating doors in all partitions 
are shown (in original) as indicated at A A. 

I'^igures 5, 6, 7 and 8 show a unit plan of an office 
building, on lot 50 x 125 feet or 6,250 square feet, twelve 
stories, and illustrating four different systems of construc- 
tion, ./, /)', C and D. 

Syx/f)// A indicates a niininnim number of columns, 
maximum cost; steel columns, I beams and terra-cotta 
flat arches. 

Sysfiii! />' indicates same number of columns with an- 
other disj)osition, less cost than A, steel columns, I beams 
and terra-cotta flat arches. 

Systoit t' indicates a larger number of columns, less 
cost than />', I beams and terra-cotta flat arches. 

System D shows same arrangement of supports (C. I. 
columns, fireproofed, or brick piers) as L\ of solid masonry 
construction, in single vaults for unit of space, no steel 
frame, and is the least costly as will be shown by figures 
below. The units of space in D can lie covered either 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



H7 



9-^ X J/- i -» 

A, K 



with terra-cotta vaulting of requisite shapes or by the 
Guastavino system, and of two-centered, four-centered or 
flat dome vaults. 

In and for such a huildinj,^ the question of econom- 
ics is as to that system which will insure the least hazard 
as to life of structure, maximum protection a.^-ainst fire, 
low cost and insurance risk ; not only in respect to cost of 
erection pc?- sc, but in respect to cumulative cost as an 
investment, earning- capacity and net ])er cent income, for 
a term of years. 

Assuming that the land costs .f;ioo i)er 
square foot, the total investment at com- 
pletion of building will amount to (steel 
frame sy.stem'y^) $1,215,970 — land, build- 
ing, carrying charges, architect, taxes, 
and small allowance for contingencies and 
extras. 

To yield 4 per cent net per annum, 
the gross income must approximate g'^ 
per cent on the investment. Our esti- 
mate of fair rentals amounts to $112,948 
gross or 9i'-„"„ per cent, but by the lower 
cost of system 1), under system A, and 
the saving in operating expenses, it would 
gain a little over four-fifths of i per cent 
gross, which is quite material. Now, to 
arrive at a determination as to which sys- 
tem of construction is the most econom- 
ical, we need to base comparative esti- 
mates, not only on first cost, but for a 
term of twenty-five years (assuming such 
term to be the maximum life of a steel 
frame building as now erected), for there 
are items of cost, charges, rent, interest, 
etc., which are com])ounded in any fi.Kcd 
term of years. 

Assuming that the exterior walls are 
the same as to resistance to fire, either 
within or without the building, that the architectural 
treatment and general fini.sh are the saifie as to quality 
and cost in ^l, />', C and D, we then have, as determin- 
ing factors as to cost and net per cent, the relative cost 
of supports, floors, roof, fireproofing, architect's commis- 
sion, loss or gain in rental areas, insurance and interest, 
which sum \\\) as foUows in twenty-five year term: 
System A, Fig. 5 (vS. F. and T. C.*), §,^94,547.91 
/>', " 6 " " " 378,621.65 

C, " 7 " " " 298,727.76 

" P, "7 (all masonry), 266,683.83 

vSo in P as against A we have a saving or profit of 
$127,864.08, or 48 per cent. The above amounts, in rela- 
tion to initial iavestment, are: 

/I, 32.4 i)er cent. //, 31. i percent. 

C, 24.5 ])er cent. D, 21. 1 percent. 

And what is of more importance, we have in D a 
l)uilding good for fifty, one hundred or one thousand 
years so far as structural ])ermanency is concerned, in- 
stead of one good for eighteen to twenty-five years. 

This difference in cost means, reduced rents, or a 
higher rate of gross and net per cent income; tenants do 
not in(|uire as to the system of construction, when a 

* iUtcl frame and terra-cotta construction. 



0_^A. X?_ VV.^L i- 




f f'lt lib' y 



xepr 



strket front, 
lot 50 x too feet. 

fk;. 4. 



building is sui)po.scd to l)e fireproof and uj) to date; con- 
sequently there would lie no call to reduce rents; on the 
contniry, if it were known that an office Iniilding stood 
indestructibly fireproof, as it would be under system l\ 
tenants would undoubtedly pay full as much or more 
rent, as the feeling of .security would be enhanced, and 
cost of insurance less. 

All of which emphasizes what we said in the first 
paper, that the burnt clay interests should devote their 
efforts, brains, time and money towards 
the production of materials — terra-cotta 
and bricks — of ultimate strength, light- 
ness and adjustability for solid masonry 
construction, and not stand, as now, the 
sponsors of the steel frame. 

Every architect who has an ounce of 
]u-ide and imagination in his professional 
eft'orts naturally desires that the build- 
ings which arc the offsprings of his crea- 
tive faculties shall l)e endowed with as 
large ;ui clement of beauty as possible. 
This clement does not in all ca.ses depend 
upon cost, but nevertheless money does 
enter to a considerable degree into its 
]3ossibilitics; for, in the great majority of 
cases, buildings, whatever their nature or 
cost may be, have a limit, no matter what 
the sum may be, either becau.se of the 
demands of business investments and ])er 
cent of income; public appropriations; or 
the limit of a client's jjurse. 

Some architects ap])ear to have the 
happy fortune in clients with a supera- 
bundance of means, Init it may be said 
with truth that the results are not invari- 
ably of the highest order either as to 
structural science, architectural expres- 
sion or beauty. The amount of an archi- 
tect's practice docs not b\" an\- means gage either his aes- 
thetic or practical ability; there are many exam])les which 
prove the contrary. The great majority of architects 
are certainly less fortunate in the money at tlicir disposal. 
With these the efTorts to obtain beauty and to themselves 
at least satisfactory results must depend on two (luite an- 
tagonistic elements of professional make-up, — the practi- 
cal and the ;esthetic, not an altogether common combi- 
naticm in one personality. Either one or both may be a 
gift of nature at the start, more or less evenly balanced 
or unbalanced. They are largely a matter of training, 
experience, observation and knowledge of the market. 
To our mind no American architect ever had the two, 
iiitiiiti'i'i/y, in a higher degree than Henry Hobson Rich- 
ardson. We say intuitively, because his mind was evi- 
dently not a ])ractical one by training or otherwise, 
while it was, unquesti(mably, a highly organized icsthetic 
and creative one; no modern architect had so slight a con- 
ception of the value of money as money, yet he designed 
and erected a remarkable number of buildings .solid and 
beautiful, and in respect to their solidity and beauty the 
cost was surprisingly low. 

It is evident, having a limit of cost against a building, 
that its element of beauty depends not only on the archi- 
tect's intuitive and trained percei)lions and ability to de- 



148 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



si<4n, hut upon his practi- 
cal constructive ability to 
plan, construct, with the 
least expenditure of ma- 
terials, labor and cost, con- 
sistent with sound struc- 
tural principles, knowl- 
edj^'e of materials and how 
to use them, of labor and 
how and where to apply 
it, of cost and how to com- 
pute it. This knowledsfe 
is not and can not be 
taught in the schools. It 
can only be acquired by 
personal study, effort, in- 
vestigation and experi- 
ment, /. c. , testing mate- 
rials himself: the accumu- 
lation of a store of data 
and facts, with the mental 
agility and confidence to 
quickly select and apply 
the right thing to the right 
purpose, the knowing how 
to do, and the best way of 
doiuf; it. And so he knows 
in a given case how much 
his construction will cost 
and how much he can use 
to embellish his construc- 
tion, and what is or should 
be a fair cost per cubic foot 
for the building complete. 
If he knows how to .save 5 
to 10 per cent in the cost 
of construction, without 
sacrificing stability, he 
knows he has 5 to 10 per 
cent more to spend for 
beauty, and whether or 
not he can spend 7 to 1 2 
per cent of cost in stone or 
terra-cotta trimmings and 
carving, and 2V2 to 5 per 
cent in marble or mosaic 
decorations, or use low or 
high cost woods for inside 
trimming. 

There are building 
stones, easily obtainable 
for structural uses, which 
in respect to compression 
vary all the way from 
10,000 to 40,000 pounds 
per square inch, and bricks 
which run all the way from 
2,000 to 18,000 pounds per 
square inch, yet the evi- 
dence is rare in which the 
use of such materials is 
emj)l(jyed as an economic 
basis of means to ends; 
with a requisite factor of 




STREET I'KONT. 
LOT 50 X 125 FEET. 
FICr. 5. SYSTEM A. 



STREET FRONT. 
LOT 50 X 125 FEET. 
FK;. 6. SYSTEM B. 



1 ! 1 



.-_J L 



"1 r^ 



TT"T 
1 [ [ 



1 I I 



— ' — * 't 



U L 



Jt 



1 r 



U-- 



1 I 1 



safety, one make of bricks 
is cheaper, laid in the 
liuilding, at $35.00 per 
thou.sand than other make 
of bricks at $20.00 per 
thousand. A Corinthian 
cornice in a building will 
cost $25 to $40 per linear 
foot, according to the kind 
and quality of stone used ; 
the same in terra-cotta or 
sheet copper will cost $15 
to $17.50 per linear foot, 
and in galvanized iron 
considerably less. In case 
of fire the chances are that 
the stone cornice will go 
to pieces and some parts 
of it fall and kill some 
one ; the terra-cotta will 
stay in place, with the 
probability that no great 
cost will be involved in its 
restoration ; the galva- 
nized iron (steel) will be 
a wreck any way. 



FIG. 7. SYSTEM C. 



FIG. 8. SYSTEM D. 



IT is now a year since 
the destruction of the 
campanile of vSt. Mark's, 
and apparently Venice is 
as far from seeing the be- 
ginning of the restoration 
as she was the day after the 
disaster. It was reported 
that.Signor Boni was to un- 
dertake the restoration of 
this important monument. 
We are told now that this 
work was intrusted to 
Moretti and Beltrami, and 
that the former has re- 
signed rather than let the 
work interfere with his 
work as a teacher of ar- 
chitecture, while the latter 
has withdrawn becau.se he 
does not wish to do it 
alone. What they need in 
Venice is a little American 
get-up-and-go. They do 
tho.se things better this 
side of the Atlantic. The 
principles involved in a 
construction of this sort 
are .so extremely simple 
that here it would not be 
considered in any sense a 
large commissi(jn, and if 
the whole structure could 
not be built inside of four 
months it would surely not 
be f<ir lack of ability ox 
experience on our part. 



THE BRICKBUILOER 



149 



Selected Miscellany. 



NEW YORK NOTEvS. 

In spite of the lono- tie-up of buildinc.- operations, 
the large architectural offices seem to kee]) busy with 
new w^ork, and we may safely say that the tide of pros- 
perity shows no sig-n of turning- yet. 





DETAIL BY ISRAELS & HARDER, ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

A great many of our younger architects and draughts- 
men are sharpening their pencils for a dig at The Brick- 
builder Library Competition. It is seldom that so 
tempting a bait is offered, aside from the interesting 
study involved in such a problem. Competiti<ms of this 




CHRIST church, PENSACOLA, FLA. 

John Sutcliffe, Architect. 
Covered with American, Spanish Model, Roofing Tile made by Cincinnati Roofing 

Tile and Terra-Cotta Co. 



sort, based absolutely on merit, cannot fail to ])ro(lucu 
splendid results. 

Brooklyn is to have a new ;|i,ooo,ooo mu- 
nicipal building. The program for the com- 
petition has been given out and thirteen archi- 
tects have been invited to compete. They are 
now at work on the ]M-eliminary sketches. 
Each competitor is to receive $500 for his 
work, a provision of the city fathers which is 



GUASTAVINO tile ceiling forming floor in a DOR.Ml- 

TORY OF THE NEW HOSPICIO FOR THE (iOVERN- 

MENT, CITY OF MEXICO. 

much to be commended. Professor Ucspradclles, of the 
Mas.sachusetts Institute of Technology, prepared the i)ro- 
gram, and is to be the professional advi.ser. 

Another interesting competition now under way is 
for the $150,000 high school at Plainfield, N. J. 
Fifteen architects have been invited to com- 
pete for this building, the best design being 
awarded the contract, the second $400 and the 
third $300. Mr. Walter Cook, of the well- 
known firm of Babb, Cook & Willard, is the 
IDTofessional adviser. 

The fact that so many competitions at the 
present time are guided by professional advice 
of the highest standard is exceedingly en- 
couraging, and will make work of this sort far 
more agreeable and satisfactory. 

Henry F. Hornl)ostel has ])re])ared .some 
elaborate and beautiful drawings for the recon- 
struction of City Hall Park and the housing of 
all our municii)al departments. He jiroposes 
removing every l)uilding in the j^resent park 
except our dignified and beautiful old City 
Hall, and enlarging the park by the removal 
of our ugly and expensive post office. Of 
course these ideas are so tremendously extrav- 
agant that I am afraid they will never 1)c 
adopted, although tiiey are perfectly feasible 
and i)racticable, and in a matter of this sort 
expense should cut no figure. 

These plans also call for two more buildings 
to be built on Chambers Street facing the ])ark, and 
resembling the present Hall of Records. The central 







PANEL FOR MANl F.L. 

E.\ecuted in Terra-Cotta by Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Co. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



ISO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




PUBLIC SCHOOL, JEKSKV C1T\ , N. J. 
Built of Brick made by Kreischer Brick Mf^. Co. 

building would be more ornate and wcnild be connected 
with the i)ark by a handsome stone bridge across Cham- 
bers Street. Not the least feature of the scheme is the 
granite tower, an office building forty-five stories high, 
for the housing of all the city departments. This part 
of the scheme seems to me faidty and visionary bevond 
reascm. 




CAPITAL BY J. T. \V. JKNNINGS, AKCHITKCT. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Co., Makers. 

CATALOrjUE OF THE NATIONAL FiREPROOFING CoMPANV of 

Pittsburg, U. S. A. Abridged edition. Offices: 
Boston, New York, Philadeljjhia, Pittsburg, Chicago. 
Author and compiler Henry L. Hinton, Engineer, 
National Fireproofing Company. New York : National 
Fireproofing Company. 1903. Price, $3. 
This catalogue is most carefully prepared to afford 
the architect, the engineer and the builder, the insurance 
underwriter, and all others interested, reliable informa- 



tion concerning the fireproofing of buildings by means of 
the various materials and methods in common use to-day, 
but more particularly by the use of the material known 
as porous terra-cotta, the special product of most of the 
works of this company. All the details of terra-cotta 
construction in the various forms which are manufactured 



HI^S 


^IH 


^o| 




P*^^^4| 


^^1^^ 



DETAIL KV VICTOR HUGO KOEHLER, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

by the company are carefully considered and analvzed in 
every respect, with abundant tables giving strength and 
dimensions, together with the sizes of beams, etc. The 
whole is most carefully worked out, and the publishers 
have very wisely left every alternate page blank for 
mem<jranda such as are sure to occur in ccmnection with 
the u.se of the Iwok. This catalogue consists in essence 
of an abridgment from the advance sheets (jf a work 
planned by the National Fireproofing Company on a very 
comprehensive scale and intended to exhaustively treat 
the whole subject of fireproofing with burnt clay. The 
completed work will include a great deal of verv scien- 




.y^ 



iPilElllll 



iiiii 




BEACON BUILDING, BOSTON. 

Goodwin & Siter, Architects. 

Built of Kittanning Gray Brick, Fiske & Co., Boston Agents. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



151 



tific investigation into clays and shales, the finished 
terracotta, methods of loading, economical floor con- 
strnction and steel framing, and will form a compendium 
of existing knowledge upon the subject. The handbook, 



terra-cotta for years will be surprised in studying this 
volume to find in how many different shapes terra-cotta 
fireproof construction is now put on the market and how 
carefullv the various forms have been studied to meet all 




DUDLEY MEMORIAL DORMITORY, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
William C. Hough, Architect. Terra-Cotta made by Excelsior 1 erra-Cotta Co. 



however, offers in very compact shape practically all the 
information which the designer would need in laying out 
work and proportioning the various members, both of the 
steel frame and of the terra-cotta filling, the former natu- 
rally receiving,however, only a relatively brief considera- 
tion. We imagine that manv architects who have used 



the emergencies of the necessities which have arisen in 
connection with our modern steel frame structures, .so 
that really the designer need not be at a loss to know 
what particular form to use, but can design his steel 
frame in such manner as will give the most economical 
structural results and be ])rettv sure of finding in these 





KY HARNETT, HAYNES & BARNETT, ARCHITECTS. 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



DETAIL HY li. M. MARSHALL, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Maker.s. 



152 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



pages full descrip- 
tions of the special 
shape of arch, 
skew back or fill- 
ing block which 
would most com- 
pletely answer for 
this special con- 
struction. The 
consolidation of 
the various fire- 
proofing interests 
has made a work 
of this kind possi- 
ble both by stand- 
ardizing the forms 
and by making 
practical such 
economies in con- 
srvictions as will 
allow the company 
to make and keep 
on hand a great 
variety of shapes. 




HOUSE AT CAMDEN, N. J. 
Harvev J. Shumway. Architect. Built of Brick made by Atlantic Brick Co. 



dormitories and 
barracks for the 
h o s ]) i t a 1 corps, 
gymnasium and 
recreation hall, 
guard and store 
houses, ])<)wer 
plant, etc., and the 
general drawings, 
block plan and 
bird's-eye view of 
the buildings will 
be submitted to 
Congress at the 
coming session, 
when it is ex- 
pected that appro- 
priations will be 
made to begin the 
construction work, 
the total cost of 
the work being es- 
timated at §2,500, - 
000. 





BAS-RELIEF EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA. 
Made bv St. Louis Terra-Cotta Co. 



IN GENERAL. 
Marsh & Peter, 
Washington, D. C, 
have been commis- 
sioned by the War De- 
partment as the archi- 
tects for the proposed 
new Army Post and 
General Hospital to be 
located on a site yet 
to be selected near 
Washington. The 
group will consist of 
administration and 
hospital buildings, 
chapel, memorial hall, 
nurses' home, resi- 
dences for the officers 
and medical staff, 




PUBLIC BATH HOUSE, CHICAGO. 
R. Bruce Watson, Architect. Terra-Cotta made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 



BARN, CHICAGO. 

Burtar & Gassman, Architects. 

Covered with Tiles made by Ludowici Roofing Tile Co. 

It has been the con- 
stant aim of the man- 
agement of the Ameri- 
can School of. Corre- 
spondence to raise the 
standard of corre- 
spondence instruction 
in general to the plane 
of serious educational 
work. x\ll the officers 
and instructors of the 
school are college men, 
graduates from such 
institutions as the 
Mas.sachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, 
Harvard, Tufts Col- 
lege, Lehigh Univer- 
sity, Dartmouth and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'53 



Armour Institute of Technology. They are men fitted 
by experience and education to offer sound instruc- 
tion, and they are men whose sense of responsibility to 
their alma mater will not permit them to hold any hut 
the highest educational ideals and standards. 




BALUSTRADE, HF.RTS * TALLANT, 
ARCHITECTS. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Ci>., 

Makers. 



Modern business methods would surprise our grand- 
fathers. The offices of modern up-to-date manufacturers 
are e([uipped after a fashion that would make the pioneers 
of American trade rub their eyes. I had occasion the 
other day to visit the great plant of the New York Archi- 
tectural Terra-Cotta Company at Ravenswood with a 
friend, an architect, who wished to inspect some elab- 
orate and artistic models for one of the new buildings. 
After we had passed a few hours in the great modeling 
room, where the workmen were working clay into designs 
for the various ornamental parts of a building, reminding 





METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, NEW YORK CUrV. 

Hunt & Hunt, Architects. 

The large quantity of enameled brick used in interior was made by American 

Enameled Brick and Tile Co. 



me of the studios of sculptors, we visited the office. Here 
we met Mr. Walter Geer, the president, and Mr. Bushnell 
Danford, the .secretary. They invited us to lunch. Now 
it is here where the old method is super.seded by the new. 
An entire floor is devoted to entertainment. It has re- 
ception rooms, retiring rooms, a large dining room and 
kitchens. The walls are adorned with photograi^hs of 
great buildings like the Cniversity Club, the Waldorf- 
Astoria, the Hotel Imperial, Ansonia, iJelmonico's, Cier- 
man vSquare, Uorling's and other cons])icuous edifices for 



(GARDEN FROM PORCH, HOUSE, WARREN, R. I. 
Cliarles A. Piatt, Architect. 

which the company has furnished terra-cotta ; tlie great 
brick fireplaces are noble specimens of the work done in 
this favored building material, etc. In the reception 
rooms are great albums showing the noblest specimens 
of Greek and Roman architecture, also of the Italian and 
French Renaissance. — The Pittsburg Press. 

A fairly good idea of the immense growth 
of the enameled brick Inusiness in this 
country may be gathered from the ])am])hlet 
jiLst issued by the American pyuamelcd Brick 
and Tile Company of New York, in which 
is given a list of the more important build- 
ings in this country in which their brick have 
l)een u.sed. Tlie names of the architects and 
number of bricks used are also given. 

A i)ocket catalogue and ])rice list, fur- 
nishing information regarding their j^roduct 
in the sim])lest and most concise form, has 
been issued by tlie Illinois Hydraulic Press 
Brick Company of vSt. Louis. It contains a 

great deal of desirable information relating to everyday 

practice. 



THE vSOCIETY OF BEAUX ARTS ARCHITECTS 
HAS E.STAIil.lSllEI) A /■/■lEE COCA'S/-: OF S/iDY, O/'EX 
TO PKAUCIITSMEN AM) ST U DENTS OF A.XY CITY, 
.VODEl.l.KD OX THE GEXEKAI. Pf.AX PUKSUEf) AT 
THE ECOI.E DE /i EA CX-A A'TS /X /'AA'/S.AXD CO.)//'A'/S- 
IXC, EKEQUEXT /'A'OH /.EA/S /X (>A'/)EA'S. /)ESt(;XS. 
AKCH/EOI. Oa )•, /•.• TC. 

EOli IXEORMATIOX AI'ri.Y TO THE SECRETAKY OE 
THE COMMITTEE 0\ EIUCA T/OX.j EAST ,';/) STREET. 
XEIV YORK CITY. 



rHE BRICKBUILDER. 




Competition for a Public Library § 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 




PROGRAM 

|T is assumed that a public library is to be presented to a town located in the middle west. 
This town occupies a picturesque position in a rolling country bordering one of the Great 
Lakes and is the seat of a small but important college. The public square is a park which 
is assumed to be 300 feet wide and upwards of 1,000 feet long. At one end is already built 
the town hall, and at the opposite end will be placed the library. The ground rises gently 
towards the proposed site, so that the position will be a commanding one. The whole front- 
age of 300 feet will be given to the library and its approaches, and the entire depth of the lot 
is 200 feet. The total rise from the curb line to the center of the lot is 10 feet, and the grade 
falls off towards the rear i foot in 40. Sidewise the grade falls off equally each way from the center 
10 feet to the boundary lines. The building must set back a distance of 75 feet from the front line, 
and the approach must be treated in an architectural manner. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and colored terra-cotta or 
faience may be introduced as a feature of the design. 

The following accommodation is to be provided for in plan. The dimensions given are only ap- 
proximate and may be modified as required by the exigencies of the design : 

First Story. Vestibule, 200 sq. ft. ; periodical room, 1,000 sq. ft.; reference library and reading 
room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; general delivery room, 600 sq. ft.; trustees' room, 350 sq. ft.; librarian's room. 
350 sq. ft. ; stack room, 1,500 sq. ft. 

Second Story. Children's room, 500 sq. ft. ; music room, 500 sq. ft. ; exhibition room, 500 sq. ft. ; 
two rooms for special collections, 500 sq. ft. each. 

It is assumed that the lavatories, storerooms, etc., are all to be located in the basement, which is 
to be raised sufficiently above the finished grade to allow of fair lighting. There are to be two flights 
of stairs leading to the second story, but they are not to be made a prominent feature. It will be 
assumed that the heating plant is entirely distinct from the building, there being consequently no 
provision made for a chimney, but space should be provided for ample ventilation flues. 

Drawings Required. An elevation at a scale of 1-16 inch to the foot, which is to show the 
entire frontage of the lot, 300 feet, and to indicate the treatment of approaches. There are also to 
be sketch plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 1-32 inch to the foot, and details drawn 
at a scale of 3-4 inch to the foot showing the character of the design and the construction of the 
terra-cotta. The elevation is to appear upon one sheet, and the details and plans upon another. 
The width and length of each sheet shall be in proportion of three to four and not exceed 24 x 32 
inches. All drawings are to be made in black ink without wash or color. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study 
of the use of architectural terra-cotta. No limitation of cost need be considered, but the designs must 
be made such as would be suitable for the location, for the character of the building and for the mate- 
rial in which it is to be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the 
terra-cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cotta will be a point 
taken largely into consideration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to 
be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 'Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., on or before October 31, 1903. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of JSOO. 
For the design placed second a prize of J200 
For the design placed third a prize of JIOO. 

All drawings submitted in this competition are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, 
and the right is reserved to publish any or all of them. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the 
terra-cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AUGUST, 

. 1903- 




COURT OF THE PALACE OF THE INFANTADO, GUADALAJARA, SPAIN. 




THE BRICKBVILDER! 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTSOF^ 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN- MATERIALS OF CLAY 



'ifm^^m^^^ 




AUGUST 1903 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flit to subscrilicrs in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 56. 00 per year 

Subscriptions p.\yable in advanie. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the LTnited States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged 111 the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products . . . II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

** Enameled . . . Ill and I\' 



PAGF 

Cements IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



.Advertisements will be printed on co\'er pages onl\'. 



GEORGE F. SHEPLEY. 

MR. H. H. RICHARDSON was unciuestional)!)- not 
merely a genius, but al.so one of the greatest ar- 
chitects this country has produced, and when on his death 
his business, by his express instructions, was handed over 
to three young men who had grown up in his office, the 
opportunities which such inheritance carried with it, in- 
volved a degree of responsibility which could not have 
been met by men of ordinary calibre. The success which 
has attended the firm ot Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge has 
shown to what extent Mr. Richardson's successors were 
able to meet these opportunities; and the position which 
Mr. Shepley took in his firm was one which few could 
have occupied more acceptably. He was a man of singu- 
larly delicate balance. He was thoroughly artistic and 
refined by sentiment, and yet posses.sed the tem])erament 
which could reconcile the conflict which .so often ari.ses 
between high art and practical requirements. He suc- 
ceeded in winning the confidence of some of the largest 
property owners in the country and received from them 
respect for his practical executive abilities, as well as for 
his artistic judgment. His health was never robust and 
though he never seemed worried or perplexed under the 
strain of his large practice, the anxieties of a very exact- 
ing profession unquestionably hastened his death. He 
was a man eminently fitted in everything except robust 



health to cope with the largest problems and these were 
presented to him in abundance. He was born in St. Louis 
in i860, his father liaving been one of the most brilliant 
lawyers in the city. His architectural training was re- 
ceived entirely in Boston, where he graduated from the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the class of 1882. 
His professional training thereafter was olilained entirely 
in the office of Mr. Richard.son, whose daughter he mar- 
ried. He was always deeply interested in professional 
matters, was a director of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, was frefiuently called tipon for individual consulta- 
tions outside of the usual rcnitine of business, and made 
himself many friends and no enemies by his unvarying 
courtesy and cpiiet tact. The firm of which he was a mem- 
ber has been entrusted with some of the largest work in 
the country. The Art Institute in Chicago, the Leland 
Stanford, Jr. Cniversity in California, the United States 
Building at the Paris Exposition of 1900, both of the 
enormous railway stations in Boston, the Union vStation 
at Albany, the Public Library at Chicago, the Ames 
Building and numerous other commercial structures in 
Boston, and, most recently, the extensive buildings for 
the Harvard Medical ^School, show to what extent this 
firm has earned its high jiosition. Mr. vShepley's death 
leaves a gap which will not easily l)e filled, and his repu- 
tation as well as his character is of a sort whicli should be 
an inspiration to every young architect. 



CLERK OF THE WORKS. 

IT is a custom among some architects to maintain on a 
building, at their own expense, a competent inspector 
who shall be constantly watching over portions of the 
work. In England the i)ractice is almost universal to 
have a so-called clerk of the works, who.se .salary is paid 
by the owner. It is to be regretted that that practice has 
not been followed more generally here, especially in the 
supervision of steel construction and fireproofing. Abun- 
dant investigation has shown beyond doubt that the ac- 
tion of Portland cement is to protect for an indefinite 
period the steel work with which it is directly in contact, 
but nothing short of the most thorough and unremitting 
l)ersonal supervision ought to satisfy the architect that 
the cement coating or filling has been pro])crly a])])licd. 
In the same manner constant supervision is re<|uirc(l in 
the setting of firejjroof material. When floor blocks are 
once in i)lace it is practically impossible to know the man- 
ner in which they are set, and, as custom has decided rather 
against grouting the blocks, the only way to make sure 
that the joints are properly filled is to watch every one. 



156 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Three Special Clinical Hospitals of 

the University at Breslaii,* 

Germany. 

BY EDMUND M. \V HEKLWKUiHT. 

THE hospital at Breslau is, I believe, the latest ex- 
ample of the German imiversity hospital. The 
professor in charge of each department has full control of 
the staff, the nurses and the administration of his hospi- 
tal, and the general superintendent of the hospital has 
only charge of the food and other supplies and the care 
of grounds. The professor of each clinic is therefore 
practically the superintendent of a small special hospital. 



especially equipped for scientific and educational work 
may be founded. Such institutions would appear requi- 
site for the development of highly trained specialists 
as well as for the highest .scientific study of disca.ses. 

From an architect's point of view these buildings at 
Breslau are imsatisfactory in the picture.scjiieness of 
their external expression and in the iise of columns and 
vaults in floor construction where fireproof floors carried 
on steel beams, permitting flat ceilings, better lighting 
and unobstructed floor space, would have been more rea- 
sonable. It should be considered a fundamental principle 
of hospital construction that picturesque efi'ect gained by 
the slightest .sacrifice of utilitarian advantage should not 
be permitted. 




BASEMENT I'I,AN, HOSIMTAL KOR SKIN DISEASES. 



It is, in fine, a federation of hospitals. Such a system 
permits a very close relation between the hospital wards 
and clinical and laboratory work, and it would appear to 
be a better organization for scientific and educational 
work than that of the centralized hospital system, which 
has been developed by the gradual establishment of sci- 
entific and educational equij^ments in connection with 
charitable foundations for the care of the sick. It is 
doubtful, however, whether such a system is as econom- 
ical as the centralized system in meeting the chief func- 
tion of a hospital, that of the immediate care of the 
unfortunate, but none the less it is to be desired that in 
our great centers of medical education hospitals thus 



HOSPITAL FOR SKIN DISEASES. 

The building for the skin clinic has two stories and 
an attic. The hospital has eighty-nine beds, twelve of 
which are for children. The patients are in three classes, 
two of which are for paying patients, those of the first 
class having private rooms and those of the .second class 
occupying two and four bed wards. The third-class pa- 
tients are in open wards. 

No provision is made for complete separation of the 
paying patients from the charity patients, and Professor 
Neissen, the director, recognizes this to be a disadvanta- 
geous arrangement in a ho.spital of this kind, where pa- 
tients are seldom seriously ill and confined to their beds, 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



157 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN, HOSPITAL FOR SKIN DISEASF.S. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, HOSPITAL FOR SKIN DISEASKS. 



158 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



since privileges given the paying patients cannot well be 
denied the others. There are four first-class wards and 
four second-class wards. The latter are designed for two 
beds each, but are often used for four patients, as can 
properly be done without violation of hygienic laws as 
the space per patient is nine and one-half square meters. 

One of the second-class and each of the first-class 
wards has a stationary bath so that the patient can be 
treated either in the bath or in the bed, and a movable 
raising and swinging apparatus makes it possible to eas- 
ily lift the patient and lower him into the bath without 
causing the suffering to certain patients that is inevitable 
in lifting and handling by nurses. Each of the single 
rooms has a set bath which is used in case of need by 
other patients. 

The operating room is in the second story and is 
lighted from the north and the northwest. The patients 
are moved to this room on a four-wheeled triick under 
each bed. The third-class patients are placed in the four 
large wards in the wings of the first and second stories 
and in two smaller wards in second story of the main 
building. In all there are for this class sixty-four beds 
for adults and twelve for children. For certain diseases 
sex is not regarded in assignment to rooms. The entire 
north wing, first and second floors, is for women and the 
south wing for men. A glass door on the second story 
separates the two parts of the building. As far as the 
classification can be maintained, sexual diseases are 
treated on the first story and skin diseases on the 
second. 

Adjoining each of the large wards is a duty room with 
a window commanding the ward, and adjoining this duty 
room is a room for examination and treatment. Immedi- 
ately adjoining each large ward is a lobby which is used 
as a day room. In each wing is a bathroom, arranged for 
electrical treatment, and two water-closets. Besides the 
five bathrooms on first and second stories there is a steam 
bath for each sex in the basement. These can also be used 
as hot-air baths. Here too are two sets of sweating ap- 
paratus and hydro-therapeutic apparatus. At the right 
of the entrance are the policlinical rooms. Patients have 
immediate access to the waiting room without passing 
through the main corridor. Adjoining the waiting room 
is the examination room, divided by a screen set between 
the windows and permitting the examination of two pa- 
tients at a time. In this room are the appliances for the 
examination and preliminary treatment of gonorrhea. 
Adjoining the examination room is a second room, 
which can also be divided by a curtain, one-half being 
used for the examination of women and the other for 
out-patients. This room is also u.sed to a certain extent 
for treatment of out-patients. 

The laboratories are on the left of the entrance and in 
the basement. 

The library is in the first story, which contains, in ad- 
dition to books, a most interesting collection of casts. The 
professor's private room is to the left of the library, and 
to the right is the waiting room for the lecture hall. In 
this room are kept charts, photographs, microscopic and 
other drawings used for instruction, as well as the records 
of ca.ses. 

The lecture hall accommodates sixty-eight students, 
who sit on either side of the patient, who is placed upon 



a raised platform. The pupils can easily step down to 
closely inspect the subject. 

In front of the corridor door is an opacjue glass screen 
which serves to shut off draughts and also as a surface 
upon which changes in the subject may be noted. Wash- 
bowls are set on either side of the hall. 

In the attic is a large protographic studio and the 
X-ray apparatus. Here also are a parlor and bedroom for 
the assistant physician, a bedroom for the head nurse and 
one for the engineer. The janitor's quarters are in the 
basement. 

In each wing of the basement is a diet kitchen to 
which food is brought from the central kitchen of the 
hospital. The wards are served by lifts. Adjoining each 
kitchen is a dormitory for housemaids who prepare the 
food and clean the building. There are, besides, in the 
basement, storerooms, soiled clothes room, boiler room, 
students' toilet room, sterilizing room and animal room, 
together with the laboratories mentioned above. 

The building is of fireproof construction; all the ceil- 
ings are vaulted and the staircases are of granite. The 
floors of the wards and the clinical rooms are of oak laid 
in asphalt; the floors of other rooms are of pine; the cor- 
ridors and toilet rooms of terrazo. The stud of both the 
first and second stories, including the vaulting, is 4.80 
meters. The cost of the building, not including special 
interior fittings, was about $70,000. 

HOSPITAL FOR DISEASES OF THE EYE. 

The basement, the floor of which is nearly on the 
street level, contains quarters for the janitor, the engi- 
neer and the women servants; two kitchens with lifts 
for food service, animal rooms, boiler rooms, etc. There 
are exits on the east side to admit patients to the gar- 
den. The animal rooms in the northeast wing are sepa- 
rated from the other rooms by a corridor opening into the 
garden. 

An outside staircase is provided for the out-patients' 
access to their waiting room on the first story; a large 
examining room, immediately adjoining this waiting 
room, is connected with the ophthalmoscopic room. The 
ophthalmoscopic room has walls colored with a pale tint 
and is fitted with appliances for darkening the room to 
any retjuired degree. Adjoining this room is a policlini- 
cal examination room, which is also provided with appa- 
ratus for chemical anaylsis and has a bay window of glass 
for perimeter and ophthalmometer work. 

Next to this room is the lecture hall, which has appa- 
ratus for darkening like that in the ophthalmoscopic room. 
There are ninety-one folding seats, the back of each be- 
ing fitted with a hinged shelf which gives a writing sur- 
face for the occupant of the seat behind. 

Adjoining the lecture hall is a clinical examination 
room with light-proof window shutters and diaphragms. 

This room is intended primarily for apparatus for 
physiological-optical tests, the sideroscope, electrical de- 
vices, neurological investigation, etc. This room, the 
lecture hall, the policlinical examination room and the 
ophthalmoscopic room are connected by doors placed op- 
posite to each other, so that when open, tests of sight can 
be made at a distance of thirty meters. 

Next come two living rooms for an assistant, and 
beyond these is the micro.scopical laboratory, with the 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



'59 



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AVTTIC 0.0012 PLAM 




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HOSPITAL FOR DISEASES OF THE EYE. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



bacteriological laboratory adjoining. These two rooms 
give seats for twenty students. 

In the southerly wing is the photographing room and 
two living rooms for an assistant. The cloak and toilet 
rooms for physicians and students are in the central 
pavilion. 

In the second story the southerly wing is for women 
and the northerly for men. There are for each sex two 
eight-bed, one four-bed and three two-bed wards. For 



ment and of all hallways and toilet rooms are vaulted ; 
those of the other rooms are plastered. The floor of the 
entrance halls, together with those of the operating and 
sterilizing rooms, is of vitrified tile. The hallway.s and 
the water-closets in second story have terrazo floors ; else- 
where in the building these floors are of asphalt. Other- 
wise the living and work rooms, the wards and the lec- 
ture hall, have pine floors, those of the second story 
being laid in asphalt. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN, HOSPITAL KOR WOMEN. 



each group of wards there are tw(j duty rooms, one of 
which has a diet kitchen adjoining. 

The operating room, with sterilizing and bandage 
room adjoining, is on the west side. The toilet rooms 
are in the central pavilion on the north. 

In the attic are reserve wards and day rooms for both 
sexes. The porter's quarters are in this story. 

The first and second stories have each a stud of 4.40 
meters. The building is of brick. The ceilings of base- 



Except for the living rooms in the basement and the 
assistants' rooms, which depend upon stoves, the build- 
ing is heated by steam. 

The cost of this building, exclusive of grading and of 
interior furnishings, was about ^50,000. 

HOvSPITAL FOR WOMEN. 

The building is in the form of the letter H. The 
projecting wings for the accommodation of patients are 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i6i 



separated by the central portion containinj^- lecture rooms, 
etc. 

For general dispensary work there is a large room at 
the left of the main entrance, opposite which is an exam- 
ination room ; from this opens a series of connecting 
rooms, viz., the director's office, a small lecture hall and 
two rooms for museum purposes. At the right of the 
entrance are the living apartments of the dispensary as- 
sistant. Two staircases placed in the angles which the 
main building makes with the wings lead to the second 
floor, the principal division of which is the operating 
room, occupying the central portion. Students, however, 
continue the ascent to the second story, where from a 
gallery, 4. i meters above the floor, they descend to their 



In the north wing is the laparotomy room, with a 
broad central window, and seats for about twenty-four 
spectators; adjoining this is a recovery room and an in- 
strument room. All the rooms in each story are vaulted. 

A noteworthy feature of the operating room is that 
the doors are hung on overhead tracks, the wheels of 
which are exposed. They are opened by long, curved 
handles that arc readily worked by the elbow. 



TP:RRA COTTA MARBLE. 

THE most beautiful and durable building stone to be 
found in the United States is undoubtedly the gray 
Knoxville marble. It takes a fine finish, is su.sceptible of 
the most delicate carving and its composition is such as to 




seats. In this way all contact of students with patients 
and operating surgeons is avoided. Adjoining the oper- 
ating room is a large anteroom and also a small instru- 
ment room. Two rooms for assistant surgeons and three 
for volunteer surgeons, a library and a sterilizing vault 
are also on this floor. 

On the first floor both wings are devoted to maternity 
patients. The left one is divided by means of a glass 
partition in the corridor in two equal parts, one of which 
is a reserve ward and is, in general, unoccupied. The ten- 
bed maternity wards are at the ends of the wings, those 
at the back having windows on two sides, and those at the 
front on three. Each wing has its own lying-in room. 

On the second floor, over the maternity wards, are ac- 
commodations for other patients; two rooms with ten 
beds each, three with two beds and five with one each, 
besides a few rooms for patients who must be isolated. 



resist the action of the atmosphere for an indefinite pe- 
riod, only the hardest granite and gneiss excelling it in 
this'respect. Aside from cost it has but one fatal defect; 
it is not in any sense firciiroof. All tlie good ([ualities, 
however, of Knoxville marble, plus the fire-resisting at- 
tributes, and at far less cost, have been successfully 
united in terra-cotta. The Nixon Theater at Pittsburg 
is being built with a terra-cotta enameled on a light body. 
Mr. B. H. Marshall, the architect of the building, experi- 
mented with the enamel by adding a very slight amount 
of blue and red in the mixture, and had the surface of the 
enamel cut down to a dull velvet with sand blast. The 
result is a beautifully matted surface showing a mere 
suggestion of the pale pur])lcs, blues and reds which run 
through the gray Knoxville niarl)lc, and it rccpiircs a very 
close in.spcction to satisfy one that the l)uikling is not ac- 
tually constructed of marble. 



1 62 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Old Brick Houses at Richmond, 
Surrey. 

HY R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

TO think of the Strand as a miuldy path between 
bramble bushes and the embankment as a mean- 
dering; walk by the side of a rural Thames requires con- 
siderable effort of the imagination; and it is similarly 
strange to conceive the riverside lanes at Richmond and 
Twickenham as thoroughfares of a great city, the trees 




GATKWAV, OLD PALACE, RICHiMONI). 

gone, the air tainted, and electric cars speeding along 
where once the quiet barge horse towed his gayly-painted 
craft ; yet the first has been, and the second in all prob- 
ability will be. For Richmond is scarce ten miles from 
St. Paul's Cathedral, and as the giant octopus of London 
throws its restless arms ever farther, the fields become 
enveloped in the deadly embrace — even now there is 
little green space left between Richmond and the metrop- 
olis. That fact means much. It means that the appear- 
ance of Richmond — its streets and houses — has been 
changed; that the cockneyizing element spreads apace; 
and that large houses stand empty, their former tenants 
flown to higher reaches of the river, reaches yet unspoiled 
by the proximity of a vast city. The fate of these man- 
sions is to be pulled down by the speculating builder, who 
will erect a great many small houses in the grounds, 
houses generally devoid of taste, and maybe built of the 
cheapest and flimsiest materials. But here and there 
among the modern buildings are many remnants of a 
century and more ago, old brick houses overgrown with 
creeper, unpretentious, dignified, restful houses in quiet 
contrast to the bizarre all around them. 

The town proper lies at the foot of the hill, that van- 
tage-ground whence one may look down on a world-famous 
view of woodland and meadow with the Thames shining 



here and there like a spangle on the grass. Not for that 
view alone, but for the general sylvan beauty of the place, 
Richmond enjoyed five centuries of Royal and distin- 
guished patronage. Formerly its name was Sheen (mean- 
ing beautiful, bright, shining, from a Saxon derivative) 
and one part of it is still called so; but it was Henry the 
Seventh who gave it his own name, Rychemonde (the 
name of the Yorkshire town from which he received his 
title before ascending the throne). 

As one writer has put it, imagine to yourself a toler- 
ably-sized, rudely-constructed manor house; some thirty 
rudely-built cottages, or rather huts, inhabited by hewers 
of wood and drawers of w^ater; imagine a long procession 
of a king and court, heralds and men-at-arms, servitors 
and pages, threading along the old road through Mortlake 
and ])assing these hovels, the owners of which run from 
the fields, and their wives from their baking on iron plates, 
to follow it to the manor house ; a little braying of horns, 
a good deal of trouble with the emblazoned banners, and 
much clanking of accoutrements and arms; and then you 
have a picture of Sheen in the da3^s of Edward the Third 
(13 1 2- 1377), when first it became a place of note. 

Ever afterwards, up to comparatively modern times, 
it remained a favorite resort of the court, the nobility, 
and distinguished persons in all stations of life; some 
brief reference to whom will be made later. 

Perhaps the most suggestive piece of brickwork in 
Richmond is the fragment of the old Palace and its gate- 
way, which seems to have been the entrance to the ward- 
robe court. It is said that Edward the Confessor built a 
palace at Richmond, l>ut fire and time utterly destroyed 




THE OLU PALACE, RICHMOND. 

that building, and also the several .succeeding royal houses 
which occupied the site ; so that this gateway and the 
little building within alone remain as a relic of the palace 
which Henry the Seventh built, — "that magnificent man- 
sion where Henry the Eighth had entertained right roy- 
ally Imperial guests; where Queen Elizabeth had loved 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



163 




HOUSE ON THE GREEN, RICHMOND. 

to retire her disunity from the pressure of 
affairs of state ; the residence Prince Henry 
had adorned with the taste of a Francis and 
the splendour of a Medici; whose corridors 
had been familiar with the dignity of Wolsey, 
the wisdom of Burleigh, the gallantry of 
Essex, Sydney and Raleigh; and whose pres- 
ence-chamber had been illumincMl by the 
beauties of a dozen successive generations." 

The palace grew sadly dilapidated under 
Cromwell and eventually after a life of vicis- 
sitiide (vStrype in 1720 speaks of it as "now 
decayed and parcelled out in tenements") fell 
into utter ruin. 

The gatehouse is of red brick (now weath- 
ered a dull color) with bluish bricks for 
the pattern work so characteristic of Tudor 
architecture. The stonework of the arch at 
the front is very much eaten away, but at 



the back is a newer relieving arch. Over the front are the 
royal arms of England, with the dragon and greyhound for 
supporters, as borne by Henry the Seventh. The gate- 
house faces the (ireen — that delightful feature of old-time 
England — whereon tournaments, jousts, lists, games and 
other festivities took place. It has been repaired within 
the last ten years and some attention given to the little 
bay window. The story goes that in the room to which this 
window belongs (Jueen Elizabeth died, — of smallpox, as is 
well known, — but there is no absolute authority for the 
statement, and it would seem much more probable that her 
death took place in another and larger part of the palace. 
Just inside the gateway is the small range of buildings 
shown in one of the accompanying illustrations, especially 
interesting as having had very little done to them in the 
way of restoration. It seems that only such necessary 
works of repair as repointing the brickwork, putting new 
tiles on the roof where needed and painting afresh have 
been carried out on the exterior, while inside the woodwork 
(including a fine staircase) remains practically in its original 
condition. 

At the lower end of the little courtyard to wliich the 
gateway gives access is a building which is often sjjoken of 
as the "Old Palace," but this is quite erroneous. The 
building is called "The Trumpeting House," from the fact 
that two stone figures of boy trumpeters stood on either 





THE TRUMPETINC; HOUSE, RIVER FRONT, RICHMOND. 



THE TRUMPETING HOUSE, FRONT TO COURTVARI), RICHMOND. 

side of the entrance (they are now in the 
cellars). The house was built in the time 
of Queen Anne (who died in 17 14). It is 
a very delightful example of what has come 
to be called early (Georgian work, carried 
out, like most of that work, in warm red 
bricks with the flat arches over the windows 
in bricks of a brighter tint, forming a pleasant 
contrast. The roofs are covered with slates 
which have weathered to a beautiful silver- 
green color, and with the white-painted wood 
cornice and window frames the whole forms 
a very charming composition. The entrance 
from the courtyard is by a small octagonal 
hall. On the opposite front — the main 
front, facing the river — is a large j^cdiment 
carried by four Tuscan columns in stone, the 



164 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




THK TKIMIM. 1 INc; HolSK, klLH.MOM). 

tympanum being filled in with brick. De- 
tails can be seen in the illustrations and need 
no comment, but perhaps incidentally it is 
worth while referring- to the modern sun- 
blinds, which might have been treated more 
squarely at the head in keeping with the rest 
of the house; it is just in small matters of 
this kind that modern additions and al- 
terations often mar old buildings. "The 
Trumpeting House " has a beautiful lawn 
running down towards the river, bordered 
by many fine trees, and in the grounds is an 
old archway with a finely wrought iron gate 
probably of the time of Henry the Seventh. 
Adjoining the old Palace gateway is 
" Maids of Honor Row," consisting of four 
large brick houses built about 1737 by King 
George the Second and Queen Caroline, 
when Prince and Princess of Wales, to pro- 



to London in 1708. These houses, then, which form " Maids 
of Honor Row " are (leorgian. with which period I am 
mainly concerned for the present, and in considering them 
it is opportune to draw a few comparisons. Georgian archi- 
tecture has been the subject of much abuse. Men in the 
vanguard of a (iothic revival, inflamed beyond measure in 
their zeal for "living work," men to whom the detail on a 
building seemed often of more concern than the building 
itself, — such as these found much to revile in Georgian 
work. Its symmetry did not appeal to them, — they called 
it lifeless monotony ; its scanty decoration had no attraction 
for them, — it was too classical, too academic, and its square- 
ness was distasteful to minds that loved all kinks and cor- 
ners. Doubtless there was some truth in the imputation; 
but, looking at the houses designed by the average archi- 
tect in England to-day, one doubts the tenets of which they 
are the outcome, — in many instances indeed the results are 
appalling. Men there are in plenty capable of designing 
hou.ses worthy of English architecture, but they are not the 
men who form the bulk of the profession. These latter 
have little talent, — often they have been pushed into archi- 
tecture by well-meaning but mistaken parents who desired 
their sons to have a "gentlemanly" calling, — and I have 



#ir' -t' 



- - . mriTI rfi « PI E ^ ^ 

ifiUffiilTiilliii 



iWh I 



li! 






>IJ 9 <^^ 






n 



MAIDS OF HONOR ROW, RICHMOND. 

long been of opinion that it would be far better 
for English architecture if such men were taught 
the A B C of (ieorgian work. In education it is 
becoming an accepted axiom that the greatest 



OLD PALACE TERRACE, RICHMOND. 

vide accommodation for the ladies of the court. In No. 4 lived 
John James Heidegger, master of the revels to George the First 
and Second, and he died there in 1749. He was a Swiss and came 






THE WICK, RICHMOND. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



165 



attention needs to be given to the average intellect, and 
the same is eminently applicable to architecture. The 
method of each man for himself has resulted in the med- 
ley of modern building — that mixture which is of no style 
and has no style, that proportionless hotchpot, that muddle 
of materials and that miscellany of fussiness so absolutely 
at variance with the sense of a home. The ABC of 
Georgian work is comparatively easy to learn, and it would 
be far better if architects were content to be guided by it. 
Maybe that is a low view to take of architecture, but it is 
one calculated to produce better results than the indis- 
criminate preaching of the doctrine to be original. A 
developed Georgian practised generally would do much 
for English domestic architecture. Men of more than 
average abilitv could l)e trusted to make such variations 



eighteenth century houses, such as those in Old Palace 
Terrace ; indeed, all around two sides of the Green (the 
oldest part of Richmond) are houses of this period — 




Note: The oyaX room is repeaied. 
On tJje floors ^ove and bc}oW. 

yVoon 



'The Wick", Richmond. 



as they cho.se, but let the rank and file of architects .set 
Georgian models before them, following them in a mod- 
ern spirit, and one of the most beneficial changes would 
result. I am not interested in the apotheosis of Georgian 
architecture, but at its worst it was innocuous, and so 
much cannot be said of the generality of modern work. 
^ye need not copy it blindly; we can avoid its faults; we 
can add variety and life where they are lacking; we can 
in fact do what we will to meet the conditions of our own 
times, .';o long as we preserve those (|ualities of restful- 
ness, dignity and cheerfulness which are demanded by the 
associations of a house. 

These houses in "Maids of Honor Row " are admirable 
examples of my meaning. They are very roomy inside 
and paneled. The doorways, of wood, are well propor- 
tioned, and the railings enclosing the small gardens at the 
front are admirable specimens of wrought ironwork, all 
differing in design. 

A short way to the east are a number of interesting 




THE QUEKN S HOTKL, RICHMOND. 

good Sturdy examples of early Georgian work, with dcn- 
tilcd wood cornices, enriched doorways and simjjlc wall 
surfaces, having large halls and rooms and a considerable 
amount of solid woodwork. 

Leaving the Green and walking up the Hill, we .see 
one or two houses of a similar type amidst the host of 
new erections — mostly belonging to the latter half of the 
last century — until at the end of the Terrace is found 
" The Wick," a house occupying the site of an alehouse 
called the " Bull's Head," which was pulled down in 1775. 
From the accompanying illustration it will be .seen that 
this is a very pleasant little house, though the side front- 
ing the road has rather a bare appearance and would be 




IHK WICK, RICHMOND. 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




MARSHGATE HOUSE, RICHMOND. 

the better for a little creeper; but the recessing of the 
wall within the arches is a relief and the balustrade, cor- 
nice and porch are acceptable enrichments : the ends of 
the tie-rods that pass through the wall are treated as me- 
dallions, with a small female head in the center of each. 
The front door is a stout piece of work, like the wood 
rail bordering the road ; the ironwork is similarly straight- 
forward in treatment. The zinc chimney-pots, I need 
hardly say, are recent additions. (What hideous sky lines 
these zinc pots make — one can see them in thousands 
standing up at all angles over central London, and Paris 
is even more blighted with them.) 

Just above " The Wick "is " Wick House," a modern 
casing (in the worst taste) over the house, designed by 
Sir William Chambers, in which Sir Joshua Reynolds 
lived for some time. Directly opposite is the Queen's 
Hotel. It was formerly called Mansfield House, having 
been once the residence of the Countess of Mansfield. 
Severely simple, it borders on monotony, yet the propor- 
tion is good and the general effect pleasing. On paper 



the building would look utterly uninteresting, but these 
old houses, when time has mellowed their bricks, form 
delightful pictures, — the proportion which they exhibit 
is quite absent from most modern work, and if there is 
little or no ornamentation about them, they are far more 
satisfactory than many similar houses of to-day with 
their plethora of .so-called embellishments. 

At the bottom of Richmond Hill on the road that 
leads to Mortlake — towards London — are .several old 
hou.ses which merit attention. Manshgate House is the 
most interesting. This is another good example of 
Georgian work and follows very much on the same lines 
as tho.se already dealt with, though the exposed roof with 





SPRING GROVE, QUEEN S ROAD, RICH.MOND. 



LICHFIELD HOUSE, RICHMOND. 

its dormers is an exception ; here, too, there is some good 

ironwork in the gate. 

Lichfield House, once the palace of the Bishop of 

Lichfield and now the residence of Miss Braddon, the 

novelist, is close by. It is a straightforward design, but 
the modern covered way (an iron erection) 
which leads from the front door proper to the 
door abutting the pavement should never 
have been ])crpetrated ; the door piece and the 
])illars on either side are also rather clumsily 
treated and top-heavy. 

Further ahmg, at the bottom of (Jueen's 
Road, is Spring Grove, a rather less interesting 
house with a modern porch and new stabling. 
Besides those which I am describing, there 
are many other brick houses in Richmond 
belonging to the same period — that in Park- 
shot where George Eliot once lived (recently 
pulled down) was of this class, — but they have 
no particular features which need comment. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



167 



Fireproofing. 



AMERICAN FIREPROOFING METHODS. 

THE convention of the International Fire Prevention 
Congress which was held in London July 6 to 11, 
was in many respects the most noteworthy event in fire- 
proofing lines of the year. There has never been any- 
thing like it in this country, and several thoughts suggest 
themselves in connection therewith. The contributors 
to the discussions and papers were by no means all of 
them of British origin. Out of a total of thirty-eight 
papers presented eleven were from continental contribu- 
tors, seven from American and only twenty from British 
sources. In reading over the papers one is struck with 
the extent to which American methods were considered, 
discussed and criticised, and it is readily seen that our 
experience is being studied very closely abroad. It must 
not be assumed from this, however, that our British con- 
structors are not keenly alive to the necessities of fire- 
proof construction or are not in many respects (juite 
equal to us in their technical, scientific knowledge. We 
have had such bitter experiences here with fires, and large 
constructions have taken such enormous proportions that 
we have been obliged to study the questions often, it 
must be admitted, in a hasty and unsatisfactory manner, 
but on the whole we have pretty successfully mastered 
the problems involved. But it will not do for us to rest 
on our oars. Perfection is never attainable in any science, 
and if we are to remain complacently satisfied with what 
we have achieved we may have the mortification some 
day of discovering that our Briti.sh cousins have not only 
absorbed all the lessons of our experience, but are sur- 
passing us in practical application thereof. The lack in 
this country is in cooperation among fireproofing engi- 
neers and constructors. We have the ex]5erience, the 
means and the opportunities, but too much of our work 
is sporadic in its nature, and in the intense rush of busi- 
ness there is a danger that we may neglect the opportuni- 
ties for cooperation and coordination of ideas of which 
architects and builders abroad are so ready to avail them- 
selves. It is to be hoped that the approaching St. Louis 
Exposition will serve as a seasonable opportunity for 
gathering in this country a convention similar to that 
which has ju.st been held in London, and we are sure that 
the material that could be presented at such a convention 
would be of enormous value to all those who are inter- 
ested in the subject. We have been in the past too busy 
to theorize and deduce lessons from our experience, but 
we must do so if we are to keep abreast of progress. 



PRO(iRESS IN FIRE PROTECTION. 

N()TWITHSTANDIN(t the efficient methods which 
have been devi.sed to guard against danger from 
fires, the total fire lo.ss has steadily increa.sed during the 
past twenty years imtil it has reached the enormous sum 
of $160,000,000 annually in the United States and Can- 
ada. During that period the annual loss has varied from 
a minimum of $51 per $10,000 of property value in 1897 
to a maximum of $64 per $10,000 in 1899. The average 
for twenty-two years ending in 1901 was S58 per $10,000, 
while in the last three years of that period the average 



was over $62. In France the average loss is only $6 per 
$10,000, in (Germany $10 and in (Jrcat Britain $14. This 
might be assumed as a confession of the inadecjuacy in 
our fireproofing methods, but a more reasonable expla- 
nation is based upon the fact that most of our fires 
during the last twenty years have been confined to the 
old buildings, the imperfectly constructed ones, and espe- 
cially to those of non-fireproof construction, or have been 
communicated from such to others of a better nature. 
We are gradually evolving from a slow-burning, or per- 
haps more properly a <|uick-burning, into a fireproof con- 
struction, and the liigh rate of loss will un(loul)tedly con- 
tinue and possibly even increase until such time as the 
princijiles of fire|)roofing with burnt clay are ap])lied to 
the majority instead of the minority of our city buildings. 
That consummation can of course come only with time. 
European cities have not inherited such vast areas of in- 
flammable structures as menace all our large cities, and 
it is that fact rather than any advantages of their systems 
of construction which reduce so tremendously the ratio 
of loss. 



SLOW BURNl\(i vs. FIREPROOF 
CONSTRUCTION. 

MR. EDWARD ATKINSON in his address before 
the International Fire Prevention Congress made 
some rather contradictory statements. Speaking of stair- 
cases he .says, that where such must necessarily run through 
a building, stone or concrete should be avoided in their 
construction, and that good solid wood is the most relia- 
ble under all circumstances. We admit the undesirability 
of either stone or concrete, but can hardly accept wood 
as being desirable even under any circumstances, and 
Mr. Atkinson admits it in another portion of his paper by 
expressing the belief that the materials suitable for fire- 
proof construction are those which are not subjected to 
the laws of expansion and contraction when suddenly ex- 
posed to the effect of heat, and that if we take for our 
guidance the results of the tests of time, we find these 
materials to be principally timber, bricks, mortar and 
good plaster. The first material is neither fire-resisting 
nor fireproof. The two last will stand neither fire nor 
water to any extent, but as regards bricks or terra-cotta 
we perfectly agree with Mr. Atkinson. 



FI RE PRO( ) F W I N D( ) WS. 

THE Insurance Engineering Iix])crinicnl vStatioii at 
Boston, of which Mr. Edward Atkinson is director, 
has conducted a series of fire-resisting tests of the electro- 
glazed ])risms and plate glass manufactured by the Amer- 
ican Luxfer Prism Company. The prisms were set in 
metallic frames enclosing the windows of a specially con- 
structed room about eight feet .square and ten feet high, 
.so built as to develop a temiierature quite equal to that of 
any ordinary building fire, and after exposure to the heat 
for one hour the door of the hut was o])ened and a stream 
of water thrown in for .several minutes until the hut was 
cool enough to enter. The tests were made to compare 
wired glass, electro-glazed ])risms and electro-glazed 
plates, and resulted in demonstrating the ability of all of 
them to remain in position and effective ojieration up to 
the time when the temperature of melting glass was 
reached. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PLASTER BLOCKS. 

PLASTER of Paris is undoubtedly one of the most 
perfect insulating materials which we possess, and 
as a matter of protection aj^ainst heat only the magnesia 
compounds and infi:sorial earth can equal it. When, 
however, plaster of Paris is considered for the protection 
of a building against the action of fire, so many different 
elements are introduced that other things have to be 
thought of besides mere resistance to heat. Plaster 
blocks have been used repeatedly for partitions and floors, 
but in every case the fatal objection is discovered that no 
compoimd of plaster can successfully stand either long 
continued exposure to direct flame or even a limited ex- 
posure to combined heat and water. Even the best of 
the plaster block compounds now on the market will ab- 
sorb from 40 to 50 per cent of their dry weight of water, 
while an ordinary brick will absorb considerably less than 
10 per cent in twenty-four hours. A piece of plaster 
block exposed to a flame having a temperature even as 
low as 450 degrees for two hours would be quite thor- 
oughly calcined, and upon immersion in water would al- 
most totally disintegrate into a fine powder. Brick or 
terra-cotta subjected to the same conditions might crack 
slightly, but would not disintegrate. Furthermore, it is 
extremely difficult to set plaster blocks in partitions and 
have the mortar or cement cohere properly unless the 
blocks are first thoroiighly soaked in water, when the 
amount of water absorbed becomes so large that it takes 
sometimes even months for the water to dry out of the 
wall. In setting terra-cotta blocks the pieces are likewise 
immersed in water, but the absorption is slight and evapo- 
rates in a comparatively short time. There is simply no 
comparison in efficiency, fire-resisting qualities or ease of 
manijuilation between plaster blocks and terra-cotta. 



FI REPROOFING. 

MANY of our subscribers have undoubtedly received 
copies of a very spicy, enterprising monthly jour- 
nal which has devoted itself not only entirely to fireproof- 
ing, but has assumed a special province of attacking the 
so-called slow-burning construction and more particularly 
the various forms of fireproof construction which are 
based upon the employment of reinforced concrete. The 
attacks which this joiirnal have made upon concrete con- 
struction have been so straightforwai'd and wholesale in 
their denunciation and have been moreover backed by 
citations of so many actual examples of failure that they 
must have attracted the attention of those who are spe- 
cially interested in the concrete construction. Our own 
special province includes burnt clay in its various forms, 
which we consider by all odds the most suitable for u.se 
in connection with fireproofing of buildings. We have 
never taken the position that concrete might not under 
some conditions be used to advantage for fireproof con- 
struction, but either the statements made by our western 
contemporary regarding concrete failures are absolutely 
true or else the concrete industries are afraid to talk back. 
The situation is in .some respects an amusing one, and 
the controversy, though one sided, makes very entertain- 
ing reading. We hope for the sake of fairness and to 
see what woixld be brought forth that those companies 
which are engaged in the manufacture of concrete fire- 



proofing may see fit to take up the cudgels in their own 
defence, not in a general way, but to specifically tell the 
reading public whether or not the seemingly well-endorsed 
records of failures i)i this material can or cannot be ac- 
cepted as conclusive evidence. Our own convictions as 
to what is the most appropriate material for firepro(jf 
constructions are perfectly clear. If concrete cannot be 
trusted architects and builders should be told .so. 



COST OF FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION. 

IN the report of the Schoolhouse Commission of the 
City of Boston there are some verj' suggestive fig- 
ures presented in the summaries of cost of various 
schoolhouses. Nearly all of the buildings now being 
erected are of first-class construction, that is to say fire- 
proof throughout, but the cost is given of a few recent 
ones of second-class construction, namely, with wooden 
partitions and floors, and these aff'ord an interesting com- 
parison. The second-class construction schools range in 
price per cubic foot from 16.58 cents for the Chapman to 
24.01 cents for the Winship, while the buildings entirely 
of first-class construction range from 22.39 cents for 
the South Boston High School to 24.98 cents for the 
Heath Street School; and the schools which are all of 
first-class construction, except for a planked roof, range 
from 16.33 cents for the Dorchester High to 23.79 cents 
for the Kenwood Road .School. It will be seen that .some 
of the second-class construction schools cost actually 
more than some of those which are practically entirely 
fireproof. 

The question has been repeatedly raised in our large 
cities as to the advisability of employing first-class or 
fireproof construction for a schoolhouse. In the light 
of the figures quoted above there would seem to be 
actually very little difl'erence in cost between the two 
constructions. The cost of a building of first-class con- 
struction is generally from ten to thirty per cent 
higher than one of second-class construction, not, how- 
ever, because the system of construction is in itself more 
expensive, but chiefly because in a first-class building 
nearly everything is planned on a more expensive scale. 
The very designation of first-class carries with it the idea 
of a superior building, and this idea is generally war- 
ranted by the results. But, as we have repeatedly urged 
in these columns, the mere constructive expense for a 
building which will be practically fireproof is but very 
little more than the cost of the ordinary second-class 
construction. 



THE SPREAD OF FIRE. 

IT is stated that the aggregate of the annual fire losses 
in the United States due to conflagrations spread 
from one building to another is $50,000,000, or one-third 
the total loss. In nearly every ca.se these are prevent- 
able losses, and we owe them not in the slightest degree 
to lack of knowledge of fireproof construction, but wholly 
to the inheritance of the past period, when fireproof 
construction was not enforced or to a misapplication of 
principles which are perfectly understood at present 
and which should be insisted upon in every new struc- 
ture. 



THE BRICKBUILPER 



169 



Selected Miscellany. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 
ARCHITECTS. 

THERE is to be an International Congress of Archi- 
tects in Madrid during April of 1904. The Ameri- 
can section of the International Committee includes 
George O. Totten, Jr., Augustus Saint Gaudens, Herbert 
Putnam, J. M. Mauran, John LaFarge, W. L. B. Jenney, 
Cass Gilbert, W. S. Eames, John M. Carrbrc, (ilenn 
Brown, George B. Post and others. A detailed program 
has been drawn up which includes very interesting ex- 
hibits from various points of architectural interest. This 
congress would offer an excellent opportunity for our 
American architects to visit vSpain under the most favor- 
able circumstances and is one of which many of our 
readers will doubtless be glad to avail themselves. 



SAND BRICKS. 



IT would be interesting to keep an account of the differ- 
ent individuals who, at varioi:s times and at ex- 
tremely short intervals, have " discovered " or " invented " 
processes of brick making which dispen.se with clay and 
substitute therefor a more easily manipiilated material. 
Some very excellent sand bricks have been made for a 
number of years at Racine, Wis. Somewhere in New 
York state we have also heard of processes of making 
bricks with combinations of sand and a cementing mate- 
rial. We see stated in one of the English papers that a 




DOOK, HOUSE AT LLOYD S NECK, L. I. 
Boring & TiUon, Architects. 



Russian enginec 
worked in (icrm 




NEW MARSHALL FIELD STORE, CHICACJO. 

I). H. Burnham & Co., ArLhitects. 

Terra-Cotta made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 



r has invented a process which is being 
auv, which utilizes a mixture of slaked 
lime and sand, the bricks after mold- 
ing being placed in a closed chamber 
and exposed to the action of steam at 
a pressure of about one hundred 
])ounds per scpiare inch for twelve 
liours. The bricks are said to have a 
crushing strength of two hundred 
and twenty tons to the s(inare foot. 
They are so porous that they will ab- 
.sorb thirteen per cent of their volume 
of water under immersion. The 
amount of lime used varies from four 
to ten per cent of the total. In the 
al>sence of specific statements as to 
the kind of lime used and the descrip- 
tion of sand it is not easy to form a 
judgment of what these bricks might 
be worth. The experiment, liowever, 
is in no sense a new one and we can 
hardly think it will prove that 
bricks made under such conditions 
would be of \x"ry great value. If the 
lime were strongh" li\(lraulic the re- 
sulting compound would be a species 
of low grade concrete. With ordi- 
nary lime a brick of this sort would ■ 
he almost worthless for exi)osed 
]>laces. Novelty has a charm which 
a])peals to brick makers cjuite as 
strongly as to less enligiitened indi- 
viduals, but we have yet to know of 



I70 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^^^^3H^^Vhi^ ^^^^^^^^^F' 




^^^ ■ 


m 


te 






wtm^^ 





UETAII. BV K. C. SAUEK, 
ARCHITECT-. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Co., 
Makers. 



any clayle.s.s brick which is of 
any great v^alue. Burnt clay i.s 
at once the oldest, the simplest 
and the most durable buildinji;- 
material the world has ever seen. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

"Stones for Building and 
Decoration." By George P. 
Merrill, Curator of Geology 
in the United States National 
Museum and Professor of Ge- 
ology in Columbian Univer- 
sity. Third edition, revised 
and enlarged. New York: 
John Wiley & Sons. 1903. 
Price, $5. 

The best comment on this work is that it is its third 
edition, for when one considers the relatively slight de- 
mand for works of this general character it will be under- 
stood that a third edition implies a more than average 
degree of excellence. The book is very thorough in every 
respect, and the third edition brings everything up to 
date, besides adding a good deal of additional material. 
The work includes a historical account of the develop- 
ment of stone quarries, etc., in this country, followed by 
a statement of the geographical distribution of stones in 
the United vStates and a consideration of minerals and 
building stones from the physical, chemical and geologi- 
cal standpoint. The second part takes up in detail the 
different kinds of rocks, describing them thoroughly in 
every respect and locating the sources of supplies. The 
third part considers methods of quarrying, implements 
used, the weathering of building stone, selection and tests 
of same and methods of protection and preservation. 




ALBANY CITY SAVINGS INSTITUTION, ALBANY, N. V. 

Marcus T. Reynolds, Architect. 
Terra-Cotta by Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



with insurance work 
qualifies him to speak 
authoritatively from 
the insurance stand- 
point. Nearly every- 
thing he .says from that 
point of view is worthy 
of careful considera- 
tion. Our onl}' criti- 
cism f)f the book would 
be that it says too 
much. A ])itiless blue 
penciling of repeti- 
tions, the omi.ssion of 
some of the insurance 
schedules, and the 
elimination entirely of 
matters which are not 



Part four contains elaborate 
tables showing the qualities 
of stone as .shown by crushing 
strength, weight, absorption and 
chemical composition, together 
with prices of material, a very 
complete list of stone buildings 
and date of erection and a bibli- 
ograph}' of works on building 
stone. The whole subject is 
treated exhaustively and yet con- 
cisely. The illustrations are ad- 
mirable, including a number of 
maps showing the geographical 
distribution of cjuarries. There 
are also a number of admirable 
photographs from actual speci- 
mens, together with photographs 
of many of the more prominent 
quarries. The work lacks an 
index, otherwise we would have 
little fault to find with it and 
would heartily recommend it as a 
practical work of great value to 
every architect and constructor. 

" I'lRE Insurance and How to 
Build." Combining also a 
(iuide to Insurance Agents 
Resi)ecting Fire Prevention 
and Extinction, Special Feat- 
ures of Manufacturing Risks, 
Writing of Policies, Adjust- 
ment of Losses, etc., etc. By 
Francis C. ^loore. New York : 
The Baker & Taylor Com- 
l)any, 1903. Price, $5. 

Mr. Moore has been collecting 
material for this book during the 
past twenty-five years, and his 
long experience in connection 




terra-cotta umbrella stand. 

White Brick and Terra-Cotta Co , 
Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



171 




LIBRARY. 




LIVING ROOM. 



HOUSE, SYRACUSE, N. V. DKNSON A UKOCKWAV, Ak( MIIH I 



•7^ 



THE HRICK13UILDER 



questions of insurance Init rather of the theories of 
construction, would make the work far more readily 
available, while the absence of a table of contents is 
something which we should hope would be remedied in 
a subsequent edition. Mr. Moore is an authority upon 
matters of insurance pure and simple. He is far from 
being an authority on the subject of strength of materials, 
especially when he speaks of the limit of elasticity as that 
point at which a beam is liable to break, but the good of 
the book far outweighs the objectionable. It does not 




DOOR, HOUSK 1921 WALNUT STKKET, I'H ILAUEl.l'H I A. 

tell us how to build, but it gives a great many ])oints as 
to what constitutes wise risks from the insurance stand- 
point. 

We have received the book of the College of Archi- 
tecture of Cornell University, containing a most excellent 





DETAIL BY B. II. .MARSHALL, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

series of reproductions of students' work during the past 
year. The drawings show a decided improvement over 
previous years. The book is admirably gotten up and is 
in every way a credit to the university. 



NOTES ON THE CLAY INDCSTRY EXHIBIT 
AT THE vST. LOUIS WORLD'S FAIR. 

The Hydraulic Pressed Brick Company are working uj) 
a design that will make a masterly exhibit of the brick 
industry. The exhibit will be in the form of a pavilion, 
in which their numerous types of pressed brick will be 




DETAIL BY CLINTON * RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 
KxceLsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, BROOKLYN, N. \. 

F. R. Comstock, Architect. 
Terra-Cotta by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

well illustrated in actual u.se. Their enameled brick will 
be used for decorating the interior, and their paving 
brick will be used for flooring. The entire structure will 
be made exclusively (mt of brick that will be gathered 
from their numerous plants that are scattered all over the 
country. 



THE R R I C K R U I L DE R 



173 




174 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




CHAPKI, AND RECKIVING VAULT, KVERGREEN CEMETERY, NEWPORT, KV. 

W. W. Franklin, Architect. 

Covered with American S Tile furnished by Cincinnati Roofing Tile and 

Terra-Cotta Co. 



their diliferent shajjcs ;uicl colors of enameled 
l)rick. It will be in the form of a .small 
office building that will be built entirely of 
clay products. It will be built on lines to 
bring out the great wealth of colors possible 
with enameled brick, and yet it will be 
handled in such a way as to be a beautiful 
study in color as well as design. This 
promi.ses to be one of the features of the 
clay industry exhibit, and the details are 
being worked up by Mr. (larden of the firm 
of Mauran, Russell & (harden of St. Louis. 

Among the applications recently received 
for the clay industry exhibit, which will 
cover about (jne-half acre of ground in the 
Mines Building at the St. Louis Exposition, 
was one from the Excelsior Terra-Cotta 
C(jmpany of New York, whose works are at 
Rocky Hills, N. J., and of which Mr. W. H. 
Powell is manager. This company will exe- 
cute (me of the imposing terra-cotta en- 
trances by which access is obtained to this 
exhibit. As it is on one of the through aisles 
of the building it will be visible from the 
extreme end of the building. 

The American Terra-Cotta Company of 
Chicago have taken a prominent alcove in 



The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Comjjany 
will exhibit a very attractive pagoda that will 
be built entirely of their well-known terra- 
cotta. It will be designed in their own factory 
by Mr. Fritz Wagner, the secretary of the 
company, and will be a study in both form and 
color, showing the latest advancement in terra- 
cotta work. 

. The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company are 
working on a design that will illustrate all 





COURT OK OFKICE BUlLUINli, SHOWING USE OK ENA.MEI.KU liRICK. 
Made by Tiffany Enameled Brick Co. 

the clay industry exhibit for showing their terra-cotta work for 
interior architecture. The alcove will be embellished with their 
beautiful Teco ware, especially .some of their recent matt-glazed, 
soft, green art goods. 

The Sayre c\: Fisher Comjiany, the oldest and largest manu- 
facturers of brick on the Atlantic seaboard, have taken an alcove 
to exhibit a full line of the brick manufactured by them at their 
Sayreville, N. J., brickyard. Their brick exhibit will be very 
comprehensive, from the common or rain drop brick through 
the various colors and .shapes of stock brick and a full line of 
enameled brick. 



IN GENERAL 



UETAII. i:\' Ll.INlrjK a kUSSEI.I,, ARCHITECIS. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



Elliott Woods, the superintendent of the Capitol, at the direc- 
tion of the House commission, has designated Robert S. Peabody 
of Boston to act as advisory architect in the preparation of plans 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



175 



for the proposed office building for the use of members 

of the House of Representatives. 

Architect Elmer Grey, of Milwaukee, has been ap- 
pointed a member of the advisory and judiciary committee 
on architecture for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 




BISHOPS RESIUKNCE, WHEELING, W. VA. 
N. C. HatniUon & tSons, Builders. 

Mr. Grey is to be one of the sixteen men of the profession 
who are to have charge of the general arrangement and 
])lacing (jf exhibits at the St. Louis world's fair. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Company are 
supplying their brick for use in the exterior of two new 
office buildings now being erected in Columbus, Ohio, 
vStribling & Lunn, architects; also for a new bank build- 
ing in Cleveland. Tlirce hundred thousand of their brick 




DETAIL BY VICTOR HUGO KOEHLER, ARCHITECT. 

New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

will be used in the new Bellevue-Stratford Hotel at Phila- 
delphia. Among other contracts on which their brick 
will be used are the new automobile station in Boston ; 
Belvedere Hotel, Washington; and an export order to 
South America. 

Robert T. Vrydagh, architect, Terre Haute, Ind., has 
taken offices in McKcen block. 



BL'ILDIXCi operations in nineteen of the principal 
cities of the country for July show a falling off of 
seventeen per cent in point of cost as compared with the 
corresponding month a year ago, but there was a consid- 
erable increase in the number of buildings according to 
sjiccial reports to Const met ion Xc.ci. During the month 
just closed ])crniits were taken out in these cities for the 
construction of 5.890 buildings, the cost of which was 
§22,282,581, as against 5,i^'2 buildings at a cost of $26,- 
839,692 for the same month a year ago. This is an in- 
crease of 728 buildings in number and a decrease of 
$4,557,111 in the estimated cost. The figures in detail 
arc as follows: 



City 



New York (Boroughs of 
Manhattan and the Bronx^ 

Cliica^ii 

I'hiladelphia 

Bnx.klvn 

Detroit 

San Kraneisco 

Indianapolis 

Cleveland 

Washington 

Minneapolis 

Seattle 

Milwaukee 

Denver 

Buffalo 

Cincinnati 

St. Paul 

Atlanta 

Memphis 

Allegheny 



Totals. 



1903 



No. 



45.? 
548 
6.S9 
560 
296 
LVS 
24S 
,WO 
.17" 
.?87 
560 

2?0 

>K? 
170 
219 
175 

.?'4 



Cost 



$7.05,'!.7.lo 
3.>9'.790 
2.38.?.655 
2,144,010 
817,800 
Sio. 100 
793., ?97 
774. >70 
682,758 
520,040 
503.71.1 
459.7.16 
452,100 
4,?8.94.1 
390,425 
342,940 
212,399 
'57.175 
153.700 



$22,282,581 



No. Cost 



.185 
570 
660 
4,1" 
.170 
8S 
241 
270 
278 

3'9 
489 

23 > 
■38 
1.S8 
166 

94 
222 



53 



162 



10,402,508 

3,322,480 

4,013,510 

i.74'''.'''05 

^4'),4ix> 

7-''i.973 

226,356 

482,660 

1,049, '66 

800, 1 60 

873.456 
506,044 

45 '.870 
.S.l8,77' 
.104.785 
274,020 

125,775 
201,253 
146,900 



$26,839,692 



Percent. 



Gain Loss 





3^ 




41 


23 




27 




II 




251 




60 






35 




35 




42 




9 


05 






19 


28 




25 




64 






22 


4 






17 



It is somewhat difficult to account for the falling off, 
but it is believed that it is due to the temporary strin- 
gency in the money market and the apprehension of just 
what the future has in store. It is now believed, how- 
ever, that the sky is practically clear and operations will 
go ahead upon a much larger .scale. Investors, manu- 
facturers and builders now feel assured that no .serious 
calamity is in prospect and that the situation will be on 
the mend from this on. Reports of the trustworthy com- 
mercial agencies have assurance of continued prosperity 
in mercantile lines, and people who are competent to judge 
believe that building will soon be resumed upon an ex- 
tensive scale. Some of the large cities which have dur- 
ing the past few years shown remarkable gains, show a 
considerable falling off. In the list of cities .showing an 
increase is Indianapolis, with an increa.se over the same 
month'a year ago of 251 per cent; Atlanta, 64 per cent; 
•Cleveland, 60; Cincinnati, 28; St. Paul, 25; Detroit, 27; 
P>rooklyn, 23; Allegheny, 4 per cent; Denver, 5 per cent. 
The list of cities showing a loss include vSeattle, 42 per 
cent; Philadelphia, 41; Minneapolis and Washington, 35; 
New York City, 32; Memphis, 22; Buffalo, 19; Mil- 
waukee, 9; Chicago, 4 per cent. 



THE SOCIETY OF BEAUX-ARTS ARCHITECTS 

IfAS ESTAHLISllEI) A FREE COURSE OE STt'/fV. OPE\ 
10 IIRAUai/TSMEX AX/) S/UJ)EXrs OE AXV CfTY, 

MODELLED OX THE CEXEIiAl. /'LAX /'(//y'Si'ED AT 
T//E ECOLE DE li EA f X-A/UES LX /'A/x'/S, AX/) CO.U/'A'/.S- 

/XG EREQUEXr l'ROIU.E.\/S /X ORDERS, DES/CXS, 

A RC///EO/. oa y, E /■( : 

/■OR /XE0RA/A/70X A/'/'LV TO T//E SECRETARY OE 
T//E COM.U/TTEE OX EDUCAT/OX, j EAST jjD STREET, 
NEW YORK C/TY. 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Competition for a Public Library 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 




PROGRAM 

|T is assumed that a public library is to be presented to a town located in the middle west. 
This town occupies a picturesque position in a rolling country bordering one of the Great 
Lakes and is the seat of a small but important college. The public square is a park which 
is assumed to be 300 feet wide and upwards of 1,000 feet long. At one end is already built 
the town hall, and at the opposite end will be placed the library. The ground rises gently 
towards the proposed site, so that the position will be a commanding one. The whole front- 
age of 300 feet will be given to the library and its approaches, and the entire depth of the lot 
is 200 feet. The total rise from the curb line to the center of the lot is 10 feet, and the grade 
falls off towards the rear i foot in 40. Sidewise the grade falls off equally each way from the center 
10 feet to the boundary lines. The building must set back a distance of 75 feet from the front line, 
and the approach must be treated in an architectural manner. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and colored terra-cotta or 
faience may be introduced as a feature of the design. 

The foUow^ing accommodation is to be provided for in plan. The dimensions given are only ap- 
proximate and may be modified as required by the exigencies of the design : 

First Story. Vestibule, 200 sq. ft. ; periodical room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; reference library and reading 
room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; general delivery room, 600 sq. ft.; trustees' room, 350 sq. ft.; librarian's room. 
350 sq. ft. ; stack room, 1,500 sq. ft. 

Second Story. Children's room, 500 sq. ft. ; music room, 500 sq. ft. ; exhibition room, 500 sq. ft. ; 
two rooms for special collections, 500 sq. ft. each. 

It is assumed that the lavatories, storerooms, etc., are all to be located in the basement, which is 
to be raised sufficiently above the finished grade to allow of fair lighting. There are to be two flights 
of stairs leading to the second story, but they are not to be made a prominent feature. It will be 
assumed that the heating plant is entirely distinct from the building, there being consequently no 
provision made for a chimney, but space should be provided for ample ventilation flues. 

Drawings Required. An elevation at a scale of 1-16 inch to the foot, which is to show the 
entire frontage of the lot, 300 feet, and to indicate the treatment of approaches. There are also to 
be sketch plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 1-32 inch to the foot, and details drawn 
at a scale of 3-4 inch to the foot showing the character of the design and the construction of the 
terra-cotta. The elevation is to appear upon one sheet, and the details and plans upon another. 
The width and length of each sheet shall be in proportion of three to four and not exceed 24 x 32 
inches. All drawings are to be made in black ink without wash or color. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study 
of the use of architectural terra-cotta. No limitation of cost need be considered, but the designs must 
be made such as would be suitable for the location, for the character of the building and for the mate- 
rial in which it is to be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the 
terra-cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cotta will be a point 
taken largely into consideration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to 
be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 "Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., on or before October 31, 1903. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of J500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

All drawings submitted in this competition are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, 
and the right is reserved to publish any or all of them. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the 
terra-cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

SEPTEMBER, 
1903. 




CHURCH OF S. GREGORIO OSTIENSE, MUES, NAVARRE, SPAIN. 




THE BRICKBVILDER! 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTSOFO ^f 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN MATERIALS • OF CLAY 



'im^^^^^m 




SEPTEMBER 1903 Jl^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

FLlil.ISHEl) MONTHLY HV 

ROGERS & MAXSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1891. 

COPYRIGHT, 1S93, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed fljt to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... S6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



page 
Cements .... ... IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE CLEVELAND GROUP PLAN. 

THE city of Cleveland has been making a determined 
effort for civic beauty. The conditions are far 
from ideal. The railroads have usurped the entire lake 
frontage; and though the city proper is .set on a bluff 
raised considerably above the tracks, the railroad still is a 
pretty hard proposition to bring in line with any attempt 
at a dignified approach into the center of the city. Real- 
izing that in a proper solution of questions of this sort 
there is involved more than mere matters of business ex- 
pediency, the city some time since very wisely employed 
a Commission consisting of Daniel H. Burnham, John 
M. Carrere and Arnold \V. Brunner, who together con- 
stitute a Board of Supervision for Public Buildings and 
Ground, and who, in that capacity, have just made a 
most interesting report upon what has come to be known 
as the Group Plan of Public Buildings. The conditions 
now are substantially as follows: There is a prominent 
square at about the center of the city forming the termi- 
nation of Euclid Avenue, and being bi.sected by Superior 
Street. Facing this square are a number of the most 
prominent commercial buildings, and the Chamber of 
Commerce occupies one corner. The Post Office is under 
construction, occupying the major portion of one side of 
the square. The district between the Post Office and the 



railroad tracks is at present filled with a poor class of 
buildings, the greater ])ortion of which could easily be 
spared. The present City Hall is an old structure which 
never was adapted for its purpo.sc and which it is pro])osed 
to abandon entirely.- The county building has been de- 
cided upon, plans have been accepted, and this building, 
which is to cost several millions, is a very important fac- 
tor. The Board of Supervision have taken all these va- 
rious points into consideration and have laid out a species 
of esplanade starting from a new station to be built on 
the lake front and carried on a line at right angles to the 
lake, the end of the esplanade being formed by the Post 
Office and a projected Public Library. This esplanade 
occupies a width ecjuivalent to an entire city block and is 
adorned by a sunken garden treatment, with fountains, 
etc. The City Hall and the county building respectively 
balance each other on the lake end, of the esplanade and 
are designed to face towards the lake. The report of the 
Board includes very complete plans, showing a possible 
architectural treatment of the buildings facing on the es- 
planade or mall, together with the proposed treatment of 
the railway station and its approaches. The report is 
most carefully considered, reflects great credit upon the 
Board, and places within the reach of the city of Cleve- 
land an opportunity such as few cities have ever pos- 
sessed to build a dignified, imposing entranceway to its 
business center. 

The most interesting point in connection with this 
report as affecting cities outside of Cleveland is the 
revelation it affords of possibilities in influencing public 
sentiment. We believe that this is the beginning of a 
movement of civic improvement which will be very far 
reaching in its influence. Perhaps it is not quite fair 
even to call this the beginning. Washington has already 
set a splendid pace in practically adopting the rejiort of 
the Commission appointed to improve the city. Chicago, 
under Mr. Burnham's directions, is considering a very 
remarkable series of im])rovements which will transform 
the i)resent unsightly lake front into a beautiful, formal 
])ark. Wherein the Cleveland ])lan is different from any 
of the others is that it contemplates a sweeping condem- 
nation of jjrivate property, not for mere business devel- 
opment, but for an arti.stic, dignified approach to a great 
city. This is, if we understand it rightly, the first instance 
in the world's hi.story where such an act has been c<msid- 
ered by a municii)ality, and wx> believe it will be by no 
means the only instance, but that it will be speedily fol- 
lowed by similar action on the part of other cities who 
will awaken to an appreciation of the fact that beauty is 
a nece.ssary concomitant of city improvements. 



178 



THE B R I C K lU' I LDH R 



Brick Architecture in and about 
Chicago. 

BV ROBKRT C. SPENCER, JR. 

OUTSIDE of a few favored sections, interesting; ex- 
amples of good modern brickwork in Chicago and 
its environs are as hard to find as the proverbial " needle 
in a haystack." So great, however, is the extent of ter- 
ritory over which her vast mushroom growth is sprawled 



It is the purpose of this .series to present a pictorial 
survey of the brick architecture of Chicago and its 
environs, illustrating chiefly those numerous but widely 
scattered examples, chiefly residential, which the tran- 
sient architect visitor would not be likely to see unless 
accompanied by a wi.se guide and willing to travel 
long distances. Outside of certain limited districts, 
Woodlawn and Kenwood on the south side and the 
Lake Shore Drive neighborhood and Buena Park on the 
north side, the good work is widely scattered. Some 




STABLE AND WORKSHOP, RIVER FOREST. 

that careful gleaning discovers a lot of interesting work ; 
— interesting in possessing the elements of individuality 
or originality as well as that good, substantial architect- 
ural quality which recognizes the possibilities and respects 
the limitations of brick as a building material. 



Frank Lloyd Wright, .•\rchitect. 

of the best examples are in the remoter .suburbs, where 
the architect has not been hampered by lack of space. 
Chicago, like New York and Bo.ston, .seems destined 
to be a city of apartments, "flats" and tenements. 
In the future comparatively few fine detached homes 




APARTMENT HCJUSE. Frank Lloyd Wright, Archiltct. 



THE BR I C K B U I L DER. 



179 




5 t 

o 
w 



M 



« -r 



a- rt 



.. I 



I So 



THE B R I C K H L' I L 1) I>: R 





HOUM , I \ i: SHORE DRIVE. 
Howard Shaw, Architect. 



E.MRANCK, HiiLSK IDk I KKDEKICK C. HARTI.ETT, ES(J. 
Frost & Granger, Architects. 




ENTRANCE, HOUSE, WOOULAWN AVENUE. 
Frank Lloyd Wright, Architect. 



ENTRANCE, liUL.->E, IJUl.-NA lARK. 
George W. Maher, Architect. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



I«T 




t82 



I H E B R I C K B U I L D K R . 




KNTRANCF. TO APARTMENT, GARWOOD BOULKVARU. 
I)wi}?ht H. Perkins, Architect. 



ENTRANCE, POST-GRAUU ATE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 
Dwight H. Perkins, Architect. 




APART.MENT HOUSE, OAKWOOD BOULEVARD. 
Dwight H. Perkins, Architect. 



POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 
Dwight H. Perkins, Architect. 



THE B R IC K B I' I L I) I<: R 



i«.^ 




.-^^tj^j 






184 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




THE BR IC K BU I L DER. 



.85 




M U b I L K (J M , 



HOUSE, LAKE SIDE DRIVE. 



LIBRARY MANTEL, IN TERRA-COTTA. 
Howard Shaw, Architect. 




LIBRARY, HCJUSE FOR DR. (;E0R(;E S. ISHAM. 



JanifS (iainble R(JKers, Architect. 



in ample grounds will be built within her pre.sent cor- 
porate limits. 

The bald sameness of most of the modern apartment 
buildings is very tiresome ; only here and there is any 
intelligent and tasteful originality shown. No. 157 Oak- 
wood Boulevard is a refreshing departure from the stereo- 



typed neo-classic affairs with their cornices and bays of 
galvanized iron, aptly dubbed "Chicago granite." Here 
bands of light pinkish red bricks and ivory toned terra- 
cotta in gray-white mortar form a strong yet agreeable 
contrast. The cornice, somewhat remini.scent of North 
Italian brickwork, is excellent in design and scale. The 



i86 



T H P: brick H U I L I) K R 




T H E B R I C K H U 1 L U E R 



187 



portal, with its flanking, open loges, is very effective, 
and the carved detail is quiet and good. 

Another excellent though more conventional doorway 
in brick and terra-cotta is that of the Post-Graduate Medi- 
cal School at Twenty-fourth and Dearborn Streets. The 
building is of brick, with deeply raked-out horizontal 
joints, the vertical joints being unaccented. 

In the house at 571 1 Woodlawn Avenue Mr. Perkins 
has used a light red brick in gray mortar. Although 
plain almost to the verge of baldness, the building is 
given a degree of interest by the grouping and propor- 
tion of openings and its simple all-brick details. 

One of the most severely dignified of the very new 
city houses is James Gamble Rogers' Isham house on 
North State vStreet. Of rough purplish-red brick laid in 
Flemish bond in light mortar, with trimmings of Bedford 
stone, already smoke- toned to a dull gray, it siiggests 
quite strongly the refinement of the best modern French 
domestic architecture, the only jarring note being the 
almost brutally plain hip-roofed dormers in the slate roof, 
which contrast a little too strongly with the ornate gabled 
ones. The half court on the street with a fountain built 
into the neighboring latticed and vine-covered wall and 
the glimpse into the rear court through the portc-cochhre 
are pleasing details of this simple and effective though 
unusual scheme. 

The house at No. 99 Astor Street is one of the few 
which came from the office of Adler & Sullivan. Severe 
in its general aspect, its richness f)f detail is massed at and 
above the entrance and in the cornice. In these parts 
wood and copper have been employed, contrasting darkly 
with the buff" Roman brickwork. Unfortunately the 
effect of this little building is now seriously marred by 
the huge walls of a newly built apartment house 
near by. 

George R. Dean has made very clever use of light buff 
and dull red bricks in the little building fronting on 
Thirty-ninth vStreet, just off Cottage Grove Avenue, 
which was originally designed for a theatre and is now 
devoted to bowling alleys. The arms of Chicago, three 
branches on a shield, appear in the spandrels. 

In the suburb of Oak Park the Farson house, designed 
by George W. Maher and built of a very delicate mottled 
gray brick in white mortar with red shingle tile roof, is 
interesting as an original attempt to solve the problem of 
the wide covered porch. While the cornice lines of porch 
and house are harmonious, the porch does not attach 
itself to the building sufficiently in composition. The 
same criticism applies to the house at Hinsdale, the porch 
and first story of which are built of white enameled 
Roman brick. The house at 4820 Greenwood Avenue, of 
red Roman brick, designed also by Mr. Maher, has less 
of the strong horizontal feeling than the others, although 
equally square and severe 

The house in Buena Park, a more recent example of 
Mr. Maher's work, is of cream white Roman brick with 
cement base, Bedford stone trimmings and portal, wooden 
cornice and dormer and red shingle tile roof. The carved 
detail is refined and beautifully executed. 

Frank Lloyd Wright's houses are all original and in- 
teresting. The house at River Forest is the architect's 
work best known and, on the whole, the most successful. 



The richly ornamented frieze and simple, widespreading 
roof are in perfect harmony with the site, the chief feature 
of which is a grand twin elm. In coloring, the house is 
very rich, the bricks are Roman of an almost orange tan 
in the mass, and are full of variety in shading and 
texture. The roof is of shingle tile especially burned 
to a rare, dull salmon pink. 

The little stable and workshop is classic in composi- 
tion and terminates the vista through \.\\<i portc-cochcrc. 

There are a lot of interesting houses on Woodlawn 
Avenue. The clere-.storied one at 5132, designed by Mr. 
Wright, has been given a very pleasing, delicate texture 
by laying up the warm light gray Roman bricks in white 
mortar, suppressing the vertical joints with mortar col- 
ored to match the bricks. A formal planted approach of 
unique design, a loggia with octagonal columns of 
bricks laid with rustic angles, a rich frieze of "staff" 
modeled h\ Richard Bock, the sculptor, are interesting 
features, handled with characteristic cleverness and 
originality. 

The half-timl)ei"ed house in Oak Park is noteworthy 
for its quiet simplicity and the richness of the timber 
treatment in the overhanging north gable. The lower 
walls are of deep warm buff Roman bricks, the bal- 
ustrade of the yard wall and the corbel course under the 
second story are of richly modeled terra-cotta. A tool 
house is connected to the main building in picturesque 
fashion. 

The house in Buena Park is more striking tlum any of 
the preceding ones, but is hardly so successful. The 
projection of the eaves overpowers the staircase bay and 
the general effect of the building is not quiet enough. 
A charming feature of the exterior, however, is the little 
roofed colonnade or ambulatory, which forms an extended 
entrance porch, the reception hall, offices, etc., being on 
the ground floor. The principal rooms on this and the 
main floor are wainscoted with buff brick to the tops of 
the openings, the brick wainscot being enriched with in- 
laid bands of tile mosaic of gold and color. 

The " Francis " apartment house on Forestville Avenue 
is bold and dignified in scheme yet refined in detail. 
Here Mr. Wright has u.sed, in the lower story, a rich wall 
treatment of thin, flat band courses of Bedford stone with 
broad bands of flat terra-cotta ornament between them. 
The two entrance porches are ingeniously and delicately 
treated, but being in the angles of the porch, are not 
visible in the accompanying illustrations. 

The "Francisco" apartments out on the west side, 
widely known as " Honeymoon Terrace," is another 
building designed on novel lines for collective housing by 
the same architect. One view shows an angle of the 
great courtyard which is treated as a small public garden 
and on which the majority of the apartment entrances 
face. The other gives a glimpse of the court through 
the main portal on Francisco Street. A staircase at each 
angle gives access to a gallery extending all around 
the porch from which the tenants enter their respec- 
tive suites of three and four rooms. The premises, 
particularly the gardens, are kept with .scrupulous care 
and the apartments are very popular with young mar- 
ried people of modest means who have no small incum- 
brances. 



i88 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



Old Brick Houses at Richmond, 
Surrey. 11. 

BV R. RANUAI. PHILLIPS. 

A NUMBER of small parishes lie around Richmond. 
They have a history of their own which goes back 
centuries, but with the increase of population and the ex- 
tension of building their boundaries are becoming broken 
down and they merge into the larger borough of Rich- 
mond. Petersham and Hain on one side of the river 




PKTKRSHAM HOUSK. 

and Twickenham on the other, once distant and distinct 
hamlets, have now lost their rusticity, just as Kew is no 
longer an isolated village, but an oasis between London 
and Richmond, connected with both by a line of suburban 
houses. So that we may very legitimately extend our 
consideration to the outlying parts, though in doing so 
it will be necessary to be circumspect, else the houses be- 
coiue so numerous as to be impossible of notice in the 
present article. For that reason I do not propose to go 
along the road to Kew, which would soon lead us aside to 
Mortlake and the several fine old buildings in its vicinity, 
but rather to take a short circuit on the Petersham and 
Twickenham sides of the river. 




RUTLAND LODGE, PETERSHA.M. 

At a bend of the road that skirts the foot of Richmond 
Hill — below the famous "Star and Garter" Hotel — is 
Petersham Park, clcjse to which are two or three delight- 
ful brick houses of the Georgian period. There is Peter- 
sham Lodge, with its typical flat arches over the windows 
and wood stringcourse, even what some may be disposed 
to call its monotonoiis fenestration; but externally its 
particular feature is the entrance doorway, shown among 
the accompanying illustrations. The domed porch with 
its four Ionic columns (the bases of which, by the way, 
are happily arranged with the step) is painted a creamy- 
white color, in pleasant contrast to the red brick house. 
The windows have old-fa.shioned panes, but demand no 
special reference; indeed the whole house, with the excep- 
tion of its porch, exhibits nothing of particular moment, 
though its appearance is undoubtedly satisfactory and 
dignified. 

A little farther ahmg the road is Rutland Lodge. 
This was built about 1685 (a bell at the top of the house 
bears this date), so that it belongs to the time of (Jueen 
Anne and not to the Georges; but it seems that some ad- 



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GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



RUTLAND LODGE, PETERSHAM. 



THE BR ICK BU I L DER. 



189 



ditions were made in Georgian days. The house offers 
considerably more diversity of treatment than usual. 
The wall surface is relieved by slight projections carried 
up as piers the whole height of the house. Here again 
the doorway is a special feature. It is of painted wood, 
protected by lead flashing. Whatever we may think of 
the architects of this period, they at least had an admira- 
ble sense of proportion, as this doorway exemplifies. 
How many modern doorways, even to large mansions, are 
half so fine? It has been suggested that the to]) story of 
Rutland Lodge is a later addition, but there is practically 
nothing in sup])ort of this suggestion ; indeed everything 



from the fact that it was l)uilt l)y the Earl of Harrington, 
after designs by Lord Burlington. It was pulled down in 
1S34; the beautiful cedars seen from the road mark its site. 




MAIN ENTRANCE, RUTLAND LODGE, PETERSHAM. 

points to the conclusion that the house was originally 
built as it now stands, with the exception of the kitchen 
wing on the left and a passage leading to this wing on the 
garden front. 

Close behind these houses is old Petersham Church, 
a tiny building originally erected in 1505, and now con- 
sisting of an ancient tower crowned by a wooden belfry 
with a brick nave added in 1840. The interior is very 
quaint, with its galleries and its box pews that leave only 
heads showing. 

In what is now Peter.sham Park, nearly opposite the 
church, was a fine house called " Harrington's Retreat," 




HOUSE, SUDBROOK PARK, PETERSHAM. 

Not far away is a red brick liuilding known as vSud- 
brook Park, consisting of a central portion faced with 




HAM HOUSE, RIVER FRONT. 



plaster and bearing columns on the front, with a wing 
right and left. It was once the residence of the Duke of 




IHK MANOR HOUSE, HAM. 



Argyle, who was born in Ham House. A writer says: 
"The duke seems only at first to have built a hunting 
lodge about 1717, namely, the ])rcsent drawing room and 



190 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 




CHI.MNEV-PIECE ANIJ PANELING IN DININli ROOM, HAM 
MANOR HOUSE. 

the arched rooms and passajjes beneath. This part of the 
house is very curious, the lower walls beinj( four feet thick 
and the upper ones three feet, lig-hted by six windows and 
decorated with the arms of Arg-yll and various trophies, 
and is altogether an exceedingly fine room. vSubse- 
cjuently, between 17 17 and 1743, a large portion of the 
present mansion was erected." The house was still fur- 
ther enlarged by the duke's eldest daughter, who died in 
1794. It is now a private hotel, and its grounds are 
used by the Richmond Club, but it is chiefly noted as 
having been the residence of Canning, and from the 
fact that the Reform Bill of 1832 was drawn up within 
its walls. 

In dealing with the old houses in the neighborhood of 
Richmond it is imperative to make some reference to 





KIN(; STREEl', TWICKENHAM. 

Ham House, with which the infamous Cabal* ministry is 
associated. As Mr. E. Beresford Chancellor remarks, 
when we look into the chamber where the Cabal held its 
mysterious meetings, we can almost fancy we see the 
cynical Ashley arguing with the brilliant Buckingham 
(or rather trying to educate him to argument), Clifford 
whispering to Arlington (and we all know Arlington's 
face with the black patch across the nose), and Lauder- 




NORTH FRONT OF ORLEANS HOUSE, TWICKENHAM. 



SION ROW, TWICKENHAAL 

dale, rough and ready, strident and bruscjue, trying to 
domineer over all, while his duchess sits leaning on her 
stick, saying very little but thinking very much. " When 

* The letters of this word of course stand for the names of the five 
men who composed the ministry. 



T H E H R 1 C K 1^ U 1 L I)H R 



191 




RIVER FRONT OF ORI.F.ANS HOUSE, TWICKENHAM. 

we stand in this place we are on the very spot where an 
unprincipled ministry did its best to compass the ruin of 
a free people." But Ham House is too well known both 
for its architectural features and historical associations to 
call for much attention here. The illustration serves the 
present purpose, and it will suffice to add that the house 
was built in 16 10, that it has a larj^e central hall paved 
with black and white marble surrounded by an open i^al- 
lery, that on the western side is a jjallery ninety-two feet 




long;, that Verrio painted some of the ceilings, and that 
the iron gates are said to have been closed since they 
were opened to allow Charles the vSecond to escape when 
liunted by the Roundheads. 

A house which is very little known is Ham Manor 
House. The entrance front is quite disfigured by the 
covered way that leads to the gates, but the garden 
front forms a pleasant, essentially English composition, 
with its creeper over the red brick walls, its white-i)ainted 
woodwork and weathered tiles. Inside is an old oak 




MONTPELIER ROW, TWICKENHAM. 

staircase. The projecting bay (of the drawing room) is a 
later addition. The dining room is paneled from floor to 
ceiling, the wood being grained and the beveled edges 
of the panels gilded. The ceiling, however, attracts the 
chief attention. This has an oval border of intertwining 
stems with a center design filling the space within: a re- 
flection of a portion of it is seen in the pier glass over 
the mantel-piece. Crossing now to the other side of the 
river and so reaching Twickenham, we find a terrace of 
houses called Sion Row, built in 1721. These, despite 
modern blemishes, preserve their Georgian character. 




NO. 13 MONTFEI.IER ROW, TWICKENHAM. 



FIREPLACE, NO. I3 MONTl'ELIER ROW, TWICKENHAM. 



192 



THE BR I CK BU I L DER. 




THE LIBRARY, ORLEANS HOUSE, T\\ ILK KN 11 A \l . 

They are built on a slight curve, which, with the wide- 
projecting' eave, adds considerably to their effect. 

In Twickenham town itself are several old brick 
houses, such as those in King Street, — the main street, 
now gradually being si)oiled, — but it is ( )rleans House to 
which I would next refer. This derives its name from 
the residence in it of King Louis Philippe, who rented 
the house t)n his arrival from New York in 1800, when he 
was still Duke of Orleans; the whole vicinity, in fact, 
bears relics of the exiled royal family of France. Orleans 
House was built by James Johnstone, secretary of state 
for Scotland, the octagonal room at the western end hav- 
ing been added for the special entertainment of Oueen 
Caroline, wife of George the Second. It is now used as 
the dining room, and has pillared doorways with pedi- 
ments, figures of cherubs and over-ornate embelli.shments 
to walls and ceiling. 




The house has been very much altered. As originally 
built by Johnstone it consisted of the center block only 
and the octagonal hall ; the conservatory joining these 
two, the dormers and the end bay of the main block, the 
library on the eastern side and the picture gallery on the 
north front are all additions made by the duke, as also 
the stables. It is easy to detect the difference between 
the later and the old work, the old being carried out 
in a brown -red brick with redder dressings, while 
the later work is in a livelier red brick with yellow 
strings and julasters, caps and ornaments in light terra- 
cotta. On the garden front of what is called the library 
is a marble statue of " Mai em pre' " by Copio, dated 
1861. The fleur-de-lis and the monogram " H. O." 
are conspicuous in many parts. Over the lower win- 
dows of the morning room bay on the river front are 
three plaques in the Delia Robbia manner — female 




BACK OF NO. I^ MONTPELIER ROW, TWICKENHAM. 



STAKLKS, ORLEANS HOUSE, TWICKENHAM. 

heads in white on a blue ground — which I imderstand 
were put there by the present owner about ten or fifteen 
years ago. 

Twickenham Church has a flint tower like Richmond 
Parish Church, — survivals of the older buildings, — but 
the remainder is in brick, and was rebuilt in 17 15 from, 
the designs of John James, the architect of St. George's, 
Hanover Square, and other London churches. 

Halfway between Twickenham and Richmond is a 
row of about twenty-four houses. These are called 
Montpelier Row. They were built about 1720; one of 
them (now known as Holyrood House) is famous as the 
residence of Alfred Tennyson in 1850, and it is possible 
that part of " In Memoriam " was written here. In No. 
13 (the residence of Mr. D. S. MacCoU, the well-known 
art critic), which I have selected as a typical example, 
some plain but effective wood paneling is to be seen 
and a fine fireplace on the first floor. Of the rest the 
photographs speak for themselves. 

I have now dealt with the more interesting of the old 
brick houses in the area chosen. Many others might be 
noticed, but they bear much the same character as those 
already dealt with, which serve to .show clearly what 
solid and satisfactory work could be done by architects 
in England during the Georgian period. 



THE BRICK H U I L I)K R. 



'93 



Fireproofing. 



A BUILDING WITH WOODEN FLOOR JOISTS 
THAT IS ACTUALLY FIREPROOF. 

ON the evening of Wednesda}-, August 26, a myste- 
rious explosion started a fire on the first story of 
the large furniture store of A. H. Revell & Co. at the 
northeast corner of Wabash Avenue and Adams Street, 
Chicago. This store occupies more than ten thousand 
feet of area and is six stories high. Each story is practi- 
cally one room, only broken by columns, and on the north 
side is a handsome staircase with one wide flight and two 
narrow flights to each floor, leaving two open well holes, 
in which, since the store was originally built, open passen- 




KIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION WITH IKON COLUMN AND GIRDER, 

BOTH protected; and wood FLOOR JOISTS, WITH 

POROUS TILE CEILING AND DEAFENING PLASTER 

FINISH ON COLUMN, GIRDER AND CEILING. 

ger elevators have been constructed. This building was 
erected about twenty years ago from the plans of Adler 
& Sullivan, architects, and was the first of two buildings 
fireproofed according to the same system. These stores 
have cast-iron columns supporting all the floors and roof, 
with double I-beam girders and white pine floor joists. 
A detailed illustration of the method of fireproofing for 
columns, girders, ceiling and floors is here given, all the 
fireproofing having been done with hand-made porous 
terra-cotta. 

About thirteen years ago the sixth story of this build- 
ing was occupied as a fringe factory, and many wooden 
partitions had been unwisely introduced. A fire, said to 
have been caused by lightning, burned out a large part 
of the contents and destroyed the skylights, but never got 
through the roof. The firemen pulled oft" a few of the 
ceiling tiles after the fire was out, to find if there was any 
fire behind them, but there was none. 



About ten years ago the other building referred to 
was stocked with wall paper in closely built alleys of 
wooden pigeonholes on the second floor. A fire occurred 
directly in the center of the floor and destroyed most of 
the contents, but did not injure the building, except as to 
the window frames and interior i)lastering. It did not 
reach the third floor. 

The fire in the Wabash Avenue store in August last 
started in a gallery built at the east end of the first story, 
which was closely stocked with furniture. This part of 
the stock of furniture was totally destroyed, and the fire 
extended up through the well hole iLsed by a passenger 
elevator, and was distributed through the upper floors to 
the top. But the explosion did not break a tile, and the 
fire only injured the plastering on ceilings, girders and 
columns. The grand stairway was fireproofed in the 
, same manner as the girders and ceilings, the construc- 
tion being with I-beam outside strings and intermediate 
wooden carriages, the only exposed combustible part 
being the treads of wood. It was plastered with Keene's 
cement and elaborately moulded. The platforms were 
carried by two fireproofed cast-iron columns from founda- 
tion to sixth story. The Keene's cement work was only 
slightly injured. 

The fire was extinguished in one hour after it started, 
and the loss of goods is said to have been $50,000. The 
building could be repaired in a week. 

This and the other experiences of actual fires above 
alluded to (which were described in The Brickbuilder 
at the time) are other illustrations of the efficiency of a 
system of fireproofing carefully executed many years 
ago, which has been discarded and is practically "out of 
date." Even this building would now be rated l)y the 
present building ordinances of Chicago as "slow burn- 
ing construction. " But it seems it did not burn at all. 
It is not an example of the average of work done twenty 
years ago, but was then an exception. However, it was 
not an accident, but a deliberate performance intended to 
get the greatest possible fire protection when wooden floor 
and roof joists are used. It was not expensive either. 



ARTIFICIAL STONE. 

EVER since the possibilities of concrete were discov- 
ered, and this carries us back thousands of years, 
attempts have been made to produce with cement an arti- 
ficial stone, but thus far there have been almost no suc- 
cesses. That is to say, concrete for external walls can be 
used" with a very fair degree of success in climates like 
Florida or Southern California, but at the most the_\- have 
given only qualified successes in northern latitudes, and 
thus far the only composite material, if it can be so termed, 
which has been a complete siiccess is burnt claj'. If it 
can not be depended upon for an external wall when 
subjected merely to dead loads, is it wise to emi)loy it 
where subjected to transverse and shearing strains, as is 
the case in all the suspended constructions and wherever 
it is reinforced by steel? Lacking a better material, con-- 
Crete can uncjuestionably be used in some forms with per- 
fect safety, but modern experience has certainly shown 
that any virtues possessed l)y concrete in floor or wall 
construction arc shared in even greater measure by terra- 
cotta, in addition to which the latter material has a perma- 
nence which no other composite can offer. 



194 



THE BR 1 C K H U 1 L I) !•: R. 



Selected Miscellany. 

HINTS ON DEvSIGN IN TERRA COTTA. 

The accompanying illustration (Fig. i) is that of part 
of an ideal terra-cotta pier, made for the Hayden-Clinton 
National Bank building, Frank L. Packard, architect. 
The probable variation in the lengths of these pier blocks, 

due to unecjual shrinkage 
in drying and burning, is 
about Dne-quarter inch, 
and in the hands of the 
careless or inexperienced 
may be more; but the 




rustication conceals this variation. The ashlar forming 
the jamb is separate, and therefore admits of perfect 
alignment in the building. 

To emphasize this by contrast, a sketch of another 




HOUSE, SHORT MILLS, N. J. 

Parish & Schroeder, Architects. Covered with American S Tile 
furnished by Cincinnati Roofing Tile & Terra-Cotta Co. 

pier is shown (Fig. 2), which is not designed for terra- 
cotta. It admits of no alignment and will produce a 
ragged jamb line. V. Wagnkk. 

NEW YORK NOTES. 
Building interests in this city are almost in a state of 
stagnation, owing to the long continued fight of the labor 
unions agamst the employers. It is a pitiful sight to 



travel around the city and see so many large operati(ms 
at a standstill, particularly the new school buildings, 
which affect thousands of children. Workingmen are 
seen everywhere idle and apparently unhappy, their fam- 




T^^I1"ANUM, CHURCH Ol 1.1 II llANY, PITTSBURG, I'A. 
Kdward .'^totz. Architect. Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

ilies suffering, yet they hold out, believing as they do in 
their walking delegates, or afraid to ojjpose them. 

The New York City Board of Education has approved 



f-** 




DETAIL HV E. C. JONES, ARCHITECT. 

Winkle Terra-Cotta Co.. Makers. 

plans for the first si.x-story schoolhouse to be erected in 
the city and probably the forerunner of the skyscraper 
school. It is the first grammar school to have elevators. 




DETAIL BY B. H. MARSHALL, ARCHITECT. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

and probably numerous others will follow. The problem 
of providing sufficient school accommodations for a large 
city is exceedingly difficult and serious, and in New York 
it seems impossible to keep pace with the increase in 
population. This new school will have, besides four huge 
elevators which will hold thirty pupils each, a series of 
escalators, or moving stairways; it will have ground 
measurements of 200 x 75 feet, a height of 200 feet, and 
will cost at least $400,000, exclusive of the value of the 



THE B R I C K li U 1 L I) K R 



^9S 



^M^^\ 




^^ ^. A 


V 


^ 




^ 


^ 




1 


1 




r 

r 










fp 





site. If capacity is meas- 
ured by the number of 
classrooms, this will be 
the largest school in the 
city, for it will have 
ninety-seven classes. 

McKim, Mead & 
White are preparing 
plans for a new building 
for Columbia Univer- 
sity, for which Joseph 
Pulitzer has given 
$1,000,000. It will be 
used as a school of jour- 
nalism. 

In the futiire the old 
and almost defxmct vSta- 




DETAII. BY JOHN E. SCII ARSMITII, 
ARCHITECT. 

Brick, Terra-Cotta&Tile Co., Makers. 

ten Island ferry is to be owned 
and operated by the city, and elab- 
orate plans are being made to re- 
model the entire system. The ter- 
minal ferry houses are being 
planned by Carrere & Hastings 
and Snelling & Potter. 

Plans are being completed by 
Israels & Harder for an eleven- 
story apartment hotel to be built 
on Columbus Avenue and Seven- 
tieth Street. It will be built of 
limestone, brick and terra-cotta 
and will cost $550,000. 

The plans for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's 
terminal. Thirty-first to Thirty-third streets, and Sev- 
enth to Ninth avenues, are now practically complete in 
the office of McKim, Mead & White. Work has been 
delayed, however, owing to the indecision of the com- 
pany's engineers regarding the track system, the plan for 
which will determine the foundations of the superstruc- 
ture. The new terminal will be a four-story brick build- 
ing containing the offices of the various departments, and 
the passengers' waiting room will be surmounted by a 
dome rising seven or eight stories in height. 

Hunt & Hunt are preparing plans for the new 69th 
Regiment armory to be built on Lexington Avenue, 
Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth streets. The cost of 
the building is estimated at $600,000. 

The Grueby Faience Companyare supplying their deco- 
rative faience for fourteen of the first-class stations of the 
New York subway. Heins & La Farge are the architects. 



THE THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUALCONVENTION, 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS, 

CLEVELAND, OCTOBER 15 TO 17. 

The Thirty-sevcntli Annual Convention of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects will be held in Clevehuul, 
Ohio, October 15 to 17 inclusive. 

Mr. John Ely, vice-president of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road and also vice-president of the American Academy of 
Rome, will discuss the general subject of the necessity 
and value of well-trained men to execute the future artis- 
tic work in the United States and the value of the School 
of Rome for producing educated artists. 

On the subject of Mural Painting and the facilities for 
its study in the School of Rome, papers will be pre- 
pared by Mr. John La Farge and Mr. E. A. Blashfield. 

Mr. Augustus St. Gaudens will prejmre a paper on the 
development of sculpture in this country and the advan- 
tages for the study of sculpture in the 
School of Rome. 

Mr. Austin W. Lord, one of the 
American students at the vSchool of 
Rome, will discuss the (juestion of ar- 
chitectural study in this school. 

Papers are expected from a distin- 
guished Italian on the City of Rome, 
and from Mr. Mowbray, the managing 
director of the Academy in Rome, on 
the School and its Methods of Study 
and Management. 

The president's address and the 
various committee reports will be in- 
teresting. Arrangements will be made 



DETAIL BY HERTS & TALLANT, ARCHITECTS. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



for reduced rates, 
and there will be 
various entertain- 
ments during the 
convention. 



THE FIFTH 
ANNUAL CON- 
VENTION OF 
THE ARCHI- 
TECTURAL 
LEAGUE OF 
AMERICA, 
ST. LOUIS, OC- 
TOBER 5 AND 6. 

The c o m i n g 
convention of the 
Architectural 
League of Amcr- 




DKI'AII, \\\ \. IIUI.O KOKMI.KK, 

ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



196 



T HE B R I C K B U I L D RSR 



ica, which is to take place in vSt. Louis, October 5 and 6, 
will undoubtedly be of great interest. It is needless to 
say that the local committee have prepared a program 
which is not only instructive but interesting. The fact 



<■< III' I — ».<w»«^— ^»^»t^»M3 



ll I 



DETAIL in KKES ,V COI.BURN, ARCHITECTS. 
Aiiicrican Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

that the c()nventi<m is to be held at St. Louis in advance 
of the opening of the Exposition makes possible an archi- 
tectural investigation of the work already completed that 
will be as instructive as it is unusual. Many of the Ex- 
position buildings are practically completed ; many are in 
progress and much of the landscape architecture and 
landscape gardening is still in a formative stage. But 




CHAPMAN SCHOOI., BOSTON, MASS. 

Built nf Kittanning Brick furnished by Fiske & Co., Boston, Agents. 

the Exposition is assuming a sufficiently developed ap- 
pearance to make a careful study of it by experts most 
profitable. 

The convention will hold some of its sessions at the 
World's Fair grounds: on Monday in the Administration 
Building, and on Tuesday morning and possibly afternoon 
in the Art Museum. Papers of interest are to be read 
and the usual routine business to be disposed of. 




I NION I 1. 1 r,, XEW -SORK CIT^•. 

John Uufais, Architect. 

Enameled Brick furnished by American Knameled Brick & Tile Co. 

NOTICE TO THE CLAY TRADE. 

The financial difficulty into which the American Clay- 
Working Machinery Company has been drawn will not 
in any way affect the continued operation of the Bucyrus 
and Willoughby plants at their full capacity. Orders for 
new machinery and repairs will be filled with the usual 
promptness and on the usual terms. 

It has been the aim of this company in the past to 
put upon the market a line of machinery built strictly on 
merits, and the patronage extended was a gratifying evi- 
dence that the quality of their machinery was appre- 
ciated. A continuation of that same generous patronage 
will be more than ever appreciated at this time and will 
be reciprocated by a watchful care after the interests of 
patrons. 

ARCHITECTS' DIRECTORY. 

The Architects' Directory and Specification Index 
KOR 1903 4. Containing a complete list of the archi- 
tects in the United vStates and Canada. Classified by 
states and towns, indicating those who are members 
of the American Institute of Architects, aLso the 
names of the officers and locations of the differ- 
ent architectural associations in the United States. 
Prepared with the greatest care to secure accuracy 
both in names and location. One octavo volume, red 
cloth. Price $2. New York: Wm. T. Comstock. 



J /IB 





SCHOOI., PITTSniKc;, I'A. 

S. T. McClaren, Architect. 

Covered with Tiles made by Ludowici Roofing Tile Co. 



THE BR I C K BLM L 1) b:R. 



197 




Considerable 
space has been 
g;iven to architec- 
tural societies, as 
far as possible giv- 
intj names of offi- 
cers and addresses 
of secretaries. 
Lists of publica- 
tions devoted to 
this interest have 
also been given, 
with subscription 
prices, date of 




DETAILS BY GEORGE H. STKEETON, 
ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

founding and other matters of infor- 
mation. Architectural schools are also 
given. 



IN GENERAL. 

Celadon Roofing Tile will be used 
on three new buildings for the Metro- 
politan Water Board of Massachusetts, 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects. 

Charles Bacon, Boston representa- 
tive, reports the following new con- 
tracts for Sayre & Fisher Company 
brick : Beacon Hill Trust Company 
building, Boston, W. G. Preston, archi- 
tect ; Registry of Deeds building, Ded- 
ham, Mass., and building for Simmons 
College, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, 
architects. 

An interesting and valuable cata- 
logue has just been issued by the Cleve- 
land Hydraulic Press Brick Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Interesting because 
of the illustration of the many molded shapes made by 



^bf!^ 




the company, 
and valuable be- 
cause the price 
and dimensions 
of each .shape 
are given. It is 
pocket size, and 
its contents are 
presented in the 
most concise 
and business- 
like manner. 

Among the 
recent con- nErAii. by st. i.ouis terh.v-cotta co. 

tracts closed by the Brick, 
Terra-Cotta and Tile Com- 
pany for architectural terra-cotta 
are the following: Allentown 
National Bank, Allentown, Pa., 
Jacoby, Wei sham pel & Biggin, 
architects; vSt. Ann's Monastery 
building, Scranton, Pa., and St. 
Mary's Church, Plymouth, Pa., 
Owen McCilynn, architect; build- 
ing for Buffalo Milk Company, 
Buffalo, N. Y., S. H. Woodruff, 
architect; sub-station for the 
^Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company, Yonkers, N. Y., A. V. 
Porter, architect. 

The White Brick and Terra- 
Cotta Company have recently 
furnished the following buildings 
with terra-cotta: United Bank 
building. New Milford, Conn., 
Wilson Potter, architect; office 
building, 21 Liberty vStreet, New 
York City, Butler cV- Rodman, 
architects; office building, Hud- 
son and Franklin streets. New 
York City, G. Howard Chamber- 
lin, architect; apartment hotel, 
127-135 West 43d Street, New 
York City, Mulliken & Moeller, 
architects ; residence for I*\ Rob- 
ert Schell, Northfield, Mass., Bruce Price, architect; resi- 
dence for F. R. Halsey, Tu.xedo Park, New York, liruce 
Price, architect. 




BUILDING, fifth AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

C. I. Berg, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta furnished by the New York Architectural 

Terra-Cotta Co. 



DETAIL BY E. O. FALLIS, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE SOCIETY OF BEAUX- ARTS ARCHITECTS 
HAS F.sTA/i/./s ///■:/> .1 /-A' /■:/■: coca's/' of .s/t/m', o/'FJV 

TO PRALCniSMI-.A' AXF S/C/)/-: .V /S OF AXV C/TY, 
MODELLED OX FIIF U EX ERA I. FLAX FUKSl'E/) AT 
rilE ECOLE DE H EA F X-ARFS LX PA KLS. A X D COA/FRLS- 
ING EREQUENT J'ROF/.FA/S /X OR/)FRS, /)FS/aXS, 
ARCLLyt:OLO(n\ FFC. 

FOR IXEORMAFIOX AI'FLV FO F//F SFCKFFARY OF 
TLIE COMAA/FFEE OA EDLCA FIOX, j EASF jjA) SFREE'F, 
NEW YORK' CAFY. 



\g^ 



T }] K B R I C K B U I L D E R 




Competttton for a Public Library u 



First Prize, $500 Second Vrize, $200 Third Vrize, $100 




PROGRAM 

|T is assumed that a public library is to be presented to a town located in the middle west. 
This town occupies a picturesque position in a rolling country bordering one of the Great 
Lakes and is the seat of a small but important college. The public square is a park which 
is assumed to be 300 feet wide and upwards of 1,000 feet long. At one end is already built 
the town hall, and at the opposite end will be placed the library. The ground rises gently 
towards the proposed site, so that the position will be a commanding one. The whole front- 
age of 300 feet will be given to the library and its approaches, and the entire depth of the lot 
is 200 feet. The total rise from the curb line to the center of the lot is 10 feet, and the grade 
falls off towards the rear i foot in 40. Sidewise the grade falls off equally each \vay from the center 
10 feet to the boundary lines. The building must set back a distance of 75 feet from the front line, 
and the approach must be treated in an architectural manner. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and colored terra-cotta or 
faience may be introduced as a feature of the design. 

The following accommodation is to be provided for in plan. The dimensions given are only ap- 
proximate and may be modified as required by the exigencies of the design : 

First Story. Vestibule, 200 sq. ft. ; periodical room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; reference library and reading 
room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; general delivery room, 600 sq. ft. ; trustees' room, 350 sq. ft. ; librarian's room, 
350 sq. ft. ; stack room, 1,500 sq. ft. 

Second Story. Children's room, 500 sq. ft. ; music room, 500 sq. ft. ; exhibition room, 500 sq. ft. ; 
two rooms for special collections, 500 sq. ft. each. 

It is assumed that the lavatories, storerooms, etc., are all to be located in the basement, which is 
to be raised sufficiently above the finished grade to allow of fair lighting. There are to be two flights 
of stairs leading to the second story, but they are not to be made a prominent feature. It will be 
assumed that the heating plant is entirely distinct from the building, there being consequently no 
provision made for a chimney, but space should be provided for ample ventilation flues. 

Drawings Required. An elevation at a scale of 1-16 inch to the foot, which is to show the 
entire frontage of the lot, 300 feet, and to indicate the treatment of approaches. There are also to 
be sketch plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 1-32 inch to the foot, and details drawn 
at a scale of 3-4 inch to the foot showing the character of the design and the construction of the 
terra-cotta. The elevation is to appear upon one sheet, and the details and plans upon another. 
The width and length of each sheet shall be in proportion of three to four and not exceed 24 x 32 
inches. All drawings are to be made in black ink without wash or color. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study 
of the use of architectural terra-cotta. No limitation of cost need be considered, but the designs must 
be made such as would be suitable for the location, for the character of the building and for the mate- 
rial in which it is to be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the 
terra-cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cotta will be a point 
taken largely into consideration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to 
be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., on or before October 31, 1903. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

All drawings submitted in this competition are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, 
and the right is reserved to publish any or all of them. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the 
terra-cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

OCTOBER, 

1903. 




ENTRANCE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SALAMANCA, SPAIN. 




-THE BRICKBVILDER 

OCTOBER 1903 



DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTS OF 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAY 





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HLHLISUEI) MllNTIII.V liV 

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85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March I2, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5. 00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

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Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products . . . II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages onlv. 



IX 1901 the itpper portif^n of the building occupied by 
the Boston Advertiser was destroyed by fire. Inci- 
dental to the adjustment of the insurance loss upon the 
structure it was found that the building laws were .so 
framed as to practically prohibit the building being re- 
stored to its former condition, and that if it were to be 
restored at all the reconstruction would involve an ex- 
pense of some fifteen thousand dollars more than would 
have been necessary to merely put the building back in 
its first condition. The owners naturally made a claim 
on the insurance companies for the larger amount, about 
forty-six thousand dollars, and after a long fight in the 
courts the Supreme Court of Mas.sachusetts has decided 
that under a general policy not specifically limiting the 
loss to what would be necessary to put the building back 
in its former condition the insurance companies must 
pay the full amount required, taking into consideration 
full compliance with the existing laws. This seems like 
hard justice for the insurance companies, and the Boston 
Herald, in an editorial manifestly inspired by insurance 
circles, objects decidedly to this interpretation. The de- 
cision might doubtless in many cases wtjrk hardship in 
the companies. Section 20 of the Building Law states 
that "no permit for the alteration or repair of a wooden 
building within the building limits shall be granted if the 
cost of the proposed alteration exceeds 50 per cent of the 



^^^mj^ 



cost of renewing the building." There arc still williin 
the fire limits of Boston many wooden structures, .some 
of which date back over a century. There have been a 
few cases where a permit to rebuild such structures after 
a fire has been refused in accordance with Section 20 just 
cited, and in such cases, considering the recent decision 
of the Advertiser suits, the insurance companies would 
be liable for the cost of a new building of far better con- 
struction than that destroyed. This seems unfair to the 
companies, but the real point is that their policies in most 
states indemnify the owner against loss, and if conditions 
are such as to require a special form of rebuilding it seems 
110 more than etjuity for the companies to accept and pay 
for that method. We cannot help a feeling that there 
will come before very long a radical revision of the meth- 
ods of proportioning both premiums and insurance, and 
when that readjustment takes place it is earnestly to be 
hoped that the companies will somehow be able to so ar- 
range a sliding scale that it will be for everybody's inter- 
est to build well and thoroughly and in a fireproof man- 
ner instead of, as now, being able to build in almost any 
method and then protect themselves against loss merely 
by paying a sufficient premium. Insurance ought to be, 
and can be, an encourager of good building. The imme- 
diate obligation to the insured is one of indemnification. 
The larger obligation to the community on the part of 
the insurance companies is to foster good construction. 



ARCHITECTURE is assuming strenuous proportions 
as a profession, and the importance of the archi- 
tect thoroughly knowing his business is appreciated to a 
wider extent than ever before. There have been of late 
a number of articles in the papers upon the subject which 
.show that, while the architectural opportunities have enor- 
mously increased in number and size, the demand upon 
the architect has increased in an even greater ratio, so that 
to be an educated, trained architect means a great deal 
more than ever before and carries with it very grave re- 
.sponsibilities. It is no longer enough to have influential 
friends, nor to have passed through a technical .school 
with brilliant record. One must have both of these 
together with a degree of business executive ability which 
finds its parallel only in the management of some of the 
large trusts, if one is to reach the highest possibilities of 
the profession. Indeed, in one sense the architect i 
really trustee for the owner and the builder, and though 
he is paid by the former it is jjart of his business to see 
that both parties receive fair treatment; and in order to 
do this he must know pretty thoroughly his client's, his 
builder's and his own l)usiness. 



200 



THE B R I C K B U I L D P: R 



Thirtv-Seventh Annual Convention, 
American Institute of Architects. 



REPORT. 

THE annual convention of the American Institute of 
Architects was held at the Hollenden Hotel, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on October 15, 16 and 17, about ninety dele- 
g'ates being present. It was opened by President McKim ; 
Mayor Tom L. Johnson of Cleveland, who was to wel- 
come the visitors, being unable to be present. His 
absence, however, was fully atoned for by the warmth 
of the welcome extended by the members of the local 
chapter. 

The report of the Board of Directors was read by 
Frank Miles Day of Philadelphia. It stated that the 
total membership was 754, of whom 359 were fellows 
and 395 associate members. Five fellows and eleven 
associates were added and twenty dropped. Twelve 
members and honorary members had died. The need of 
further organization of the architects was urged, as was 
the institution of a fund for the further development of 
instruction and the maintenance of the Octagon. The 
amount hitherto subscribed for payment on the Octagon 
was reported as about $13,000, and the taxes and inter- 
est were a heavy burden on the resources of the Institute. 
This statement awakened great interest, and during the 
convention, by the efforts of Mr. Carr^re, about $10,000 
more was pledged. This was followed by reports of the 
treasurer. Auditing Committee, Chapters and House and 
Library Committee, which reported re])airs to the Octa- 
gon and additions to the library. 

H. L. Warren, for the Education and Publishing Com- 
mittee, referred to the retirement of Professor Ware from 
active practice, and resolutions were ado])ted apprecia- 
tive of his lifelong services to the profession. Reports 
were read from all the architectural schools in the United 
States, (llenn Brown reported for the Foreign Corre- 
spondence Committee that reports had been received from 
eight or nine foreign architectural societies relative to 
the remuneration of architects. The Contract and Lien 
Law Committee — Alfred vStone, chairman -- reported 
the sale of 69,491 Uniform Contracts. No report was 
received from the Applied Arts and Sciences Committee, 
the chairman being absent. George B. Post, chairman 
of Legislative Committee on Government Architecture, 
reported that government officials have the impression that 
architects are too highly paid and show a disposition to 
turn the designs over to government engineers for execu- 
tion, and that action was necessary to prevent injury to 
the architecture of the Capital City. The directors were 
directed to protest against the extension of the Capitol 
being intrusted to incompetent hands. Mr. Post's re- 
marks on the subject of superintendence as distinguished 
from supervision were very interesting to the younger 
architects. 

Mr. Mundie of Chicago suggested the appointment of 
a delegate to the meeting of National Fire Protection 
Association each year. 

Mr. Boring, chairman of the Improvement of Wash- 
ngton Committee, recommended that the matter of the 



improvement of Washington be not taken up at present. 
The Committee on Metric System reported that the bill 
would probably come up in the next Congress. 

An invitation to the International Congress of Archi- 
tects to next meet at Washington was authorized. 

On Tuesday afternoon a delightful tallyho ride 
through the charming parks and suburbs of Cleveland 
was enjoyed through the courtesy of the local chapter. 
A stop was made at the Country Club, and supper was 
taken at the Euclid Club. 

At the evening session papers by Theodore N. Ely, 
John La Farge, Augustus St. Gaudens and E. H. Blash- 
field were read, but none of these gentlemen were pres- 
ent, so the interest due to per.sonality was lacking. Mr. 
Bla.shfield's paper was interesting, he strongly advocat- 
ing Rome as a place of study for decorative painters on 
account of its central location in relation to the great gal- 
leries and works of art. He said only technically pre- 
pared graduates should be .sent there, however, and such 
pupils can select from the mass of material that for which 
they are best fitted and can adorn their work with the 
experience of others. The artistic atmosphere of Rome 
is freer from passing clouds than that of Paris. Culture 
is the need of American art, "but not the culture of 
penny pictures of the Sistine Madonnas which are cut out 
by children to paste on boxes." From Rome as a center 
the student can study the use of gold in mural decoration 
at Palermo, Monreale, Ravenna, Venice and Siena and 
tricks of ceiling decoration at the Ducal Palace at Venice. 
He said that before long an example of the work of the 
American School at Rome would be seen on the walls of 
New York. Mr. St. (iaudens's paper stated that if the 
American Academy at Rome helped only one pupil in a 
century it would be worth while. Austin W. Lord 
then read a paper on " The Significance of Rome to the 
American Architectural Student," which was of much in- 
terest and was well received. 

Friday morning's session commenced with the appoint- 
ment of special committees and the report of the Commit- 
tee on Credentials, the latter evoking a lively discussion. 

Mr. Boring stated that the Washington Improvement 
Commission had effected the removal of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Station from the Mall, and that the contract 
for the new station had been let. The Lincoln Monu- 
ment was to be located in accordance with the new 
design. Twenty-five million dollars' ($25,000,000) worth 
of improvements are now under way on the lines of the 
new scheme. 

Nominations were made for officers, and an interest- 
ing discussion was entered upon regarding the place of 
holding the next convention. In behalf of the St. Louis 
Chapter, Mr. Ittner invited the Institute to St. Louis. 
The o])inion, however, seemed to prevail that the conven- 
tion ought to be held in Washington, on account of the 
still doubtful attitude of Congress towards the new plan 
of Washington and the profession in general. The mat- 
ter was finally left to the governing body of the Institute. 
Honorary members were elected as follows: Aston Webb 
of England, Victor Laloux of France, Hon. Joseph 
Choate, American Amba.ssador to England, and Theodore 
Cooper of New York. Frederick Crowninshield of New 
York and Owen Fleming, consulting architect of the Lon- 
don County Council, were elected corresponding members, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



20I 



and William ]\I. Kendall and Austin W. Lord were elected 
to fellowship. 

A resolution to appoint a committee to confer with 
that of the Architectural League of America was adopted. 

Mr. Carrere then explained the group plan of the city 
of Cleveland, drawings for which were hung iipon the 
walls. 

A long discussion ensued upon the matter of revising 
the schedule of charges, but no tangible result was 
reached beyond the general impression that no allowance 
should be made for non-superintendence. 

In the evening a banquet was given to the members 
at the Century Club by the Cleveland Chapter, which 
proved to be a most delightful occasion and was enjoyed 
to the utmost by all present. 

Saturday morning's ballot resulted in the election of 
W. vS. Eames of St. Louis as president of the American 
Institute of Architects; Frank Miles Day of Philadelphia, 
first vice-president ; W. A. Boring of New York, second 
vice-president; R. D. Andrews of Boston, C. F. McKim 
of New York and George B. Post of New York as 
directors; J. C. Hornblower and J. G. Hill of Wash- 
ington as auditors ; and Glenn Brown as secretary and 
treasurer. 

After hearing fiirther reports from committees the 
convention adjourned. 



PRESIDENT McKIM'S SPEECH. 

Ladies and Gciitlcmcii: 

ONCE more it is my privilege to welcome you to an 
annual convention of the American Institute of 
Architects, the thirty-seventh. 

Last year, as the guest of the Washingttm Chapter, 
we met in the Capital City to discuss the affairs which 
bring us annually together. This year it is our good 
fortune to be welcomed by our brothers of the Cleveland 
Chapter. Not only is this true, but we are assembled 
here in a community whose splendid spirit of progress in 
recent years has placed it in the front rank of cities in the 
march of public improvement. 

The tribute to the Institute you make by your pres- 
ence is abundant proof of your interest at a time when 
the demands of professional practices are both numerous 
and imperative. Last year we rejoiced that the Institute, 
after nearly half a century of existence, had come into 
possession of a permanent home, of which, as one of 
the historic monuments f)f the country, we are justly 
proud. 

Remembering the dispatch of "sympathy" sent us 
on the day of Presidcxit McKinley's death by the presi- 
dent of the Royal Institute of British Architects, the 
receipt -at this moment of our convention of a message 
from the .same source attests the increasing and cordial 
interest with which the problems surrounding our ad- 
vancement are regarded in England. 

At this unsettled stage of our professional relations 
with our own government, it is especially gratifying to 
feel that the older professional body of the mother coun- 
try, whose relations with their government are already 
well established, are not indifferent to the interests of 



their younger colleagues on this side of the water, in 
answer to the cjuestions now pending between Congress 
and our profession, so vital to the welfare of both. Presi- 
dent Webb's message brings timely encouragement to 
our Committee on Government Architecture and "on the 
improvement of Washington," but we cannot fail to 
appreciate still more strongly the spirit which prompted 
him to send it. 

He cables: " War Office, Public Offices, Museum, Col- 
lege of Science, five per cent on estimated cost. Wash- 
ington Commission Park improvement plans as fine as 
anything could be. " (vSigned) Webb. 

Indeed, if I may be permitted to digress for a moment, 
the intelligent interest in the details of the Park Com- 
mission scheme, not only by London men, but by mem- 
bers of the allied societies elsewhere, is more general and 
outspoken than some of us realize. 

Your Commission has received during the present 
year many letters and expressions attesting this feel- 
ing. 

Mr. Webb was from the first interested in the Wash- 
ington plan, and especially in those of its features which 
reflected the influence of Le Notre. His warm endorse- 
ment was shared by leading men in and out of the 
profession and should mean much to those who may 
hereafter be charged with the responsibility <^f de- 
ciding the fate of the plan approved by President Wasli- 
ington. 

The voluntary withdrawal of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road from the Mall — an act of public spirit and apprecia- 
tion of the original purposes and aims to which this great 
central artery was devoted by the Father of his Country — 
must henceforth render impossible encroachment upon a 
space reserved for the public use and essential to the 
development of one of the noblest avenues ever laid out 
in any country. 

The relations of our profession to Congress are of 
the highest interest to us. Congress owes much to archi- 
tects, for the nation's greatest architects built Congress 
a palace to live in, one of the noblest capitols of any 
country. 

But we owe much to Congress, and the Institute 
miist feel that this is now especially true. The 5 7th 
Congress, besides the restoration of the White House, 
authorized the construction of a municipal building 
for the District of Columbia, the Army War College, 
a building for the National Museum, the Engineers' 
School of Application, the Union Railroad Station, an 
office building for the use of Re]:)resentatives, a Hall 
of Records, besides making provision for the Lin- 
coln Memorial. Designs for nearly every one of these 
buildings have been intrusted to members of our pro- 
fession. 

Bearing in mind this great volume of work and the 
intimate relations that have for so many years been 
maintained between our profession and the central 
government, it should be by no means a cause of aston- 
ishment that from time to time difference of opinion 
should arise as to the exact form that these relations 
should assume. We should not feel that rcjn-esentatives 
of government, zealous in what they consider wise econ- 
omies, are inimical to those i)rinciples that we regard as 
fundamental. Yet we must bear in mind tliat there are 



202 



r H h: B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



times when right relations are to be maintained only by 
the greatest tact and moderation. 

If, as some fear, such times are upon us now, it be- 
hooves us to meet each situation as it arises fairly, 
calmly and above all without heat, remembering that 
nothing is to be gained by mere assertion, everything by 
convincing proof; remembering that we have fair- 
minded men to deal with, but men who can look at 
things from our point of view only when they have been 
convinced that that point of view is right and for the 
good of all. We must approach them in a spirit of the 
highest consideration, prepared to yield everything ex- 
cept principle. 

It is very desirable, at this time especially, that the 
Institute should not remain idle with respect to the 
future development of the Park System of the National 
Capital. The plans of the Commission, appointed by the 
Senate through the efforts of the Institute, have already 
been made familiar in the public press and by illustrated 
lectures in all the principal cities, and have made a 
strong appeal to the national pride. 

Educated peojjle everywhere have come to under- 
stand the .scope of the work and to sympathize with it. 
Throughout the country, especially in Buffalo, in Cleve- 
land, vSt. Paul and as far west as vSeattle, the example has 
served to (luicken, strengthen and inspire each city to de- 
velop and to make the most of its natural advantages. 
Moreover, in England the interest in this undertaking 
has been very great. 

But it must not be forgotten that the execution (jf the 
project depends now, not u])on the attitude of a sympa- 
thetic ])ublic, but solely upon the appropriations which 
Congress may see fit to make from time to time. Ulti- 
mate success can only be hoped for in the fuller under- 
standing of the plan by our legislators. They must be 
brought to realize its fundamental importance. 

This is a work which may be accomplished largely by 
the zeal and perseverance of this Institute through its 
chapters. The senator or representative who must make 
up his mind whether or not the needed expenditure from 
the public treasury is justified will be influenced less by 
the resolutions we may pass here than by the architects 
of his own city and his own state, who are known per- 
haps to him personally and who can explain the plan and 
make clear to him its merits. 

A word here as to the duties of chapters. They are 
the organic members of the national l)ody. In such 
matters as that of which I have just spoken the 
inlluence of the Institute is exercised largely through 
them. It is of the highest importance then that they 
zealously and faithfully perform the duties which belong 
to them. 

While their cooperation in all that concerns the wel- 
fare of the Institute has, as a rule, been earnest and the 
Institute owes daily more to their efforts, yet there have 
been felt in certain quarters a lack of interest, a failure 
to grasp opportunities, fatal to effective work as a whole. 
The need of united effort cannot be too strongly empha- 
sized. 

The Institute has ample reason for felicitation in 
both the increase and betterment of our schools of 
architecture in Harvard, Columbia, Pennsylvania, Cor- 



nell and Illinois iini\-ersities, as well as in the admirable 
and still older foundation of the Institute of Tech- 
nology in Boston. 

The movement to endow an American Academy of 
Fine Arts in Rome on the general lines of the French 
Academy in the Villa Medici is not new to you. 

Until now dependent for support upon the insufficient 
means at the command of the incorporators (members of 
the Institute), the number of scholars has of necessity 
been small, and the convenience for work not such as 
would be afforded by an older, well-equipped and well- 
endowed institution. Nevertheless, in spite of its vicis- 
situdes, such has been the quality of the work, and the 
few men turned out so strong, the conviction of those 
most deeply interested in the need for an institution 
offering a post-graduate cour.se intended only for those 
who shall be already technically equipped, that a bill for 
the incorporation of the American Academy in Rome by 
act of Congress, and asking for the protection of the 
United States government, was introduced in 1901 by the 
late Senator McMillan. 

The persons named as incorporators, besides the lead- 
ing architects, painters and sculptors, include the great 
universities and technical schools represented by their 
presidents, the secretaries of state and war, the librarian 
of Congress, the government architect and a considerable 
number of men chosen from the community at large, 
known for their interest in art and education. 

The bill ])assed the Senate and was favorabl\' reported 
to the House, but owing to the legislative conditions pre- 
vailing in the latter body during the closing weeks of the 
session, it failed to become a law. I am happy to say 
that it will be reintroduced in the coming Fifty-eighth 
Congress, and is considered to have every prospect of 
success. 

In this enterprise the Institute has a deep concern and 
towards its final achievement and the passage of the bill 
has already pledged its earnest support. 

It is proposed to add to the incorporators of the bill 
the principal institutions and societies of art, represented 
by their proper committees; it would seem eminently 
fitting that this body should be included in, if not lead 
the list, and I ask your attention to this point. 

Cientlemen of the Institute, I thank you for the honor 
you were pleased to bestow in electing me a second time 
your president. I shall value the remembrance of this 
and of my participation in the work of the Park Commis- 
sion and of the restoration of the White House enter- 
prises, so largely yours, as the most precious testimonial 
of the good will and kindly feeling of my professional 
fellows, and I shall carry with me, as long as I live, the 
deepest sense of your generous confidence. 

Looking back over the past two busy years, I realize 
more and more fully how very much the welfare of the 
profession is bound up in the welfare of the Institute; 
in the work we are called upon to share, how much each 
member is strengthened by becoming a participator in 
the work for all. 

As a proof of gratitude for all that I owe the Institute, 
I shall endeavor by every means in my power to further 
the principles and aims which make it deservedly the 
national b(jdy. 



T HE BR I C K lUM L DKR 



203 



Fifth Annual Convention ot the Ar- 
chitectural League ot America, St. 
Louis, October :^ and 6. 

RlCl'ORT. 

WHEN it is recalled that the movement which cul- 
minated in the organization of the Architectural 
League of America had its inception in St. Louis, it 
seems fitting that, after an existence of four years, it 
should return thence to render an account of its steward- 
ship of the powers delegated to it by the constituent 
clubs. If it lacked the presence of as many accredited 
delegates as several former conventions, it nevertheless 
made up in earnestness and enthusiasm what it lacked 
in numbers. 

We are glad to see questions of style discussed and 
keenly analyzed in the convention of the League. The 
movement for the New Art appeals so strongly to every 
lover of intelligent, rational design that even while ad- 
mitting the crudities and absurdities of some of its mani- 
festations, it yet stands for a vigor of growth and an 
intensity of purpose which, so far from being ignored, de- 
mand imperatively the most careful consideration. We 
are also glad to see questions of ethics discussed at these 
conventions. They are discussed little enough anywhere 
else, and they have only too little influence upon the 
daily practice of the architect, so that it is fitting for the 
League to take up a certain amount of its time and ener- 
gies in such topics. But the Architectural League stands 
for so much more than professional ethics, its scope is so 
far beyond the limitations of any one style, that we can- 
not help a feeling that such subjects are, after all, sec- 
ondary, to be considered surely, but with caution and not 
to the exclusion of the broader questions which involve 
the whole subject of good architecture. It is not so much 
a question of what style a certain body of delegates con- 
sider most adapted to American needs, nor of what rules 
or regulations can best restrain the unprofessional, but it 
is a question of bringing architecture to the people, of 
showing people what architecture can be, and of throwing 
the strength and enthusiasm of youth into the large civic 
as well as private problems which are constantly arising 
in all our cities, but which are generally avoided by the 
more strictly professional bodies as being upon debatable 
ground. No one would for a moment claim that the 
American Institute of Architects has ever done all it 
might, could or will do. The very fact of its high pro- 
fessional standard precludes it from entering into some 
fields where the younger men can afford to rush in 
unchecked with the consciousness that mistakes will be 
more easily overlooked when accompanied by the enthu- 
siasm of youth. It is the young men, the young men's 
clubs that will keep the profession alive and vigorous, 
and the work of the Architectural League is distinctly in 
the line of such methods as will kindle and arouse the 
greatest architectural enthusiasm among its members, 
by exhibitions, participation in public functions, the 
cultivation of a broad civic spirit and a hearty feel- 
ing of co-operation which shall entirely avoid mere 
abstruse questions of either ethics or style and bend 



everything to the cfiort to call out the very best in this 
generation. 

The opening session was called to order by President 
Lamb and an organization effected by the election of 
J. P. Hynes of Toronto as speaker, and J. H. Nettleton of 
Detroit as secretary. Delegates were enrolled from the 
Architectural League of New York, the Society of Mural 
Painters, the Society of American vSculptors, the Civic 
Improvement Alliance and the Architectural Clubs of 
Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburg, Washington, Toronto, 
Philadelphia and .St. Louis. 

The report of the Executive I>oard was presented by 
President Lamb, and that of the treasurer by Julius F. 
Harder. The reports of the various standing committees 
were then read. 

The convention then adjourned to meet in Congress 
Hall at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. An address 
of welcome was made by Mayor Wells, followed by Presi- 
dent Francis of the Exposition Company, and Director 
of Works Isaac S. Taylor. President Lamb responded 
upon behalf of the League. 

After luncheon, as guests of the Exposition Company, 
a tour of the grounds followed and an inspection made of 
the various exhibit buildings completed and in course of 
construction. 

At Tuesday's session the affiliation with the Civic Al- 
liance was unanimously ratified. The report of the Com- 
mittee on Professional Ethics and Competition Code was 
read by Chairman Harder and discussed by the delegates. 

The method of carrying on the Current Exhibition for 
the coming year was discussed, and the report of the 
Committee upon Current Work was read by the chairman, 
Charles O. Pfeile of St. Louis. 

A committee was appointed to present names for the 
office of president. The balloting resulted in the election 
of William B. Ittner of St. Louis to serve until the hold- 
ing of the next convention at Pittsburg in May, 1904. 

On Monday evening a public meeting was held at the 
Museum of Fine Arts, and an address of welcome de- 
livered by Professor Halsey C. Ives. A discussion of 
"The New Thought in Design " was participated in by 
Frederick S. Lamb of New York, who spoke of "The In- 
fluence of the Movement upon Ornamentation." " L'Art 
Nouveau and American Architecture " was brilliantly 
treated by Claude Fayette Bragdon of Rochester. In the 
absence of H. B. Herts of New York, Hugh M. G. Garden 
discussed in an able manner " The Influence of the New 
Thought in Design." 

The papers by Mr. Lamb and Mr. Garden were very 
favorably received and contained matter for a great deal 
of profitable thought. We publish elsewhere in this issue 
the paper of Mr. Bragdon, which presents in a very com- 
plete manner the es.sence of the thought expressed in a 
slightly different vein by the other papers and covering 
the whole ground in a very efficient manner. Only our 
lack of space prohibits the'publishing of the other papers. 

On Tuesday evening a symposium was given by the 
vSt. Louis Architectural Club to the visiting delegates. 
Mr. Harder of New York served as toastmaster, and ad- 
dresses were made by Mr. Lamb, C. Y. Turner and H. K. 
Bush-Brown of New York, J. P. Hynes of Toronto, Wil- 
liam S. Eames and Hon. F. W. Lehman of St. Louis. A 
])ortfolio of blue prints of architectural songs composed 



204 



THE BRICKBUILFJER. 



and illustrated by Oscar Enders, poet laureate of the 
St. Louis Club, was presented to the guests, — a fitting 
memento of an evening that will linger long in the mem- 
ory of those present. 

In the election of Mr. Ittner the League has chosen a 
worthy successor to Mr. Lamb. A founder of the League, 
he brings to the position a broad sympathy with the aims 
of the organization which, joined to executive ability of a 
high order, should do much to enlarge the scope and pro- 
mote the usefulness of the Architectural League of 
America. 



L'Art Nouveau and American Archi- 
tecture/' 

KV CLAIDE FAYETTE BRA(;U()N. 

EVERY man may be said to have either a Latin or a 
Gothic mind. That is to say, either he loves law, 
order, precedent; and finds delight in simplicity, sym- 
metry, artificiality, and everything implied by the word 
"classical," or else he is all for freedom of individual ex- 
pression, for following the logic of the moment and not 
a predetermined formula ; finding pleasure in complexity 
and variety in naturalism and picturesqueness. 

Because architecture, the work of man's hands, is the 
pattern of his mind in space, it necessarily partakes of the 
nature of one or the other of these divergent types ; it is 
either Latin or Gothic, sometimes one being in the as- 
cendant and sometimes the other. 

When the Renaissance spread through Italy into north- 
ern Europe the Gothic ideal was displaced by the Latin 
ideal, and this has held practically undisputed sway 
throughout the western world until the present time. 
The movement known by the name of L'Art Nouveau is 
significant because it marks, perhaps, the beginning of 
the opposite swing of the pendulum, since it is the first 
organized and popular effort toward the re-establishment, 
not of the outworn forms of Gothic architecture, as in the 
case of the abortive Gcjthic revival in England, but of the 
basic principles of Ciothic art, namely: expressiveness, 
inventiveness, freedom and individuality. It has spread 
like a fire — its enemies would declare like a pestilence — 
throughout France, Germany and Belgium ; it has invaded 
Italy; a chastened and finer manifestation of it is to be 
found in England; but except as an influence it has not 
yet crossed to this side of the Atlantic. 

In the field of the minor arts — in furniture, jewelry, 
textiles, glass and metal work — L'Art Nouveau may be 
said to have justified itself; but in architecture so much 
cannot be admitted, and this is because that very liberty 
which emancipates and renews the other arts becomes, 
in architecture, sheer license. Necessarily the most con- 
servative of the arts, architecture at its best is always a 
growth, an evolution, — an accretion, not a creation; and 
one feels about the buildings designed in the style of 
L'Art Nouveau not only that they are creations, but that 
they are the creations of an undisciplined and riotous 
imaginati(;n. They are free, certainly, but they pro- 
voke us to the exclamation, "O Liberty, what sins are 



* Paper read before the Fifth Annual Convention of the Architec- 
tural League of America. 



committed in thy name I " The new manifestation has 
been wittily called "Loop the Loop architecture." It 
reminds one of nothing so much as the last convulsions 
of a dying angleworm. The forms are excessive, the 
lines are tortuous, and the whole effect is one of restless- 
ness and strain, relieved sometimes, it is true, bj' excel- 
lence of color, of texture, and by epi.sodes of well 
wrought and originally conceived ornament. 

Even at its worst there is much in this new style of 
architecture to commend itself, if not to our admiration, 
then to our attention. Illogical and false it may be; 
but, when all is said, is it not better in principle than 
the style which it displaces, the latest survival of classical 
tradition — that Roman toga which fits us ill, the folds 
of which we are perpetually readjusting, but which we 
continue to wear and to think becoming? I said just 
now that architecture is a conservative art, that it should 
respect tradition and follow precedent; but the modern 
world, its aims, its needs, its methods, are these not, in 
a sense, unprecedented? Architecture obeys a higher 
law and admits a sterner necessity when, ceasing to per- 
petuate traditional forms, tried by use and consecrated 
by beauty, it attempts only to be truthful and to .show, 
ugly or beautiful, the living face of the Zeit-geist. This 
is the ideal of L'Art Nouveau, whatever its failure of 
achievement; and it is not too mtich to hope that out of 
its fantastic hurly-burly may be developed the first 
words of a new architectural language, more adequate 
for the expression of our civilization than that afforded 
by those inherited forms which, for lack of better, we 
continue to employ. 

Although as yet we possess so little of the imported 
article, we have L'Art Nouveau architecture which is all 
our own, not less radical and original than its foreign 
prototype, antedating it in point of time and much more 
deserving of commendation. I refer to the work of that 
distinguished architect and man of genius, Mr. Louis 
Sullivan of Chicago. I even hazard the theory that the 
influence of his work has been no inconsiderable factor 
in the birth of the new movement abroad. Ideas, like 
thistle down, travel far on favoring winds and take root 
in unexpected places. When it is remembered that Mr. 
Sullivan's btuldings in Chicago and at the Columbian 
Exposition aroused the interest of the French commis- 
sioners of the Museum of Decorative Art to such an ex- 
tent that they secured drawings, photographs and casts 
of his ornament for their museum in Paris, and that 
duplicates of these were obtained by many other similar 
institutions throughout Europe, it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that these examples exercised a potent influence 
upon the men in whose minds L'Art Nouveaxi was germi- 
nating. 

Mr. Sullivan possesses in an eminent degree what I 
have called the Gothic mind. He is strongly individual, 
a lover and a student of nature and at once a logician and 
a mystic. The Prudential building in Buffalo, which is 
perhaps his masterpiece, is entirely Gothic in spirit. 
Although it suggests the style in nothing except the 
soaring lines of its piers and the profuse and intricate 
ornamentation of its terra-cotta casing, one feels that the 
spirit of the great cathedral builders dwelt in the man 
who made it. Necessity determined its form and fenes- 
tration, and beauty has been achieved at the cost of no 



T HE B R I C K B U I L D K R 



205 



compromise with this necessity. The exterior expresses 
the plan, and the ornament is of a kind well adapted to 
the plastic nature of the fire-resistini^- material which 
clothes like flesh its iron skeleton. 

I need not dwell, in addressing this assembly, upon 
the influence of Mr. Sullivan upon the yoimger members 
of the profession. This Architectural League of America 
is in a sense a living witness of it. While not all of its 
members accept his convention, regarding it as some- 
thing personal to the man, not suitable for imitation, all, 
I am sure, are in sympathy with his aims and subscribe 
to his formula, "Form Follows Function." Like every 
artist of force and originality, he has many imitators who 
copy his mannerisms, and a few true disciples who have 
assimilated his ideas and work in their own way according 
to his methods. This little group, animated by the Gothic 
spirit, stands practically alone in the attempt to stem the 
rising tide of Latinism which floods the East and flows 
westward, for by far the greater part of the work and the 
best work now being done in this country is upon classic 
or neo-classic lines. The starved eye turns with relief 
from the crudities and eccentricities of certain dingy Chi- 
cago streets, wherein Mr. vSullivan's influence is rampant, 
to the ordered and sumptuous facades which glitter in 
the sharp sunlight of Fifth Avenue; but the mind, unse- 
duced by superficial beauty, denies the eye its pleasure 
in them. After this masquerade, what possibly can fol- 
low ? No answer is forthcoming. Like artificial flowers, 
these buildings seem animated by no vital principle of 
growth. Chicago's commercial architecture, on the 
other hand, is like an ugly plant, which, having its roots 
deep in the native soil, may grow and put forth some day 
some rare blossom. 

For the exponent of the Latin ideal in architecture 
the way is pleasant and the rewards immediate and some- 
times great; but the man who, by conviction or by the 
constitution of his mind, enlists among those devoted to 
the Gothic ideal, dedicates himself to a certain measure 
of failure. It is not for him to assimilate the popular 
taste and reproduce it ; he is self-condemned to labor at 
the foundations of a palace of art whose superstructure 
will be reared, if it be reared at all, by other and more 
skillful hands. But when time shall have precipitated 
the muddy elements of our modern life, I predict that 
he, and not the other, will be adjudged to have chosen 
the better part. Beneath the dense materiality of our 
civilization there is fermenting a leaven of spirituality 
which may usher in a period of faith like that which 
Ei:rope underwent in the Middle Ages, when Gothic 
architecture had its origin ; a ]:)eriod in which the soul 
comes near the surface of life, sweeping away existing 
conventions and creating for its expression a new sym- 
bolism and a new art. In such a movement the men who 
have all along followed the Gothic method of constantly 
inventing, and not merely reproducing, will have the 
least to unlearn and the most to contribute. 

The architecture of a nation is the mirror of the 
national con.sciousness. It cannot lie. If it seems to do 
so it is only the better to betray the falsity of the social 
condition under which it had its origin. The iron hand 
of Roman sovereignty, encased in the silken glove of 
Roman luxury, found its ]5rototyj:ie in buildings which 
were stupendous, crude, brute masses of brick and con- 



crete, encased in a covering of rich marbles and mo- 
saics. The " sad sincerity " of soul, the mysticism and 
fanaticism of the monkish Middle Ages found embodi- 
ment in the Gothic cathedral. The newest street 
facades of modern Paris publish French cleverness as 
publicly as the pages of Gt/ Bias, and betray French 
degeneracy as pitilessly sCs reports on alcoholism and 
vital statistics. 

The tall ofticc building, America's most characteristic 
architectural product, is in like manner a symbol of our 
state. Its steel framework, strong, yet economical of 
metal, held together at all points by thousands of little 
rivets, finds a parallel in our highly developed industrial 
and economic system, maintained by the labor of thou- 
sands of commonplace individuals, each one a rivet in 
the social structure; and just as this steel framework is 
encased in a shell of masonry, bedecked with the archi- 
tectural forms of alien civilizations, meaninglessly em- 
ployed, so are we still encumbered with a mass of in- 
herited religious, political and social ideas, which impede 
our free development and interfere with the frank expres- 
sion of our national character. When we discard these 
old ideas for newer and better ones our architecture will 
mirror the fact by sloughing off its ancient encumbrance 
likewise. This may seem a far-fetched conclusion, but 
history shows that architecture, though the least plastic 
and animate of the arts, images at all times a nation's 
character, changing as that changes. 

The public temper and the public taste are responsible, 
therefore, to a large extent, for the quality of the national 
architecture, but this does not at all abate the architect's 
responsibility; it is for him to educate the public taste by 
building better and more beautifully than is demanded of 
him. The difiiculty consists in the fact that he, too, is 
afflicted with the modern disability of over-sophistication. 
He knows too much and sees and feels too little; the 
free action of his mind is impeded by a mass of archaeo- 
logical knowledge, and this finds its way into his work 
to its detriment. He is too truly characterized by the 
little girl's definition: "An architect is a man who puts 
architecture into houses. Greek and Roman is the 
best." 

To this sort of thing L'Art Nouveau comes as a whole- 
some corrective. It calls upon him to throw away his 
classical crutches and learn to walk with his own strength. 
vSome — the radicals, the reactionaries, the "(iothic 
minded " — will answer to this call of the New Art. The 
(juestion then arises, to what sources shall such turn for 
ins]Mration, how shall they train themselves in proi)ortion 
and design, having abjured historic ornament, and having 
ceased to emj^loy the classical formuhc? 

This question I attempted to answer at some length 
before this Convention two years ago in Philadelphia, and 
I can only reiterate, in brief, what I said then, that the 
architect should study nature, the human figure, geom- 
etry and music, because in all these he is still study mg 
architecture, the architects of the world and of the ' 
soul. 

By the study of nature I do not mean tliat he should 
go into the fields with a book and botanize, nor make 
sloppy water colors of picturesque .scenery. These things 
are well enough, i)ut not as profitable for his purpose 
as observation directed towards the discovery of those 



2o6 



THE H R I C K B U I L D E R . 



simple yet subtle and occult laws which determine form 
and structure, such as the tracing of the spiral line, 
not alone where it is obvious, as in the snail's shell and 
the ram's horn, but where it appears obscurely, as in the 
disposition of leaves or twigs upon a parent stem. 
He should make sketches as an aid to observation, 
rather than with any ulterior object of adorning a wall 
or enriching a portfolio. There is more and better 
architectural instruction contained in a tree than in the 
dome of the Pantheon. A tree is everything a perfect 
building should be, for it is well and firmly planted in 
the ground, strong and simple at the base, becoming by 
imperceptible transitions delicate and various in its out- 
line against the sky. Its foliage conceals yet reveals the 
structure, and its mass, considered with relation to a 
central axis, has perfect balance without the repetition 
inseparable from perfect symmetry. 

In studying the human figure it is not necessary to 
make elaborate and carefully shaded drawings from a 
posed model. An equal number of hours spent in copy- 
ing and analyzing the plates of a good art anatomy will 
be found a more profitable exercise for an architect, 
because it will make him familiar with the principal 
and subsidiary proportions of the bodily temple and give 
him sufficient knowledge to be able to indicate the figure 
in any position with fair accuracy. 

As for geometry, he should play with stjuares, circles 
and triangles as a child plays with its letter blocks, ar- 
ranging and rearranging them, making them into patterns 
as the Ja])anese do, and as did the (ireeks. He should 
learn also to discern the few and simple geometrical ele- 
ments at the basis of the most intricate designs. 

By the study of music I do not mean the mastery of 
any musical instrument. I mean that an architect should 
hear as much good music as he can, and should learn the 
rudiments of harmony, that he may know the simple 
numerical ratios which exj)ress the principal consonant 
intervals; then, if he play a little, he can translate this 
knowledge into pleasure. 

All these exercises will be found to be excellent train- 
ing for the architect, but there are certain deficiencies 
which they will by no means supply; the lack, I mean, 
of the broad view, the deeper insight, a mind alive to the 
sublimity and significance of the spectacle presented by 
our laboring cities, a faith ecjual to believing that their 
scjualor and ugliness only await the alchemy of art to be 
converted into new and extraordinary beauty. He must 
have these things before the power will be his to ]3erform 
the transmutation. 

Just as the electric lights in our city streets put out 
the stars, so the exclusive cultivation of the mind blinds 
us to that dimmer, because more distant radiance which 
is the soul, the source of wonder, mystery and beauty. 
The arts to-day prate drearily of facts. Music alone still 
has power to lift us above ourselves, but architecture had 
that power once and might conceivably again. To ren- 
der architecture potent in thiswise, to make of it a living 
and a beautiful thing and not a resuscitated corpse, this is 
the task to which we architects should dedicate ourselves. 
This, too, has been the aim of the organizers and expo- 
nents of L'Art Nouveau. They offer us an inspiring 
example, not of accomplishment, perhaps, but of en- 
deavor. 



Recent School Huilding in St. Louis. I. 

WILLIAM H. ITTNER, ARCHITECT. 

liV S. L. SHERKK. 

ONE of the most hopeful signs of the time has been 
the activity that has characterized the building of 
institutions devoted to educational purposes. Nowhere 
has this activity been more manifest than in St. Louis, 
where the splendid group of buildings for Washington 
University is rising on the western heights that overlook 
the city; and which has also witnessed the construction 
of sixteen new and eighteen additions to old school 
buildings during the past five years. Consideration of 
the more recent of the.se buildings in their relation to 
architecture is the purpose of these notes. 




MAIN ENTKANCK, EDWARD WV.MAN SCHOOL. 

In common with other cities, St. Louis was until re- 
cently content with school buildings that were ill adapted 
to the purpose, judged by the requirements of the most 
advanced educators of the day. Except in several in- 
stances, the earlier schools had little thought bestowed 
u])on the architectural character of the building, the value 
(jf such treatment from an educational point of view 
being entirely ignored. With the organization of a non- 
partisan Board of Education, elected at large, and com- 
posed of men of character and educational attainments, 
and the appointment of an architect of ability whose en- 
tire time is devoted to the work, has come the notable 
change in the character of the public school buildings of 
.St. Louis. 

Unlike most foreign and some American cities, the 
St. Louis Board of Education has not formulated a code 
of rules governing the planning and construction of school 
buildings other than a strict compliance with the building 
laws of the city, which provide that buildings of this 
class shall be fireproof. 

Commissioner Ittner has endeavored to develop a plan 
in line with the best and most recent development in 



T H H H R I C K BV I I. I)K R 



207 




EDWAKU wv.MAN SCHOOL. (For plan see plate form.) 










F,r(;KNK I'IKI,!) .•^( HiiDl.. 



2o8 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



school architecture ; one that would insure improved hy- 
gienic conditions and consequently preserve the health 
and morals as well as promote the intellectual progress 
of the pupils, and at the same time invest the buildings 
with that measure of architectural fitness now recognized 
as essential in training the minds of the pupils to the per- 
ception of the beautiful during the most receptive period 
of life. 

Before passing to the consideration of individual 
buildings, it may be well to briefly summarize the gen- 
eral requirements that have influenced the plan, design 
and construction of the schools, which are all of the gram- 
mar grade. 

The adoption of the almost universal rule advanced 
by experienced educators, that a classroom should accom- 
modate not more than fifty-six pupils (the tendency being 
to reduce the number, as with fewer pupils the teacher's 
energies are less quickly exhausted, — therefore insuring 
more rapid promotions), forms the keynote to and has 
largely governed the planning. As authorities agree that 
each pupil in the grammar grade requires a space of six- 
teen square feet and two hundred cubic feet of air space, 
it follows that a room approximating 25 feet wide x 32 
feet long x 13 feet 6 inches high will give the recjuired 
accommodation, admit of adequate lighting and enable 
the teacher to control by eye, and voice, the pupils. With 
such a room as a unit it follows that the architect should 
so dispose the rooms to receive proper light in sufficient 
([iiantity and render them easily accessible from stairways 
and corridors wide enough to permit rapid circulation of 
classes. 

Another consideration that has influenced the plan was 
the endeavor to depart, not only from the conventional 
type of school building, wherein the central corridor, 
lined with rooms on each side, was necessarily dark, but 
to introduce, if possible, outside light into the main cor- 
ridor on practically its entire length, thus insuring the 
penetration of sunlight to all parts of the building during 
some part of the day. This naturally led to a plan group- 
ing the classrooms on three sides of the corridor only, the 
remaining side being opened its whole length to the light. 

Since the success of the building depends upon 
adequate light, of the proper quality, it naturally follows 
that the width, height and location of the windows domi- 
nate the exterior design. In no case is the window sur- 
face less than one-fourth of the floor area. 

As it is conceded that the maximum, if not all, of the 
light should come from the left of the pupil, and pref- 
erably from one side only, in order to avoid cross lights, 
windows set 3 feet 6 inches above the floor and extend- 
ing within 6 inches of the ceiling, are located to dift'use 
such light. This fenestration is possible except in 
corner rooms, which are usually lighted from two sides, 
partly because of amount of light recjuired to properly 
light the room, and in order that the design should 
receive fitting architectual treatment; it being mani- 
festly impossible to locate desks in all rooms so pupils 
will receive light from the left only, without enclosing 
the fa9ade side of the room with a blank wall, some- 
thing few architects deem essential. 

The general plan developed by these rigid require- 
ments is, necessarily, more or less similar in all of the 
schools, approximating in form to the letter E, except 



where kindergarten rooms are incorporated in the plan. 
In all cases the sites have been wisely .selected to permit 
ample space surrounding the building, thus affording 
generous playgrounds as well as good light and air. 

The basements average 13 feet in height (or a clear 
height of 10 feet under heating ducts) and have been 
planned with the view of supplying separate playrooms 
for Iwys and girls, accessible from outdoors, as well as 
aftording space for the installation of the heating and 
ventilating plant, the storage of coal, and the toilet 
rooms. On floors above basement, corridors 17 to 20 feet 
wide aft'ord direct communication to classrooms averag- 
ing 25 by 32 feet in size, with ceiling 13 feet 6 inches in 
height. Wardrobes lead from classrooms only, a radical 
departure from the usual custom of opening them upon 
the corridor as well as the room side, — an arrangement 
that not only gives the teacher full control over the ward- 
robe, but permits ventilation of the room through the 
wardrobe ; the constant air passage carrying with it the 
vitiated air from the room as well as odors arising from 
damp clothing in the wardrobe, thus eliminating the 
disagreeable odor usually prevalent in schools. 

Staircases are located at each end of corridor, and also 
on the open side of corridor, which permits rapid egress 
in case of fire. In no case has the height of the buildings 
exceeded three stories: the tendency in the later build- 
ings being two stories, with a high basement entirely 
above grade. 

Halting and Wiiti/alion. The buildings have been 
planned for the low pressure steam plenum sy.stem of 
heating and ventilation, a method that insures - regard- 
less of the state of the weather without or the humidity 
of the air within — a positive flow of pure, warm air, at a 
uniform temperature, into each room, and a consequent 
outflow of a like quantity of vitiated air through the ward- 
robe vents. The system has been designed on the basis 
of supplying each pupil with 30 cubic feet of air per min- 
ute, — an amount exceeded by 20 to 30 per cent under ac- 
tual conditions. This delivers to each room 1,800 cubic 
feet of air per minute, and changes the entire volume of 
air in the room every seven minutes, thus insuring the 
health and comfort of pupils and rendering them capable 
of study and instruction. This is accomplished with a 
steam pressure of from 5 to 1 5 pounds upon the boiler. 
The system is arranged so the building can be warmed in 
mild weather by the exhaust steam from the engine that 
drives the fan (experience proves this is possible in cnir 
climate for one-third of the firing sea.son), thus efl^ecting a 
material reduction in the consumption of coal. 

Fresh air is drawn into the fans in the basement, 
usually from an elevation of about 30 feet above grade, 
through the tempering coils, where the temperature of 
the air is raised to abtnit 60 degrees; it then passes 
through the fan to the heating coils, where its tempera- 
ture can be raised to any required degree; then impelled 
through ducts from the hot chamber to the various rooms 
and corridors. The heating and tempering coils are ar- 
ranged with a system of by-passes, so that the air heated 
may be taken from the hot chamber and mixed with the 
cooler air passing beneath the heating coils and tempered 
to any desired degree. The system is, therefore, very 
flexible and capable of many combinations at the will of 
the operator. 



T HE BRICK B U 1 L 1) 1-: R. 



209 



The heated air is introduced into the rooms about 
eight feet above the floor, the heat inlets beino- placed at 
or near the same end of the room as the outlet. The air 
is thus compelled to make a complete circuit of the room 
before passing- out of the room through the wardrobe 
vent. 

During the summer months a sj'stem of cooling the 
air by forcing it through a water spray or cooling cham- 
ber can be adopted and the rooms rendered cool from the 
constant flow of cold air. In order to heat the building 
rapidly in the morning the systems have been arranged 
to by-pass at the fresh-air inlet, the fan drawing the air 
from the rooms, thus converting it into what might be 
termed a direct system for a sufficient length of time to 
thoroughly heat the building before fresh-air inlets are 
opened and the breathing process of the building begun. 
All toilet rooms are separately ventilated to a stack that 
is kept heated at all times. 

Construction. All outer bearing walls are of hard 
brick laid in Portland cement mortar; interior partition 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, EUGENE FIELD SCHOOL. 

walls are formed of hollow tile and plastered with cement 
plaster. The interior framing is of steel girders and floor 
beams, the spans varying from 10 feet 6 inches to 15 feet. 
Floors are constructed of a system of concrete and metal 
or of tile, capable of sustaining a load of four hundred 
pounds per square foot, exclusive of the weight of con- 
struction. All stairways are of iron, 5 feet wide, the 
boxes of treads filled with concrete and covered with 
asphaltum, rendering them noiseless and non-slipping. 
The i-oofs are covered with slate or red shingle tile, ce- 
mented and nailed to concrete or sheathing; gutters are 
lined with vitreous tiie bedded in asphaltum, copper being 
used only for the down spouts. Corridors are paved with 
granitic mosaic with 6-inch border and base of marble. 
Basement floors are granitoided, with an asphalt finish in 
toilet rooms. Classrooms are floored with maple laid on 
strips over concrete filling. The plumbing is of the most 
approved sanitary type and is installed, like the balance 
of the work, under a system of rigid inspection. Such 
woodwork as is u.sed is of quartered oak and simple in 
design. All doors open into corridors, are leather cov- 
ered and equipped with floor hinges. 



Ii(]uip)>iciit . Classrooms are e(iuip]5ed with slate 
blackboards set i foot 9 inches above floor for lower and 
2 feet 6 inches for higher grades, and extending around 
all walls. The desks are of the single adjustal)le tyi)e, 
with aisles i8 inches wide between desks. A bookcase, 




niT'iiE.i Rf j 



^■"b^ 



*Vt t T f^l * 



FIRST l-LOOU IM-.i^N, RALPH WALDO EMLKSON SCHOOL. 

slielf and wardrol)e are provided for teacher, and cases 
are j^laccd in the library, kindergarten and storerooms. 
Drinking fountains* are installed in corridors as well as 
in yards. The walls arc painted in light colors, with a 
stenciled frieze, and a picture molding is placed at the 
ceiling line. The corridors are also treated in the same 
manner and serve for exhibition of photographs loaned 
by the Patrons Association. Kindergartens are deco- 
rated with mural paintings typifying the life of childhood. 

Each room has a self-winding electrical clock, regu- 
lated from principal's office. Artificial light is furnished 
by gas and electricity. 

Cost. The average cost of fireproof rooms, including 
outwork (paving, fencing, etc.), has been $4,487, plus 
$533 foi" heating, a total of $5,020 per room. Comparing 
these figures with cost of schools during the preceding 
five years shows the fireproof buildings have cost $175 



r^-~ 







DJ 



11^ I 1' .) i!. 



lZ£ 




• f p =7 1 - • 

\s:':X^k U L'":"J 

>lAU.II,\ " 

„....„,- J 

■ ■ ■ i l;''" ' ■ '■•[ 

MRS! I LiioR I'LAN, H ( 1 R A C I', MANN SCHOOL. 

less per room than former buildings not fireproof. The 
average cost per cubic foot has been twelve cents; this 
has increased to fourteen and fifteen cents, due to the 
advance in price of building materials and labor. 

Anliitiititrat Dcsit:;)!. I-'rom the illustrations it will 
be seen that, with the exception of the Field School, the 
Tudor (iothic has afforded the architect a model for the 
style employed, aitliough tliere has ])een no slavish ad- 



lO 



THE B R I C K B U I L D F. R 



herence to the style, which has been made subservient to 
the logical development of the scheme as a whole, some- 
thing the flexibility of the style permits. So character- 
istic a feature of the Tudor style as transom bars has 
been omitted, because of possible interference with light - 




DOORWAY, HORACE MANN SCHOOL. 

ing, — an omission detrimental to the design, if viewed 
from the standpoint of style alone. Where windows are 
wide and high and undivided by mullions and transom 
bars, a good design in this style is difficult of attainment. 
Economy in planning necessitates a balanced disposition 
of rooms, which also militates against any but a formal 
treatment. vSince the fenestration is fixed, the designer 
is therefore compelled to rely upon mass and proportion 
and in the manipulation of the material for the architec- 
tonic treatment of his building. The brickwork in Mr. 
Ittner's schools has been well studied and made to play 
no unim]X)rtant i)art in accentuating the architectural 
character, and to this important feature much of their 
interest is due. 

While the style mentioned seems peculiarly appro- 
priate for the purpose, because of its long and traditional 
u.se for collegiate buildings, the closer the adherence to 
forms that go to the making of a style, the less individual 
the architect's work. Mr. Ittner, however, has invested 
his work with an individuality that is pleasing and a dis- 
tinction tliat promises to be enduring. 

/:/f^i^i//e Field School. The earliest of the schools, 
wherein a marked departure was made from the design 
of previous buildings, was the school named in honor of 
the poet of childhood, Eugene Field, a native of St. Louis. 

The design does not classify itself under any of the 
conventional styles, although it owes more to Spanish in- 
fluence than to any other. This feeling is more apparent 



in the attic story and overhang of the cornice, in the low 
gables and red tile of the roof, and in the towers, which 
connote well with the design of the building in general 
character as well as in detail. One naturally looks for a 
central entrance, but this feature has been omitted and 
entry is made through the basement openings, distin- 
guished by label inscriptions, to vestibules, which in turn 
open into a stair hall, and from which stairways in the 
towers ascend to upper floors. 

The basement contains separate playrooms for each 
sex, 76 feet by 25 feet in size, accessible throiigh side en- 
trances; space for boiler, coal and fan room. The first 
floor has six classrooms 25 feet by 32 feet in size, with a 
small office for principal, and a kindergarten 30 feet wide 
by 50 feet long. Second and third floors have same dis- 
position of rooms, except the sjjace over kindergarten is 
utilized for an additional classroom. Adjoining every 
room is a wardrobe having outside light and ventilation 
and accessible from classroom only. The corridors are 
20 feet wide by 106 feet long, thus affording ample .space 
for rapid egress in case of fire. 

Exterior walls are of a reddish speckled brick laid in 
I'lemish bond, with joints of white mortar, flashed brick 
bsing introduced at random. The gal)les and towers are 
laid in a diapered pattern that adds interest as well as 
variety to the wall surfaces. Cream white terra-cotta has 
been used for the trimmings, a color that harmonizes well 
with the brickwork. 

The design exhibits a logical development of the plan, 
clearly expressed in a direct manner. It owes little to 
precedent, and withal is a well-managed comjiosition, in- 




KNTRANlE, RAI.l'H WAI.UO E.MKKSON SCHOOL. 

vested with a quality of fine distinction. The cost per 
room was $5,600; j^er cubic foot, 15 -'4 cents; total cost of 
building, $123,241. 

/id'uurrd Myiiiaii School. The Wyman was the first 
school wherein Mr. Ittner reverted to the Tudor (iothic 



TH,E li R I C K BU I L DKR 



2 1 I 




HENRN l'. lil.OW SCHOOL. 
(I'lans practically same as Wyinan School. 




RALPH WALDO EMERSON SCHOOL. 



HORACE MANN SCHOOL 




COTE HKII.LIANTE SCHOOL. 
(Plans practically same as Wyman School.) 



212 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



style for a model. It has not been servilely followed, how- 
ever, but has been used in a free and individual manner. 
However admirable the forms that fitted conditions of a 
bygone age, they have not been used where they were 
not well adapted to the requirements of the problem. 
The design gains immeasurably by the grouping of the 
windows, which are of sufficient area to effectually light 
the rooms, but this characteristic feature of the style has 
not been well sustained by such other characteristic fea- 
tures as stone mullions, molded jambs and label mold- 
ings, — an omission necessitated by the limitation of cost, 
while transom bars are usually considered detrimental to 
effective lighting. 

The plan shows a building 240 feet in length, with pro- 
jecting wings and a central entrance accentuated by towers 
that are reminiscent of an age when such a feature was 
one of defense, but in this instance serve the very useful 
purpose of ventilating shafts. The side entrances and 
accessory terrace features are especially interesting in 
design, and open into the playrooms in ba.sement. The 
building is but two stories in height and is crowned by a 
roof of red tile, whose long and unbroken sweep imparts 
a dominant note to the design. 

The floor plans illustrated show twenty classrooms 
with a large kindergarten and a lecture room over same ; 
a library and principal's office conveniently located on the 
axis of the second story corridor. This general plan, 
modified by the conditions arising from variation of site 
and size of lot, has been adopted for subseciuent buildings. 
It .seems admirably adapted to the requirements, while the 
limitation of height to two stories is an improvement over 
earlier three-story buildings that readily commends itself. 

The brickwork is of the same color and texture as 
the Field School, but the walls above the stringcourse 
of stone have been enlivened by a diapered pattern com- 
posed of varying shades of red and gray brick. The 
balcony and mullioned window over the main entrance 
are interesting for the skillful manner in which they 
have been worked out in brick. 

The cost per room was $5,600 ; per cubic foot, 14 cents ; 
total cost of building, $128,888. 

Ralph Waldo limcrson School. In the Emerson School, 
Mr. Ittner has attained a more picturesque result than 
in the preceding school, and one that suggests more 
clearly the feeling of English work of the Tudor period; 
tempering the style, however, by his own point of view. 
It is distinctly more successful than the earlier designs, 
and proves that a restrained picturesqueness adds to, 
and is not incompatible with, a successful building from 
a utilitarian standpoint. It also appeals more strongly 
to the pupil, and is therefore valuable in inspiring that 
liking for one's environment which counts for much in 
school life. 

A variation from the preceding plan results from the 
addition of a central wing, making the plan form the 
letter E. The same arrangement of stairways that 
obtains in the Field School is also present in the Emer- 
son, the towers occupying the same relative position on 
plan. The entrances, however, as shown by the charm- 
ing illustration of the fore court, are more distinctive 
and have been located and treated in a more logical 
manner, and the general result is somewhat more pleas- 
ing. The small groups of windows in the wings are 



designed with the view of lending architectural effect, 
rather than for the purpose of light ; that vital feature 
being derived from the larger groups of mullioned win- 
dows on the side elevations. 

The superstructure rests on a stone underpinning 
of singular charm, laid up in white limestone of long, 
thin courses, with wide joints of unusual depth. The 
walls are of red brick laid in English garden wall bond, 
with flashed headers; the openings being accentuated by 
jambs and trimmings of buff Bedford stone. A pitched 
roof covered with black slate, with ridges of redterra-cotta, 
crowns the building, which contains twenty-two rooms. 

The cost per room was $5,636; per cubic foot, 1434 
cents; cost of completed building, $123,992. 

Horace Mann School. The Mann School is on a much 
smaller scale than the schools heretofore mentioned, con- 
taining but nine 25 feet by 32 feet cla.ssrooms and a kin- 
dergarten room 25 feet by 40 feet in size. The plan il- 
lustrated explains itself, and the exterior design faith- 
fully expresses the plan. It follows the same general 
style that characterizes the Wyman School, and is not 
without interest for its simple, though well-considered 
design. 

As will be seen from the detail of the entrance door- 
way, the brickwork is also of the same texture and char- 
acter as the Field and Wyman schools. 

The cost per room was $6,007 ; pei" cubic foot, 14 9-10 
cents; total co.st of building, $60,070. 

Cote Brilliantc School. This school is also Tudor 
Gothic in general feeling, quiet and refined to a marked 
degree, and recalls the aspect of English collegiate build- 
ings. Like the preceding schools, it is but two stories in 
height, — an element in design most effective in giving a 
desirable long and low line, which, in this instance, is 
terminated by the end wings and broken by the well-de- 
signed central entrance. The grouping of the windows is 
also effective in imparting character to the building, which 
is in course of erection, and gives promi.se of being one of 
the most successful designs that has come from Mr. 
Ittner's hand. 

It will contain a high and well-lighted basement, 
twenty-two classrooms, a kindergarten, a principal's of- 
fice, storerooms, etc. 

The brickwork will be light red in color, laid with wide 
joints of white mortar. The roof will be covered with 
red shingle tile. 

The cost per room will be $6,758; per cubic foot, 17 
cents ; total cost of building, $162,213, which includes wreck- 
ing and removal of the old school buildings and an un- 
usual amount of grading and yard work. 

Henry T. Bhn>.< School. The plan of this school fol- 
lows the same lines developed in the Cote Brilliante School, 
and the exterior design also suggests and conforms in a 
measure to the design of the same school, differentiated, 
however, by the Dutch treatment of the gables that crown 
the end wings, and in the design of the main entrance. 

Like its prototype, it reveals its purpose in a clear 
manner, and is likewi.se notable for its dignified and well- 
managed design. It will contain 22 rooms. 

The cost per room will be $6,243; per cubic foot, 16 
cents; total cost of building, $149,840, which also includes 
wrecking and removing old school buildings and an ex- 
traordinary amoimt of grading and yard work. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



215 



strongly pointed out to them by their assessors, Mr. Bodley 
and Mr. Norman Shaw ; so that they eventually asked Mr. 
Bodley to cooperate with Mr. Scott. This he declined to 
do, but offered to act as advisory architect. The com- 




HOUSE AT STANMORE, MIDDLESEX. 
Horace Field, Architect. 

niittee dissented, stating that unless their proposal were 
agreed to, the matter would fall through. Hence it was 
in these circumstances, and to prevent the competition 
becoming once more a fiasco, that Mr. Bodley finally con- 
sented to act conjointly with Mr. Scott. 

A start has been made 
with the setting-out of the 
ground for the National 
Memorial to Queen Vic- 
toria in front of Bucking- 
ham Palace, though a long 
time must elapse before the 
work is by any ineans 
complete. Two notable 
changes have been made 
in the scheme since it was 
last before the public. It 





seems that the building of London's long-talked-about 
hotel-de-ville will be connected with the scheme, for the 
County Council intend to hou.se tliemselves at the eastern 
end of the roadway that will lead from the palace to Char- 
ing Cross (the extension of the Mall), and we may expect 
the occasion to institute the largest architectural compe- 
tition for many years. 

The recejJtion of Mr. McKim was a most hearty one 
and appreciation for his work was general among those 
who saw the large number of ])hotographs which he 
l)rought over on the occasion of the Royal Ciold Medal 
presentation. Mr. Aston Webb, the president of the In- 




FIFFH AND SIXTH FLOOR PLANS. 

THE NEW TOWER AT CHARINCl CROSS UOSPITAI,. 
Alfred Saxon Sncll, Architect. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN, HOUSE AT STAN.MORE. 

stitute, ol)served that Mr. McKim's style was based largely 
on Italian examples and showed French training ; it had 
true artistic feeling, nobility of plan, breadth of treat- 
ment, suitability of purpose, and abs.ence of unnecessary 
or meretricious ornament ; and while founded on tradi- 
tional lines showed just that amount of individuality 
required, without which the best work must be dull and 
uninteresting. 

The new library at Kingston-on-Thames, shown among 
the accompanying illustrations, is of a type of design one 
would like to see more generally followed in this country. 
The building is of red brick with stone enrichments, the 
roof being tiled. 

At Charing Cross Hospital a new surgical block and 
nurses' home are being built. The tower illustrated is 
noteworthy for its two top floors of isolation wards, which 
are a special feature of the hospital. Besides being lifted 
well above all surrounding buildings, each room has three 
sides open to the air. The sanitary conveniences are 
placed in the projecting turrets and can be reached from 
the wards by the open balconies only. 

Mr. Lutyens is always individual and the house at 
Overstrand is particularly characteristic in its treatment. 

The Belgrave Hospital for Children, Clapham Road, 
London, has (]uite recently been opened and is a good 
example of the architect's methods in emphasizing the 
vertical. It is a red brick pile. 

The Maurice Hostel at Hoxton needs no comment. 
'I'he architect is the son of Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R. A. 

The houses at Stanmore and Huntly, by Mr. Horace 
Field, are both built of red brick with white painted wood- 
work and red tiles on the roofs. The entrance doorway 
to the nurses' house at the new hospital for women on the 
Euston Road, London, W. C, is in white Portland stone; 
the shutters to the windows are ]:)ainte(l green. 



2l6 



THE H R I C K B U I L D E R 



Fireproofing. 



FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION. 

AT the recent annual convention of the International 
Associatiim of Fire Enijineers held at Atlantic City. 
Perez M. Stewart, late superintendent of buildings in the 
Borough of Manhattan, New York City, read a highly in- 
teresting paper on fireproof construction. In view of the 
opportunity afforded Mr. Stewart, while the head of the 
New York Building Department, to study the advance- 
ment made in the design and construction of fire-resisting 
structures, and the further circumstance that he is a 
builder of long practical experience, his recent paper is 
of more than ordinary interest. Following are extracts 
from it : 

Sri'KHIOR l^TES. 

" It would seem to indicate almost mental abcrrati(jn 
to seriously cjuestion to-day the efficiency of the better 
types of fireproof construction. No better proof can be 
wished for of the fact that fireproof construction really 
does reduce the fire loss than the favorable premium rates 
granted by fire underwriters on superior types of con- 
struction. 

" Fire protection is a term broad and elastic. Roughly 
speaking it may be divided into three parts: (i) the pro- 
tection from without afforded by the municipality; (2) the 
ability of the building itself, in consequence of its struc- 
tural excellence, to withstand the effects of fire, either 
from within or from without; (3) the multitude of fire- 
detecting and fire-fighting devices installed in, but not 
integrally a part of, the building itself. 

"Concerning the first division it would be presump- 
tuous for me to speak to this audience. 

"Anything like a comprehensive review of the third 
division would run far beyond the limits of a paper such 
as this. 

"Prior to, however, and during my term of office as 
superintendent of the De])artment of Buildings, Borough 
of Manhattan, somewhat unusiial opportunity was af- 
forded me to study the question of fireproof coiistruction 
pure and simple, and it is concerning a few phases of this 
that I shall call your attention. 

" A careful consideration of the matter of fire protec- 
tion should convince every owner that the introduction 
of safeguards against fire'will bring a fair return in re- 
duced rates on the increased outlay, besides fulfilling a 
moral obligation which he owes to his lessees, tenants, 
neighbors and himself. 

nEPARTMENT STORE HAZARDS. 

"Several theaters in New York have had their insur- 
ance rates materially reduced becau.se of changes in their 
construction made at the instigation of the Department 
of Buildings. 

"That the fireprcjof character of a hotel is a most 
desirable advertisement is indicated by the fact that some 
proprietors who cannot honestly claim that characteristic 
attempt to deceive their patrons by untrue representa- 
tions. One of the large hotels of New York maintains a 
room in a burnt condition as an indication of what can 
hap])en in a fireproof hotel without the knowledge of any 
of the patrons or the proprietor. A fire that originated 



in this room nearly burned itself out before any one was 
aware of it. 

"This is preliminary to a question which I wish to 
ask : Why is so much in the way of municipal regulation 
given to the subject of theaters and so little to the sub- 
ject of department stores? 

" Mimicipal regulations all over the country provide 
for almost every contingency which may occur affecting 
human life in theaters or other places of public assem- 
blage. Department stores, however, seem to be passed 
over entirely in the requisites of the city fathers. 
Theaters and their management are provided for by a 
code as long as the moral law. In the case of depart- 
ment stores, however, probably three to five times as 
many people are allowed to congregate to the square 
feet of building occupied, and yet no adequate provision 
for their safety is made. 

KIREPROOl- MATERIALS. 

" By fireproof materials is meant such as not only do 
not burn, but which, under the action of fire, remain 
intact and preserve their strength or the strength of 
those parts which they protect. 

"As an illustration of the distinction between incom- 
bustible materials and fireproof materials, we need only 
refer to the unprotected as against the protected or 
fireproof column. Cast iron certainly will not burn, yet 
the effect of the heat of a fire is well shown in the 
bulging and collapsing of the unprotected columns of 
the Hackett-Carhart building at the corner of Broadway 
and Thirteenth Street, New York City, last winter, 
causing nearly the entire roof and part of the floor below 
it to fall in. 

SPREAD OF IIRE. 

"The danger of the spread of fire in a building 
increases, first, with the increase in area covered ; and 
second, in greater degree with the increase in height. 

" The danger is met in the first instance by providing 
fire stops in the way of brick walls or fireproof partitions. 
Any openings that may be necessary in these partitions 
should be provided with fireproof doors and windows. 

"The spread of fire in a vertical direction is un- 
doubtedly most effectively guarded against by making 
the floors continuous and unbroken, that is, eliminating 
all openings in the floors and placing neces.sary means 
of communication, such as stairways, elevators, pipes, 
shafts, belts, etc., in shafts entirely separated from the 
rest of the building by brick walls. 

WHERE PROTECTION IS N'EEDKI). 

" Such ironwork as is necessary for the construction 
of the shaft should be thoroughly protected bj- fireproof 
covering. No woodwork whatever must enter into the 
construction. The necessary openings must be provided 
with fireproof doors. For this purpose the fire under- 
writers' door is the best, although for offices and resi- 
dence buildings it is generally regarded as impracticable 
on account of its unsightliness. In such cases doors and 
frames of metal or wood covered with metal, the so- 
called Kalimined process, which are now being produced 
in a variety of shapes and finish, can be well used. Door 
openings should be the only ones allowed in shafts. Where 
it is necessary to provide light, and it cannot be obtained 
bv windows opening directly tf) the outer air, it can be 



uU. 



T HE B R I C K H V I L I) K R. 



217 



secured by window lights in the doors; or if that is not 
sufficient, by stationary metal sashes set in metal frames. 
In all cases the windows should be glazed with wire 
glass. 

" What has been said of elevator shafts applies equally 
well to interior light and vent shafts, except, of course, 
that in such cases the window sashes cannot be made 
stationary. 

EXrOSURR HAZARD. 

"In a closely built-up location, no matter how much 
care or money has been expended upon a building to 
make it safe against fire within it.self, there still remains 
the danger of fire damage, if not destruction, from the 
outside. Underwriters generally regard a brick wall in- 
creasing in thickness from the top down as the most sat- 
isfactory protection against the attacks of fire from the 
outside. 

"If a building can be inclosed in solid lirick walls on 
all sides, carried three feet above the roof level, it would 
be practically safe against fire from the outside. But the 
public is not yet ready to sacrifice the space necessary 
for the interior courtyard that would be required for light 
and ventilation purposes under such conditions. 

" One of the most potent natural conditions tending 
to augment the fire loss is what is known as the exposure 
hazard. This defines the likelihood of a building to 
become ignited by a fire from without the walls. Tables 
of fire loss, covering a number of years, show that nearly 
one-third of the fire loss of the country is due to the 
exposure hazard. Fire is communicated from one build- 
ing to another in almost every case through wall open- 
ings, through doors or windows, and to provide against 
this danger fire protectionists have devoted some of their 
best endeavors. 

FIHE DOOKS AND SHUTTERS. 

" Since wall openings must normally be open more or 
less of the time, either to traffic or to the passage of light, 
the first form of protection took the obvious form of a 
sheet-iron door or shutter arranged to be closed at night. 
Practical experience, however, soon showed that any con- 
siderable amount of heat warped the sheet-iron shutter to 
such an extent as to seriously impair its usefulness. A 
great improvement on the iron shutter came with the 
design of the tin-clad wooden shutter, a device without a 
superior for many forms of wall opening protection. As 
applied to the windows of mercantile establishments, 
however, the tin-clad shutter shared with the sheet-iron 
shutter several defects. It did not admit a night fire in a 
building to be seen from the outside ; it did not lend itself 
readily to the adaptation of devices to close the shutter 
automatically in the event of fire, and it was very un- 
sightly. 

WIRE GLASS WINDOWS. 

"Among the recent important fires showing the effi- 
ciency of wire glass windows in reducing the exposure 
hazard may be cited the Armour Lard Refinery, Union 
Stock Yards, Chicago; the Case Plow Works in Racine, 
Wis., and the Mitchell Wool Warehouse in Philadelphia. 
In each of these instances the spread of fire to very valu- 
able properties standing but a few yards distant was pre- 
vented through the resistance offered by wire glass win- 
dows in the walls of the adjoining building." 



Selected Miscellany. 

PULLING A BUILDIXd T()(iETHER. 

THERE arc several tilings we understand lietter in 
this country than they do on the other side of 
the Atlantic. The St. Pancras Midland Railroad P'reight 
I)e])ot in London was visited by a fire, and under the in- 




DETAII, BV BEEZKK UROTHERS, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

fluence of the heat the girders, which to judge from the 
accounts were not protected at all, expanded sufficiently 
to throw the walls perceptibly out of line. The advent 
of the fire department and the cliilling effect of large 




DETAIL BY SASS & SMALLHEISER, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

volumes of water wliich were thrown int(j the building 
then caused a reaction wliicli resulted in the walls being 
gradually pulled back into position as the metal cooled. 
An application of a similar principle has been often used 




DETAIL I'.V CHARLES H. MEYERS, ARCHITECT. 
White Brick & Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



2l8 



THE HRICKBIMLDER 




COUKTHOUSK, HAMMOND, INI). 

J. T. Mutton, Architect. 

Covered with American S Tile furnished by Cincinnati Koofing 

Tile & Terra-Cotta Co. 

in this country to rectify irre.n'ularities in a brick wall. 
A short time since, the side wall in a large building in 
a western city bulged so far out of line that the authori- 
ties intervened and a total collapse of the structure was 
looked for. The difficulty was remedied by connecting 
the two opposite walls across the 
building at short intervals by 
two-inch iron rods with nuts and 
heavy washers on the ends. Al- 
ternate rods were heated and 
the expansion taken up by turn- 
ing in the nuts. Then as the 
wall was drawn in by the con- 
traction of the iron on cooling 
the remaining bolts were heated 
and in their turn tightened, and 
the process repeated until a bulge 
of .some eight or ten inches was 
effectually counteracted. This 
process is an excellent one when 
it is carried (Hit intelligently. But 
we remember one occasion in 
which the same system was tried 
but the strain on the rods was 
so great that, though they ex- 
panded with the heat, they were 
simply pulled out again under 
the contraction, and it was the 
rods instead of the brickwork 
which gave way. 




SWAYING SKY-SCRAPERS 

It is extremely interesting to 
note the varying accounts in the 
papers of the behavior of the 
Flatiron building. New York, 




during a storm which 

recently passed over 

the city. According 

to one witness the 

upper portion of the 

structure rocked like 

a ship in a gale. 

According to another 

nearly all the glass in 

the windows was shiv- 
ered in fragments and 

portions of the coping 

stones were hurled to 

the ground, while 

many confess to have 

been able to see a very 

marked oscillation in 

the structure. In the 

absence of scientific 

testimony we are in- 
clined to believe that 

nearly all of this is the 

effect of the imagina- 
tion. Some years 

since, when the 

American ,Surety 

building was newly 

built, similar state- 
ments were made about its behavior in a storm, and to 

test them the superintendent .suspended a heavy plumb 

boll by a fine piano wire, dropping through a height of 
fifteen or more stories, the bot- 
tom being arranged to be self- 
registering. He was unable to 
detect the slightest motion dur- 
ing the heaviest wind storm. 
The F'latiron building is thor- 
oughly well built, is a thoroughly 
substantial structure, and while 
we would not be so rash as to 
claim that it did not move at all, 
we very much douljt that any 
one could have detected motion 
without the most scientific in- 
vestigation. If any one looks up 
against the sky toward any tall 
stati<mary object, that object 
seems to be at the point of 
toppling over. It is an optical 
delusion which is often noticed, 
;md might easily account for 
what observers claim to have 
clearly distinguished in connec- 
tion with the Flatiron building. 



lETAIL HV HARRY ALLEN JACOBS, 

ARCHITECT. 

K.xcelsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



BUILDING, JACKSONVILLE, FLA. 

J. H. W. Hawkins, Architect. 

Built of "Ironclay" Brick. 



IN GENERAL. 

The Atelier Donn Barber of 
New York City gave its third 
annual "smoker" on October 
the first. The projects rendered 
during the past year were ex- 
hibited, and talks were given by 



am 



T H K B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



'9 





MINNEAPOLIS GAS LIGHT CO. BUILDING. 

Brick furnished by Columbus Brick & Terra-Cotta Co. 

Terra-Cotta by Winkle Terra-Cotta Co. 

Mr. Barber, Mr. Carrere and Mr. Louis Met- 
calf, also by Professor Hamlin of Columbia 
College, and Lloyd Warren, chairman of the 
Committee on Education of the Society of 
Beaux Arts Architects. 

Eli Benedict, architect, has taken an office 
in the new building at No. 1947 Broadway, 
New York City, and would like to receive 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

E. Brielmaier & Sons, architects, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., have opened a branch office 
at 640 Broadway, New York City, and would 
be pleased to receive catalogues and samples 
of building materials. 

Browne & Joy, engineers and architects. 
First National Bank Building, Birmingham, 
Ala., desire manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples. 

Special attention should have been called 
to a feature of the tile roof of the house, Buena Park, 
111., George W. Maher, architect, shown in the inserted 



DETAIL liY A. H. VINAL, ARCHITECJ'. 
Standard lerra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

])ages of our Septcml)er number. The roof is 
the closed shingle i)attern of the Celadon Com- 
pany, and the feature referred to is the special 
hip roll, designed for shingle patterns carrying 
the line of each cour.se unbroken around the 
angle of the hip, which gives a quiet, and highly 
artistic effect to the entire roof. 

The Kcndrick Promotion Company, Denver, 
Colo., are about to erect new ])lants for the 
manufacture of common and high-grade bricks, 
also cement and plaster. The land which this 
com])anv owns, which is in close proximity to the 





DETAIL BY CLINTON & RUSSELL, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



HARLEM CASINO, NEW YORK CITV. 

Alfred Zucker. Architect. 
I-'ront brick made by Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Co., Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, 

New York .^Kt^nts. 



city of Denver, contains millions of tons of clays which 
are particularly well adapted for the manufacture of the 
better grades of brick. This same land is aLso rich in 
cement material and lime rock in large quantities. 

In the fall of i(S7 2 the Union Akrcm Cement Com- 
pany, through its Chicago house, furnished 2,100 bar- 
rels of the Akron (vStar Brand) Cement to the United 
vStatcs government, for jjutting in the lower part of the 
concrete foundation for the Chicago post office. 

Nearly twenty-five years afterward, during the 
spring of 1897, the Chicago post office was taken 
down, to make room for a new and larger building. 

In the May, 1897, issue of the Cciinnt and Iliii^^iiiccr- 
iiiy; News, the following in reference to the concrete 
foundation is found: " In the wrecking of the Chicago 
post office, the contractor encounters a mass of 14,000 
cubicyards of concrete, underlyingall foundations, walls 



2 20 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




DETAIL BV HERTS & TALLANT, ARCHITECTS 
Perth Ambi)y Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



;i n d vaults, 
while a contin- 
uous mass or 
slab of con- 
crete covers 
the entire area 
of the building: 
from three feet 
six inches to 
four feet six 
inches thick. 
The space be- 
tween the i:n- 
derside of the 
basement floor 
and the top of 
the concrete 
slab is filled in 
wi th Lou i s- 
ville cement ; 
this yields eas- 
i 1 y to only 
slight efforts. 
The concrete 
slab composed 
of a In i^ Iter 
_<:;radeofceiiieiit 
is tough and re- 
fractory and is giving the contractors much trouble, and is 
the cause of the delay in clearing the site, and involves a 
]>enalty of Sioo per day to the contractors, running since 

April I . 
The work 
of removal 
of this 
large body 
of c o n - 
Crete is be- 
ing vig- 
orously 
prose- 
cuted by 
the aid of 
numerous 
steam 
drills and 
dynamite. 
Even this 
proves a 
slow an d 
tedious 
proc ess, 
and is an 
object les- 
son as to 
the respec- 
tive (piali- 
t i e s <j f a 
good and 
sometimes 

CHAFIN HUILDINli, BUFFALO, N. V. iudiffer- 

K. H. Kent, Architect. e n t C e - 
Terra-Cotta furnished by the New York ,, 

Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. ment. 




The following is an extract from a letter received by 
them from the Chicago House Wrecking Company who had 
the contract for taking down the old post office building: 

CnicAciO, Ii.i,., December 3, 1897. 
Union Akron Ce.ment Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cicntlcmen, — Answering yours of November 23, regard- 
ing foundation of the post office building, will say regard- 
ing its resistance to the drills and dynamite, that it was a 
very tough composition, and it was the worst thing we 




««. -I 



jttS9 !» »9 »> 
, _^ iSSI 

SlBBlSlSSS.Si 





IRVINi; national bank building, new YORK CITY. 
Huilt of lijiht Kray Roman brick, made by Kreischer Brick Mfg. Co. 

ever ran up against. We had to drill holes every eight- 
een inches, and we used five times the amount of dyna- 
mite figured upon. It was very slow work, without any 
satisfactory results. Yours truly, 

Chicago House Wreckin(; Company. 

The cimcrete slab mentioned herein, that was so 
loiigli and refractory, was made with the Aknm (Star 
Brand) Cement. 



DRAWING 



ARCHITECTURAL. MECHANICAL. 
PERSPECTIVE 

XAUOMX BY iVlAlU 

COURSES OF THE GREATEST VALUE TO OFFICE MEN 
AND STUDENTS. 
Correspondence courses also offered in Electrical, Steam 
and Civil Engineering. Heating, Ventilation and Plumbing. 
Architecture, Carpentry and Building, and a full curriculum 
of other engineering courses. 



In addition to their regular instruction papers, students in full Engineering courses 
are furnished a technical Reference Library (iu ten volumes las a help in their studies. 

Illustrated i8o page Catalogue sent FREE on request. 
AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 

at Armour Institute of Technology, Koom 16 D. Chicago, III. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

NOVEMBER, 

1903. 




CONVENT OF SAN MARCO, LEON, SPAIN. 



THE BRICKBVILDER 




DEVOTED -TO-THE-INTERESTS-OFO November iqos m 
ARCHITEX^rVREINMATERIALSOF CLAYj^ nuvcivicck lyuj ^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... S5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... §6. 00 per year 

Subscriptions p.\yable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: - 

PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . H and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only 



LIBRARY COMPETITION. — JURY OF AWARD. 

THE following named gentlemen have consented to 
judge The Brickbuilder Library Competition: 

ROBERT S. PEABODY (Peabody & vStearns), presi- 
dent Boston Society of Architects. 

PROFESSOR D. DESPRADELLE, Professor of 
Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

CHARLES A. COOLIDCtE (Shepley, Rutan & 
Coolidge). 

CLARENCE H. BLACKALL. 

WILLIAM C. HALL, president of the Perth Aml^oy 
Terra-Cotta Company. 

There was a large number of drawings si:bmitted in 
the competition, and the work of judging them will neces- 
sarily be .slow. We hope, however, to be able to announce 
the awards in The Brickbuilder for December. 





PAGE 


Cements ..... 


. . . IV 


Clay Chemicals . . . 


. . . IV 


Fire-proofing .... 


. . . IV 


Machinerv 


. . . IV 


Roofing Tile .... 


. . . IV 



THE ARCHITECT'S NAxME. 

THE earliest appearance of an illu.strated architectural 
journal in this country dates from about 1876. Up 
to about 1890 illustrations of architecture were restricted 
to purely technical papers and a very few magazines, but 
the improvement in process work and the develojjnieiit of 



the capabilities of the press made it possible for the daily 
papers to print with the news more illu.strations of various 
sorts, though it was six or eight years later before the 
newspapers discovered the way to print half-tones. The 
architectural illustrations in the daily press were a natural 
outgrowth of the real-estate column, but every year now 
sees a larger proportion of the space in our leading daily 
papers given up to illustrations of actual or proposed ar- 
chitecture. The reporters are keenly on the alert to 
secure drawings for reproductions of every prominent 
building proposed or even thought of, and usually these 
drawings are obtained through the intermediary of the 
architect, being in many crises reproductions of the work 
which he has prepared for his clients. The character, 
both of the drawings themselves and the reproductions 
which have appeared in the daily press, has been steadily 
increasing with each year, and some of the finest examples 
of draughtsmanship and design have found their way into 
the news columns. The equitable rights of the architect 
in such reproductions have, however, been very generally 
misunderstood by the journalists. During the earlier 
years of such publication it was the exception to note a 
drawing with which was coupled the name of the archi- 
tect ; and while a reporter was usually quite willing to 
avail himself of the architect's efforts, to copy his draw- 
ings and to pump him for information, there seemed to 
be a feeling that if the architect's name appeared in print 
it was in the nature of a puff or a species of advertising 
to which the architect had no equitable right. This point 
of view is, we are happy to say, changing in many 
respects, and we believe it is coming to be the rule with 
the best daily papers to endeavor in each case to set 
forth the architect's name in connection with the build- 
ing illustrated or described, not merely as a return of 
courtesies for the loan of drawings, but because it is an 
item of legitimate news in which many people are per- 
sonally interested. 

We feel that right in this line there is a possibility for 
a great work to be done by our draughtsmen's clubs. A 
newspaper would not omit an architect's name as a matter 
of spite any more than they would put it in as a matter 
of mere complimentary puff; but if our younger architec- 
tural .societies were to take the matter up with their edi- 
torial friends and do a persistent amount of missionary 
work, to state the architect's position rightly, a great deal 
might be accomplished towards a more general recogni- 
tion of the architect's right in the reproduction of his de- 
sign, and anything which would so help the profession 
would tend to foster better architecture, and quite directly 
be a benefit to the community. 



T H E H R I C K B U I L I) H R . 



Brick Architecture in and about 
Chicago. II. 

BY KOKKRT C. SPENCER, JR. 

THE best domestic architecture of Chicajjo durinj^ 
the last decade has been distingfuished by its sim- 
plicity and severity. This severity, however, lies particu- 
larly in an absence of ornament and the use of simple, 
almost cheap materials. The wealthy citizens, as a rule, 
are loath to spend money here for the sort of palatial 
magnificence which is making of New York a transplanted 
and more gorgeous Paris. 

The work of Pond & Pond exemi)lifies excellently the 
possibilities of simple brickwork thoughtfully handled, in 




HOUSE, 457 5 OAKEN WAI.D AVENUE. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 

which interest and effectiveness are gained by composi- 
tion, sometimes formal, oftener picturesque. 

Of the formal types the colonial house on Asbury Ave- 
nue, Evanston, and the very clean-cut gabled house at 
4575 Oakenwald Avenue are good examples. The latter 
is of dull purplish red bricks, delicately freckled with 
accidental headers and stretchers almost black. The 
entrance arch, flanked by quoined piers with a double 
opening above, is unhackneyed and effective. In the pic- 
turesque apartment house at 5515 Woodlawn Avenue 
the basement is of dull brown rock-faced bricks with dull 
tan-colored pressed bricks above, serving as the ground 
for a diaper pattern and band treatment in the dark bricks 
in the third story. 

At 4854 Washington Avenue is another apartment 
building which, as a whole, is the best of the three. There 
is practically no ornamentation, except the frets on the 
pilasters flanking the entrance. 

At Lake Forest University, Reid Hall is a very pretty 
example of clean, formally picturesque brickwork. The 



proportion of the gables, the contrast of wall surface and 
massed openings, the judicious use of dark brick for base 
and horizontal bands above the delicate stratification of 
sunken counses in the central gable with its delicately 
crowned bell tower, are all admirable. 

The house at 5220 Ea.st End Avenue and the house at 
5749 Woodlawn Avenue illustrate the difficulty of grafting 
the .slight American porch upon a masonry house having 
a solid substantial English feeling. 

The more pleasing of the two is the Woodlawn Avenue 
house, in which the porch is replaced by a terrace which 
is screened and sheltered by an arbor. 

The work of the Pond brothers in the field of brick 
buildings for social settlements is as individual as their 
domestic work and presents similar characteristics. It 
is so well known that it is not shown here. 

Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Louis boast a great manv 
brewery buildings, but they are distinguished for their 
bulk rather than for architectural merit. 

In a very unjiromising manufacturing neighborhood 
near the South Branch of the Chicago River is the plant 




ENTRANCE, AMERICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL lU II. DING. 
Holabird & Roche, Architects. 

of the Schoenhofen Brewing Company, to which has just 
been added a remarkably clean, dignified and clever 
example of brickwork from the office of Richard G. 
Schmidt. Although absolutely devoid of ornament in 
the common sense of the word, raised bands of the 
rough red paving bricks have been used in a masterly 



THE BR IC K HIM I, n i: R 



223 





J. 





^4 



THE BR I C K BU I L I)P:R. 



manner to give a highly architectural appearance of 
unity and finish to the whole, in spite of the irregular 
fenestration with which the designer had to contend on 
both street fronts, the principal one of which is here 
shown. The effectiveness of the tower and of the en- 
tire building is marred by the lofty and irreconcilable 
steel stack of the power house in tlie rear. 




HOUSE OF CHARLES A. KROST, ARCHITECT. 



49th vStreet and Woodlawn Avenue. Here an almost bald 
scjuareness is relieved on one facade by the rather forced 
arcade treatment between bays, and on the Woodlawn 
Avenue end by the bowed cornice across the chimney. 

The delicate bits of carved detail are effectively placed, 
redeeming a certain rudeness in the rough red bricks. 
The entrance is very prettily managed with its splayed 
flat stone lintel .serving as a hood. It is in- 
teresting to note here how well Mr. Shaw 
has managed the iron balcony without notice- 
ably disturbing his cornice scheme. 

The house at 5733 Lexington Avenue is 
ecjually good, although less original. An 
interesting feature is the use of compara- 
tively light red headers with darker stretchers 
in Flemish bond. As for ornament it is 
abundantly supplied by a luxuriant growth 
of "Boston ivy," broad in scale and most 
refined, crisp and delicate in detail. 

The house at 2106 Calumet Avenue is 
less successful than the two former, but 
shows the same restrained and refined use 
of detail, against a foil of plain red brick, 
and is also another illustration of the great 
restraint which is shown by many wealthy 
Chicagoans when it comes to spending 
money for domestic architecture in their 
own city. 

In Evanston, the unannexable and aris- 
tocratic north shore suburb of Chicago. My- 



If any serious fault may be found with 
so excellent a modern building it is in the 
rather too sharp contrast of the stone en- 
trance with the brickwork. The smoke of 
the city will, however, remedy that in a few 
months. 

The entrance detail is sim])le, original 
and strictly in harmony with the building; 
it is not a piece of borrowed bric-a-brac. 

Out on the prairie northwest of the city 
a sanitarium for consumptives has recently 
been erected, — from the same office, — very 
interesting in composition, though severe in 
detail and almo.st without ornament. The 
central portion only is shown, the wings 
being at present uncompleted. Here the 
square masses of the central tower and 
flanking pavilion, with their airy bays and 
grouped fenestration against plain wall sur- 
faces, combine to produce a most agreeable 
efi'ect. 

In the house at Burton Place and North 
State Street the .same feeling for scjuare blocky masses 
and grouped openings is seen, .somewhat modified by the 
exigencies of planning and much more refined in detail. 
Here a gray Roman pres.sed brick has been u.sed, with 
bands and stylobate of Bedford stone, which about the 
doorway is richly carved with an original and beautiful 
" SuUivanesque " design. 

A very successful three-story hou.se, in which the third 
story is given an attic treatment without foolish sacrifice 
of livable height, is the one designed by Howard Shaw at 



.J 




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HOUSE OV ALKREU H. (;RAN(;ER, ARCHITECT. 

ron Hunt has done several notably good brick buildings; 
of these the most interesting and picturescjue is the 
double house on Ridge Avenue. The balcony front of 
lirick on a heavy timber lintel supported by solid timber 
braces is its happiest feature. Here, certainly, is a good 
house without architectural ornament, .serving all the 
better as a foil for the drooping sprays from the flower 
boxes behind the balcony rail. 

The apartment house on Chicago Avenue has a de- 
cidedly domestic air, as do the flat buildings on Orring- 



THE B R I C K H LM L DK R 



225 











\i.m ■mi, Mmt 



fciU »KI1 tKJ 

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226 



THE BR ICK BU I L DHK. 



ton Avenue and on Clark Street. Each is an agreeable 
departure from the stereotyped work of this class, so 
common nowadays in all larg'e cities. Fortunately the 
citizens of Evanston have taken a firm stand ai^ainst 
the invasion of 
cheaply built specu- 
lators' "flats," and 
the local building or- 
dinances applying to 
buildings of thisclass 
are so rigid as to 
almost prohibit such 
structures. 

The power house 
of the Yaryan Com- 
pany is built of a dull 
buff brick, laid in an 
effective cross bond 
with well-propor- 
tioned openings and 
a good denticulated 
cove cornice. 

It is always inter- 
esting to see what 
manner of house an 
architect builds for 
himself. The neigh- 
boring houses of Mr. 

Frost and of Mr. Granger at Lake Forest, the one for- 
mally informal, the other romantic and more picturescpie, 
are greatly enhanced in effect by their beautiful setting. 

Across the way from the University of Chicago campus 




nousK, 



KM TV-KKJHTH STKK 
Hush M. <;. C. 



The i)ressed bricks of soft light red, laid with fine joints 
in white mortar, give a wall of a most agreeable tone. 
The details have been chosen from the best examples of 
old work and used with an unusual delicacy and restraint. 

It may be of interest 
to remark that this 
is Mr. (Garden's first 
and last work in this 
style. There is an 
argument or, at 
least, a "preach- 
ment " to be drawn 
from this fact, which 
it is doubtless wise 
to suppress. 1 1 
might lead to a dis- 
cussion of the old 
question of "prog- 
ress before prece- 
dent," that one time 
alluringly alliterative 
slogan of the Archi- 
tectural League of 
America. But to re- 
turn to Lexington 
Avenue. The Her- 
rick house, 5727 Lex- 
ington Avenue, is 
another one of those good plain houses |which are satis- 
factory without external ornament, if less interesting and 
less inviting of close inspection than some others not one 
hundred miles from New York City. 



KT AND LEXK\(;T()N AVKNUK. 
arden. Architect 




HOUSE, KENWOOU, U.I.. 
Dwigbt H. Perkins, Architect. 

on Lexington Avenue in a row of exceptionally good 
houses, occupied mostly by members of the faculty, are 
two designed by Hugh M. G. Garden. The one at the 
corner of 58th Street, opposite the Quadrangle Club, is 
one of the best examples of colonial adaptation to an 
unusual plan in Chicago. 




HOUSE, 5727 LEXlNinoN A\EiNUE. 
Hugh M. <;. Garden. Architect. 

We are certainly learning restraint here, and I believe 
we rather like it. There is, after all, a very keen satis- 
faction in getting a pleasing and interesting building 
without a lot of features and "frills" that cost the owner 
good hard money, and which in a few years may go out 
of fashion. 



T H p: H R I C K IUM L I) h r 



227 





HOUSE, FORTY-NINTH STREET AND WOODLAWN AVENUE. 



HOUSE, 2106 CALUMET AVENUE. 





ENTRANCE, HOUSE FORTY-NINTH STREET AND VVOODI.AWN AVENUE. HOUSE, 573,5 LEXINCJTON AVENUI', 

Work of Howard Sliaw, Archilfct. 



228 



THE B R I C K R IM L D E R 




THE BR I CK BU I L I)P:R 



229 



Recent School Building in St. Louis. II. 

WILLIAM B. ITTNER, Architect. 

BV S. I. SHERER. 

MANUAL TRAINING HKtH SCHOOLS. 

THE idea of manual trainiiio-, like that of the kinder- 
o;arten, had it.s hr.st trial in St. Louis, although 
introduced by Professor Woodward in Wa.shington Uni- 
versity in 1879, and not in the public schools. Now that 



entrance, flanked by octagonal towers, is supplemented 
by side entrances leading to the main corridor, twenty 
feet in width, from whicli give auxiliary corridors eight 
feet wide. 

On the first floor there is a classroom for forty pupils, 
a reception room and principal's office ; three laboratories 
devoted to the study of Chemistry, Physics and Biology, 
equipped for classes of twenty-four pupils, each labora- 
tory having a lecture room for forty-eight pupils, a 




WILLlAiM .McKINLEV HIGH SCHOOL. 



it has passed the experimental stage in the schools, the 
Board of Education has deemed it advisable to add it to 
the curriculum of the new high schools, and thus supple- 
ment the work of the brain by the work of the hand. 
The first of the schools in which this idea has domi- 



teacher's laboratory, a storeroom for apparatus, and a 
dark room for photography. 

There are two woodworking shops 32 by 70 feet in 
size, one for carpentry, the other for wood turning and 
pattern work, each ecpiipped for twenty-four pupils and 




JA.MKS K. VEATMAN HIOH SCHOOL 



nated the plan is the William McKinley High School, and 
the plan well illustrates that exi)ansion of the educational 
idea which is one of the marked tendencies of our time. 
It shows a building almost square on plan (255 by 253 
feet), and of a much more complex nature than the 
schools considered in article I. An imposing central 



each having a wash, locker and tool room, as well as a 
storage and stock room. 

To provide for the manual training of girls, two rooms 
are devoted to Domestic Science, with a small model 
dining room adjoining, and one room for Sewing, each 
with its storeroom. 



2;0 



THE HR I CK HU I LDKR 



The aiiditoriuni is entered from the main corridor on 
the first floor and has a seating capacity of 736; the gal- 
lery is entered from the main corridor of the second floor 
and seats 216 pupils. It has a large stage and two 
dressing rooms, while coat rooms are provided near the 




^■-^••1^--^^^ 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

entrance to the auditorium, which is arranged 
and ccpiipped so it may be used for evening 
lectures. 

The second floor has four 23 by 32 foot 
classrooms equipped for twenty-four pupils, 
four 28 by 32 foot rooms for forty-eight 
pupils, and two 32 by 41 foot rooms for 
seventy-two pupils. There is also a large 
room to be used as a library of reference. 

The third floor has four classrooms 
ecjuipped for sixty-four pupils and two rooms 
for ninety-eight pupils; also a 23 by 64 foot 
room for freehand drawing; a business room 
with necessary banking rooms, offices, etc., 



feet in size, eciuipped for sections of forty-eight pupils, 
with two storage rooms and a room for blue printing. 

In the basement, adjoining the entrance vestibules, 
are located the general locker rooms for each sex ; small 
locker rooms being also provided on each floor in order 
not to concentrate lockers in one location. 
Retiring rooms adjoin the general locker 
rooms. 

The boiler and coal rooms are located 
outside of the main building; the heating 
and ventilating apparatus and the electrical 
ccjuipment for supplying power to shops 
have been installed imder the auditorium, 
where an amphitheater seating forty-eight 
pupils is also located, in order that the dyna- 
mos and engines may serve for illustration 
and study by classes. 

The blacksmithing and machine .shops, 
each 40 by 84 feet in size and equipped for 
sections of twenty-four pupils, are located 



^L.^^.J i 





PLANS, NORMAL HIGH SCHt)OL. 

each eciuipped for forty-eight ])upils; a large room for 
stenography and typewriting for twenty-four pupils; also 
a room for ])hotography with dark room adjoining. 

The classrooms were planned to enable the teacher to 
supervise the class at study, as well as to hear a class at 
recitation, provision being made for recitation chairs in 
addition to fixed seats, — an arrangement that obviates 
large study halls used for recitation only. 

Where the central tower is carried above the third floor 
it provides space for a mechanical drawing room 72 by 32 



FIRST FLOOR PL*'.. 

in the courts, lighted by skylights, and 
entered from main corridor through vesti- 
bules, thus preventing noise penetrating the 
l)uilding. Each shop has a storage, tool, 
locker and wash room. 

There is a gymnasium 41 by 85 feet in 
size, with locker and shower baths for each 
sex; also a lunch room of the same dimen- 
sions, with kitchen adjoining. 

The entrance for janitors, engineers, 
etc., is placed at rear of basement, and the 
head janitor's room commands a view of 
all entrances to the main corridor. 

From the foregoing description, and by 

reference to the floor plans illustrated, which 

show more clearly the position of the rooms 

in their relatif)n to the general scheme, it 

will be seen that Mr. Ittner has devised an 

ingenious plan that evinces much study, and one that 

promises to answer the multifarious requirements of a 

problem comparatively new in school architecture. 

The constructional features follow the same general 
lines outlined in article I, except that the interior bearing 
walls are of brick in lieu of steel columns enclosed with 
hollow tile. 

The brickwork is light red in color, laid with wide and 
deep horizontal joints, in courses compo.sed of three 
stretchers and a header, the latter being flashed. 



THE B R I C K lUM L I)H R 



231 



The cost of the building, exclusive of heating, venti- 
lation and plumbing, will be $352,475, or $380,000 
ready to receive equipment and furniture ; the cost per 
cubic foot sixteen and nine-elevenths cents, while the 
cost per sc|uare foot of floor area will be $2.95, a sum 
considerably less than the cost of the old high school, not 
of fireproof construction, — a fact that demonstrates the 
efficient manner in which the new work has been ad- 
ministered. 

The high school named in honor of James E. Yeat- 
man is located in the northern part of the city, and will 
do for that section what the McKinlc}^ School will do for 
the southern district. It follows the same general plan 
developed in the latter school, and the differences that 
exist are of degree rather than of kind. The plan being 
practically the same, it naturally follows that the ex- 
terior design should reflect the same general treatment 
that characterized the design of the McKinley School, 
although the impression conveyed is that of a Jacobean 
rather than a Tudor design. The octagonal towers of 
the earlier building are replaced by square towers in the 



a training that will fit them for service in the public schools 
of St. Louis. The building will be located immediately 
north of the Edward Wyman vSchool and connected with 
same by a pergola, permitting communication between the 
two buildings and thus utilizing the Wyman School as an 
object lesson in practical teaching. 

The plans illustrated show that the ground floor will 
contain, in addition to boiler, coal and toilet rooms, a gym- 
nasium, a lunch room with serving room adjoining, a large 
locker room and a large morning room with fireplace. 

The first floor will contain two large laboratories, an 
assembly room, four classrooms and the principal's office. 

The second floor will have a library, drawing room, 
five classrooms and a lecture room or critique, with seats 
arranged on three sides and graduated in height. 

It will thus be seen that an unusual opportunity has 
fallen to Mr. Ittner to design a school Innlding whose 
function is wholly imlike the buildings heretofore con- 
sidered. 

The general architectural design harmonizes with, and 
conforms in a measure to, the adjoining school and the 




NORMAL HIGH SCHOOL. 



Yeatman, one of them being used as a clock tower. The 
design of the main entrance shows a mingling of English 
Renaissance detail, while the limiting of the end bays to 
two stories, the piercing of the parapet wall and other 
variations serve to distinguish the building from its pro- 
totype. 

The brickwork is light red in color, laid in English 
garden wall bond, with wide joints of white mortar. 

On the whole, the building exhibits the same well- 
considered plan and well-controlled design that distinguish 
the McKinley School. 

In passing, it may be of interest to mention that in the 
naming of the new .schools, civic pride has prompted the 
Board to perpetuate the names of eminent citizens of St. 
Louis, as well as associating some of the schools with 
names famous in education, literature and statecraft. 

The cost of the building will be $307,766, exclusive 
of equipment, heating, ventilation, ])lumbingand wiring. 

In the new Normal High School a .somewhat different 
problem is presented in that it is to be devoted exclusively 
to the training of teachers. It will provide accommodation 
for two hundred and fifty young women who will receive 



brickwork will partake of the same general character. 
There is here, as in the other buildings, an entire absence 
of any straining for effect not justified by the function 
expressed in the plan. Certainly the aspect of these 
school buildings leaves no doubt as to their purpose. 

That the schools illustrated in these articles show a 
marked advance upon previous school work in St. Louis, 
and that they will bear favorable comparison in design, 
construction and cost with the best school work thus far 
developed in the United States, is probably beyond con- 
tention. That they will demonstrate the wisdom of 
l)uilding .schools of fireproof construction, thus insuring 
a feeling of security to parent, pupil and teacher, as well 
as reduced cost of maintenance; and that the expendi- 
ture for architectural fitness and the attainment of a 
beautiful environment is money well spent, and will bear 
good fruit in im]:)arting higher ideals to the ])upil, will 
be finally conceded l)y the people at large, as well as 
by those wlio contend that otir educational institutions 
sliould reflect the best thought of the age in design, con- 
struction and equipment, thus fulfilling their true func- 
tion as ])art of cnir educational system. 



232 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. VI. 

BY D. EVERETT WAIU. 

ARCHITECTS' FEES. 

THE subject of architects' fees, treated in article V 
of this series, was greeted with an interest which 
led the editors of The Bkickbuilder and the writer to 
submit the followinj^ questions to a large number of the 
leading men of the profession throughout the country : 

1. Will you kindly state what your charges are for 
professional services (or send a copy of j'our i)rinted 
schedule) ? 

2. Do you find difficult}^ in charging more than five 
per cent for residence work or work costing less than 
^10,000? 

3. What, in your opinion, is the proper charge for 
factory work, mercantile and office buildings? 

4. Do you think it is common practice for architects 
to accept less than five per cent for office buildings or 
for work in general of large cost? 

5. Do you find that clients decline to pay traveling 
expenses and fees for experts? 

6. Observations as to the practice of submitting 
drawings without compen.sation in the hope of securing 
work ; 

7. On entering competitions without compensation; 

8. On entering competitions in which prizes are 
offered ; 

9. ( )n the desirability of charging clients, in addition 
to the regular fee, five per cent on sanitary, heating and 
electric work to cover expert service as recommended by 
the American Institute of Architects. 

It is proposed here to present to the reader some of 
the answers received to these questions, in some instances 
individual replies and in others generalizations deduced 
from many replies. 

Question One: The printed schedules which came in 
response to this question are essentially similar to those 
given in The Bkickbuilder for February, 1903. Several 
architects replied that they use the Institute .schedule. 
It is a fact not only that the Institute schedule it.self is 
used by v'ery many members of the profession, but tliat 
this selfsame scale is a bulwark to the profession in gen- 
eral in the matter of fees. 

It is therefore highly important that that official pro- 
nouncement be most carefully revised if it does not now 
represent the sense of the profession and does not inform 
the public clearly as to the main ethical jjoints and fair 
charges which should obtain in the practice of archi- 
tecture. 

yuestion Two : Here are some of the answers: 

" No." 

" Except in special cases we refuse all work costing 
under $10,000." 

"Some difficulty in collecting." 

"Yes, but people are gradvially becoining educated 
to it." 

" If we charge more than five per cent, somebody else 
does the work." 

"If I do the work the price is paid, but very, very 
often the work goes to those who charge l)ut half." 



" We do not find any special difficulty in getting 
seven and a half per cent on residence work and ten per 
cent for alterations." 

"We have found by experience that we cannot do 
residence work at five per cent without an actual loss, 
and we prefer to eliminate such work entirely from our 
practice rather than to lower our rate below seven and a 
half per cent." 

Some architects, like C. F. Schweinfurth and (ieorge 
W. Maher, invariably charge seven or seven and a half 
per cent for work costing less than $10,000. The proj 
fession is quite a unit in declaring that five per cent is 
inadequate to give proper service on residence work. 
Yet there is no doubt that the majority of architects, 
having small offices and doing perhaps most of the work 
with their own hands, charge five per cent. And while 
they do, larger firms take such commissions at the same 
rate at an actual loss even, as leaders to larger work 
which they might otherwise lose. 

Question Three: The majority of replies say five per 
cent even for factories. Two firms say three and a half 
per cent for factories, others charge four per cent. The 
writer, not doubting that many factories of which he 
has no information were designed for three and a half 
per cent and even less, has been surprised to find that 
very many expensive jilants going up to-day have been 
designed by architects who actually received five per 
cent for their work; and there is evidence that the own- 
ers con.sider the fee a good investment. 

A prominent firm in Chicago writes: " Our charge for 
this class of work, including supervision, has been five 
per cent. In one ca.se, which was a very plain factory 
building, merely a shell, we received four per cent. 
We feel that if a uniform charge of four per cent on 
office buildings over $500,000 is generally asked, the 
remuneration would be sufficient." Two other architects 
intimate that a slight reduction might be made from 
the five per cent rate on office buildings costing more 
than a million each. 

With the exceptions stated, the weight of testimony 
is strongly in favor of five per cent as the proper 
charge on factory, mercantile and office buildings, 
and particularly is it true of those best known as 
the architects of large works. The profession will 
be interested in knowing that D. H. Burnham & Co. 
never charge less than five per cent for an\' class of 
work under any circumstances. We have the highest 
authority for making that as an absolute statement. A 
very similar assertion may be made regarding the prac- 
tice of Holabird & Roche of Chicago, and Cass Gilbert 
of New York. 

A member of the firm of Clinton & Russell gave the 
writer jiermission to cjuote him in this article: "Point 
to the Institute .schedule and .say that we never deviate 
from it. We get five per cent for all our office building 
work, except that which we do for the realty companies 
who build for themselves. The corporation of which the 
Fuller Construction Company is a part, for example, pays 
us thi-ee and one-half i)er cent on their buildings and do 
their own superintending." 

George B. Post states that in tlie past twenty-five 
years he has not done even the largest work for less than 
five per cent. He, with Clinton & Russell, aver in the 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^33 



most emphatic way that architects cannot afford to do 
their work, if they do it thoroiig'hh' as it should be done, 
for less than five per cent. This seems incredible to 
young architects who have counted themselves prosper- 
ous out of the fees on five thousand dollar houses. It is 
incredible because they do not realize that as soon as 
work becomes too large to be done all with one's own 
hands he must carry an expensive office and office force. 
Mr. Post's business has been of the most lucrative kind, 
including, as it has, but a comparatively small amount of 
residence work. His office is carefully conducted on a 
business basis, with no extravagant salaries, and yet his 
expenditures, as shown by exact systematic records ex- 
tending over a long series of years (the exact figures 
Mr. Post showed to the writer), have been enormous and 
amounted to two and one-half per cent ; that is to say, his 
actual cash expense, not counting any allowance for his 
own time, was one-half the fees. For a series of three 
years at one period when prices of building materials 
were low, although Mr. Post had a large amount of work 
on hand, his actual office cost was three and one-half per 
cent. Mr. Post calls attention to one fact which will sur- 
prise less experienced architects, and that is that the 
cheaper and simpler class of office buildings cost the 
architect more in proportion than more expensive and 
elaborate buildings. It need hardly be said to architects 
that all this presupposes that we are referring to work 
thoroughly and properly designed and detailed and effec- 
tively supervised. A two per cent architect perhaps 
makes as much money in his own way as a five per cent 
man, but he, as plenty of illustrations prove, produces 
obviously two per cent buildings. If any of our readers 
will put away the temptation to win his first important 
piece of work by cutting his price with the hope thereby 
of establishing his reputation (and many a well-known 
architect must admit that he did that very thing), and if 
we can help in the struggle of architects to place compe- 
tition among themselves on a basis above price, we will 
have done something toward attaining recognition of the 
architect as a professional man with the high standing 
which he deserves. Let every architect fight for the 
regi:lar schedule as a minimum corresponding to the 
physicians' " stated charge per visit," and look forward 
to the time when the prestige of his executed work will 
permit him to increase his rates, as does the famous sur- 
geon doing a $5,000 operation. 

Question Four: Some answered, " No. " Two or three 
said, " Unfortunately, yes. " Others more guarded, "We 
have reason to believe that such is sometimes the case;" 
and another, " No, the cutting of rates is more general in 
thecheaper class of work." 

Fames & Young, St. Louis, write: " Yes, quite com- 
mon for them to accept almost any kind of offer." 

Clintcm & Russell say: "We have had prospective cli- 
ents tell us that Mr. So-and-so offers to do this work for 
two and one-half per cent. We reply that if it is a mat- 
ter of price, we must lose the commission. An architect 
cannot afford to take work for less than five per cent if 
he does it thoroughly, as it should be done." 

Another well-known New York architect writes: " I 
believe some architects do accept less than five per cent 
for buildings of simple design and construction and of 
great cost, such as large loft buildings, ])lain office build- 



ings, etc. ; but if proper attention be given, I do not 
understand how they could do it for a smaller amount; 
I myself have never done so." 

(Question Five: The general response to this cpiery 
indicates that the payment of traveling expenses in addi- 
tion to the regular fee is a well-recognized custom. One 
firm writes: " Where our work is out of town, we gener- 
ally have it understood and agreed in the beginning that 
the client pay all traveling expenses, and we have always 
found where this matter is discussed in the beginning, 
there is no trouble." The subject of traveling expenses, 
however, has quite another phase to those architects who 
take work, not exactly "out of town," but in other cities 
where they have to come into competition with local men. 
This, of course, does not refer to those practitioners who, 
by reason of conspicuous ability and reputation, are inde- 
pendent in the matter of fees. In this connection Patton 
& Miller of Chicago write of a problem which interests 
almost all architects at times: "We offset the cost of 
traveling expenses to a certain extent by insisting upon 
the employment of a clerk of the works, or local superin- 
tendent, to be paid for in addition to our regular fees. 
We do not notice this among your questions, but it seems 
to us an important point as to what extent architects pro- 
cure the services of a clerk of the works at the expense 
of the owner. We might say that our work at a distance 
from Chicago is superintended in one of two methods: 
the first, by the employment of a firm of local architects, 
who take entire charge of the superintendence, and we 
divide our commissions with them. In some cases we 
secure an addition to the five per cent commission. 
Where we do not have local architects take charge of the 
superintendence, we insist upon the employment of a 
clerk of the works. In such a case we limit the number 
of visits to one a month, or in small work to, say, two or 
three trips of inspection during the progress of the work. 
By reducing the number of trips for small work, we keep 
down the cost of traveling expenses, and we have found 
it much easier to persuade building committees to employ 
a local superintendent, outside of our fees, than it is to 
pay us traveling expenses." 

In another article I shall touch upon the remaining 
cjuestions submitted and the re])lies received to same. 



THE design submitted by Architects Pond & Pond for 
the new Federal building for the occupancy of the 
post "office at Kankakee, 111., has been accepted liy the 
Treasury Department and as soon as the details are com- 
]:)leted, work on the building will proceed. The selection 
of a design for this building is a matter of considerable 
interest, inasmuch as it is the first that has been made 
under the recent ruling of the. Treasury Department 
under what is well known as the Tarnsey Act providing 
for competition among leading architects for public l)uild- 
ings. Heretofore the Tarnsey Act as interpreted by the 
Treasury Department has been made to a])ply only to 
the larger cities of the country in which buildings of con- 
siderable cost were to be erected. Under the recent 
ruling, however, of the Department the buildings in the 
smaller cities now come within the provision of that act, 
affording a generous opjjortunity for ])eoplc wlio wisli to 
compete for work of this class. 



2.H 



THE R R I C K R U I L D H R . 



Fireproofing. 



A NEW WALL CONSTRUCTION. 

WE have had frequent occasion in these columns to 
call attention to the tentative use which has been 
made of hollow terra-cotta tile in the constructicm of 
walls. Material of this descri])ti(m possesses so many 
and such obvious advantages that only lack of familiarity 
stands in tlic way of its very extended employment for 
all classes of buildings in which lightness, dryness, pro- 
tection against change of temperature, and low cost are 
to be desired. It has so far lieen used onlv in a verv few 




l'H(KNI.\ HOI. LOW TIl.K WAI.I, CONSTKUCllON. 
( I'atenlud by Ht-nry Maurcr & Son.) 

cases in such a manner as to show its liighest artistic 
possibilities: but as architects become more familiar witli 
it, it is sure to develop a perfectly rational, iusthetic treat- 
ment which can be thoroughly in accord with its struc- 
tural possibilities. As at present used it has been con- 
fined mostly to storehouses, train sheds, stations, tank 
houses, and mills, though we have noted in another issue 
a few cases where it was used with great success in small 
isolated structures. Under the name 
of the Phienix Hollow Tile Wall Con- 
struction the use of this material has 
been reduced to a system which has 
proven extremely satisfactory. 

The American Smelting and Re- 
fining Company last year erected in 
Perth Amboy a tank house 350 feet 
l(jng by 200 feet wide and 24 feet 6 
inches higli, in which the walls were 
omstructed with a framework of 
twelve-inch vertical I beams spaced 
sixteen inches on centers, the en- 
closed wall being laid up with hard 
burned terra-cotta hollow blocks 
four inches thick and eight by twelve 
inches. On everv second course of 



blocks and fitted in grooves thereon strips of hand iron one 
by one-eighth inch were laid in Portland cement and riveted 
to the I beams with one by five-sixteenths inch rivets, 
thereby securing great tensile strength to the wall. The 
engineer in charge considered such construction as fully 
meeting all recjuirements and as being equivalent in 
strength to a solid twelve-inch wall, while the saving in 
cost over the solid brick was fully one-third, and the dif- 
ference in weight under brick was 1,700,000 jjounds. 
Besides this, the construction was much more rapidly 
erected than brick and was drier and warmer. 

The Barber Asphalt Paving Company also adopted 
the Phienix system for the walls of their different build- 
ings at Perth Amboy; besides which several other build- 
ings are in process of construction, one now being erected 
with walls 255 feet long. In all of these the terra-cotta 
blocks were four inches thick. Where heavier walls are 
desired the thickness of blocks would of course be cor- 
respondingly increased. 

This construction not cmly saves in cost of the wall 
itself, but it also makes possible a very material reduction 
in the cost of foundations, as bearing is recjuired only 
under the upright I beams and a very slight footing 
course under the intervening space. 

The comjiarative cost and weight of a wall of common 
brick and one of Phienix hollow tile is as follows: 

Hiiik Wall, per looo. 

1000 brick $7-25 

I barrel I'Drtland cement 2.50 

I barrel lime 1.25 

1 cubic yard sand 1.25 

Labor: A mason will lay in S hour.s at 65 

cents, 1200 bricks $5-20 

Helper. S hours at ,?7Hc 3.00 

Total for 1200 bricks $8.20 

Or, labor per 1000 6. ,53 

Cost of brick per 1000. laid . . - - . $18,58 

Counting 190 brick to the stpuire yard makes the cost 
per .scpiare yard of brick wall 12 inches thick, 83.55. 

/'/hi nix Wall Consliiiilioii. 

Steel work, including one 6-inch uprij^hl I beam 
every 13 feet, or for each 25 square yards of wall, 
S 84 lbs. per yard, at $2.65 per 100 lbs. - - - $ .24 

Band iron, 1-16 inch x i inch, 350 lineal feet f^ir 
each 25 square yards, or i Si lbs. per yard, at $,?.2o 
per 100 -04 

Portland ccincnt, for every 150 square feet, 1 

barrel $2 50 

Sand, ,'a cubic yard .6.; 

Per 150 square feet $,?>.? 




NEW WORKS, BARBER ASPHALT HAVING COMPANV. 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) H R 



235 



Per square yard --.-.-.. ig 

Phcenix blocks, 9 per square yard, at 12 cents - - 1.08 
Labor: A mason and helper will in one day laj- 150 
square feet of these blocks at a cost of $8.20 for 
150 square feet, or per yard .50 



Cost per square yard of Ph(i.'nix wall - - - $2.05 

Scaflfolding i.s omitted in both the above estimates, 
the cost being about equal. 

Compared by weight, a brick wall containing 190 
bricks per .square yard at 4 lbs. each weighs 760 lbs. ; 
whereas 13 '^ PhoL-nix blocks occupying the same space 
at 16 lbs. each weigh only 216 lbs. Applying these to a 
wall 200 feet long, if built of brick, and 12 inches thick, 
it would weigh about 252,000 lbs., as against 75,479 lbs. 
if constructed of Phct-nix blocks and steel. 



SHORTLY after the Boston fire of 1872, Capt. John S. 
Damrell, who had been the Chief of the Fire Depart- 
ment, was appointed to the office of Building Commis- 
sioner, having charge of the department for the super- 
vision of buildings throughout the city. Captain Dam- 
rell's resignation from this office was accepted by the 
mayor last spring. While he has been at the head of the 
Building Department the country has passed through the 
greatest building epoch it has ever seen. During the 
decade just completed the system of steel skeleton con- 
struction has been introduced into the city and brought 
to its present development. In 1872 a six-story structure 
was exceptional. To-day nothing but the restrictions of 
the law prevent us from going to fifty stories. During 
this time the city has nearly trebled in population and 
the whole business portion has been entirely rebuilt. It 
speaks well for Captain Damrell's ability and his personal 
integrity that the affairs of his office were from first 
to last conducted in such an admirable manner; and we 
know of no city in the country in which there has been so 
long a tenure of office for so important a position. The 
Commissioner who has just been appointed to succeed 
him is Mr. James Mulcahy, an architect of acknowledged 
standing and large experience in Boston. The office is 
one which rightly ought to be filled by an architect, and 
it is certainly a matter of congratulation to the city that 
an architect can be willing to forego his private practice 
and take upon himself the thankless tasks which are in- 
volved in the routine work of the department. Building 
commissioners are usually selected from the ranks of 
builders, but any argument which woi:ld ap]Dly in favor 
of such choice would apply even more strongly to the .se- 
lection of an architect who would be able to appreciate so 
much more thoroughly the a;sthetic con.siderations which 
very often largely control the practical constructional 
methods, and Mr. ]Mulcahy has an opportunity before 
him to not merely administer the laws in their true mean- 
ing and intent, but to also materially help in the develop- 
ment of good con.struction and better architecture. Usu- 
ally the building commissioners and the architects are in- 
clined to regard each other as natural enemies, to be cir- 
cumvented by all possible legal methods, but with the 
inspectors and the architects working in harmony, apply- 
ing abroad, common-.sense interpretation to the necessarily 
obscure requirements of a complicated law, the results 
cannot'fail to be interesting and valuable to all concerned. 
There is one respect in which the existing laws re- 
.specting fireproofing in Boston are far from satisfactory, 



in that they demand at once too much and too little. Ac- 
cording to the letter of the statute all structural steel of 
every sort must be protected against the action of heat. 
This clause is so sweeping and its application at times so 
obviously absurd that we recall one instance in which a 
coat of fireproof paint applied to the members of a truss 
over a shed was accepted as compliance with the law. 
There was absolutely no necessity for any fireproofing 
whatever in this particular case, and there arise many in- 
stances in daily practice where a beam or column might 
be entirely melted away without affecting in the slightest 
degree the stability of the structure. In such cases fire- 
proofing constitutes an unnecessary tax which is better 
dispensed with. On the other hand, we will venture to 
say that three-quarters of the so-called fireproof construc- 
tion with materials other than burned clay or terra-cotta 
has very little practical value, and if firej^roofing is to be 
done at all it ought to be more efficient. It is not in 
practice at all difficult to strike a reasonable average in 
this matter. The difficulty is in so framing and applying 
a law that shall neither allow a loophole for carelessness 
nor rascality nor be an undue tax increasing unnecessarily 
the expense of good building. Our laws should encour- 
age reasonable economy in construction quite as much as 
they should discourage bad building; and in the endeavor 
to make our laws comjirehensive we have in some cases, 
and especially in some ])orti<ms of the Boston Building 
Law, carried fireproofing to an extreme. It is now pro- 
posed to appoint a commission to revise the statute.s hav- 
ing these points especially in view. 



fir?:pr()()F stairwaYvS. 

HOWEVER much question there may be as to the 
equitable manner in which New York building in- 
spectors are permitted to exercise their discretion, the 
building law of that city is in many respects the best in 
the country, and it goes into scientific details to an extent 
that no other municipal ordinance has followed. The 
changes which from time to time have been made have 
been on the whole judicious ones and in accordance with 
scientific knowledge, and if the laws are not rightly en- 
forced or do not always produce the best results, the 
trouble is seldom with the wording of the statutes. One 
of the latest changes is in regard to stairways in fireproof 
buildings. Heretofore, a construction including iron 
stringers, cast iron risers and slate or marble treads was 
considered siifficient; but it was found by fatal experi- 
ence that the combined action of sudden heat and water 
would so shatter either marble or slate that a platform or 
tread might be totally inadequate to bear the weight of a 
single individual. The law consequently now provides 
that where .slate or stone is used, such material shall rest 
U])on a solid tread of wrought or cast iron. Unfortu- 
nately compositions of concrete, which in our judgment 
are ([uite as liable to disintegrate as either marble or 
slate, are still allowed to ])ass the law. Undoubtedly the 
most perfect coiislriiclion wliich could l)c de\-isecl for tliis 
])ur]jose would be hollow terra-cotta lilocks, wliich have 
been made to I'orni the riser, tread and soffit of each step 
in a single piece, and which can l)c built uj) in place in 
same manner as s(;mc of the older constructions in stone 
so as to be self-supporting and not requiring the use of 
steel. 



2:,6 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



Selected Miscellany. 



EXTERIOR PLASTERING ON IRON LATHING. 

We have recently been shown a slab of cement plas- 
tering with sheet-iron lathing attached which was removed 
from the exterior walls of a house built not over five years 
ago. The iron lathing had suffered so much destruction 
from rust that it had caused cracks and leaks in the 
])lastering, .so that the entire exterior of house had to be 
removed and replaced by wooden finish; this and repairs 
of interior of house, necessitated by leaky walls,cntai]ed a 
very considerable expense. 

If the construction of walls and roofs, including the 
needed flashings, is in any way defective, water will of 
course find its way to the back of lathing and plastering; 




DETAIL BV HEEZER BROTHERS, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

but even if walls and roofs are water-tight, a certain 
amount of moisture is certain to be condensed between 
])iaster and wooden sheathing of outside walls. Iron 
lathing not protected by cement, waterproof coating or 
galvanizing and subjected to even a slight amount of 
moisture must speedily perish, with disastrous effect to 
the exterior plastering. It should be remembered also 
that a wooden frame exposed to high winds may rack 
enough to form cracks in cement plastering, which at the 
best is decidedly brittle. Through cracks in the exterior 
walls the wind will certainly drive rain at every opportu- 
nity. 

If the lathing used for exterior work is of such a 
nature that cement mortar is not forced through its mesh 
sufliciently to cover all iron surfaces, it is evident rust will 
attack the lath unless it is sufficiently covered by paint, 
waterproofing or galvanizing. 

It is possible that a wire lathing might be entirely 
pre.served by cement plastering, even if painting or other 
protection was not employed, but it would seem as if wire 
lathing galvanized is the safest material to use if speedy 
destruction of plaster is to be avoided. 



UNIFORM BRICK DIMENvSIONS. 
After efforts extended through many years a stand- 
ard for biiilding lu-ick has been agreed upon between 
the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Brick 
Makers' Association, together with representatives of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, and has been ordered to go 



into force on May i, 1904. The length of the brick is to 
be double the width plus the thickness of one vertical 
joint, and the thickness of the brick should be such that 
four courses and four joints would lay up one foot in 
height. Joints should be five-sixteenths for the bed, thus 
giving a standard length of nine and one-fourth inches 
from center to center of joints. 




DETAIL BY ISRAELS & HARDER, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

The bricks, laid dry, to be measured in the following 
manner: 

A. Eight stretchers laid .square end and splay end in 
contact in a .straight line to measure seventy-two inches. 

B. Eight headers laid side to side, frog upwards, 
in a straight line to measure thirty-five inches. 

C. Eight bricks, the first brick frog downwards, and 
then alternately frog to frog and back to back, to measure 
twenty-one and one-half inches. 

A margin of one inch less will be allowed as to A, and 
a half inch less as to B and C. 




DETAIL li\ I;AKNL\ a CH.Vl'.MAN, ARCHITECTS. 
Conkling-Armstron>j Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

This is to apply to all classes of walling bricks, both 
machine and hand made. 

The advantage of uniformity in this direction is so 
obvious to every one that some such concerted action is 
bound to come in time in this country, and will surely be 
welcomed by every one who has ever had to bother over 
the lengths of brick and the jointing. 



T HE B R IC K H U I L I) i: R 



237 



BRICKLAYINCi BY 
MACHINERY. 

We note accounts of the 
trials which have been made of 
the machine invented by a Lon- 
don engineer for laying bricks. 
The machine is of ([uite simple 
design and is intended to do 
for bricklaying what the sewing 
machine has done for needle- 
work, and the hydraulic riveter 
for bridge and boiler work. It 
works on a girder capable of 
being raised as the work progresses, and travels along 
the girder by means of a pinion gear and chain. The 
bricks are fed to the machine by hand, being pushed 




not be perfectly adaptable for 
plain work and heavy walls, 
and if helped out by hand 
labor at angles and restricted 
lengths it could undoubtedly 
effect material saving in ex- 
pense. When it comes to work 
around windows and building 
about a steel framework a ma- 
chine would apparently be to- 
tallv inadeciuate 



PEDIMENT PANEL, REID 
Perth Anibov Terra 



HROTHEKS, ARCHITECTS. 
-Cotta Co., Makers. 



MODEL TENEMENTvS. 

That model tenements can 
he erected and run in American cities on a remunerative 
basis, while furnishing comfortable and .sanitary homes 
for the poorer classes of the community, has been proven 




FIREPLACE IN JOL'MIING ROOM, TENNIS AND RACQUET CLUK, BOSTON. 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 



into position by a lever and kept plumb by revolving 
rollers at the side. Three men are required for the oper- 
ation, one to spread the mortar, one to feed the machine, 
and a third to work the mechanism. It is claimed that 
six hundred bricks per hour 
can be laid with this machine 
as against five hundred per 
day by hand, which appears 
to be the average for brick 
masons in England, or twelve 
hundred a day, the amount to 
which we are accustomed on 
this side of the water. There 
is no mechanical reason whv a 




^PANEL KOR ISAV WINDOW, 
contrivance of this .sort should Executed in Terra-Cotta by White Brick and Terra-Cotta Co. 



in a number of instances; but no more striking illustra- 
tion can be offered of the practical results of these sub- 
stitutes for the crowded rookeries which have heretofore 
di.sgraced many large cities than the latest report of the 

City and Suburban Homes 
Company of New York City. 
This company was organized 
six or seven years ago, and, 
backed by a number of phil- 
anthropic capitalists, began 
the work of erecting model 
tenements for the poor and 
tlie liuuibler wage-earning 
classes. The company has 
issued .$1,707,250 of capital 



■23! 



THE BR ICK BU 1 I, DKR 




stock, and its 
total assets are 
now fissured at 
nearly ig;3,ooo,- 
ooo. It has just 
declared a divi- 
dend of four ])er 
cent, while leav- 
inj,r a lartje sum 
for the sinking 
fund. The re- 
port states that 
the losses which 
have been met 
with from va- 
c a n c i e s in 
apartments 
have been ex- 
tremely small, while the total h)sses from irrecoverable 
arrears are insignificant, being but $248. In view of the 
fact that the com- 
pany has three hun- 
dred and sixty-two 
separate families as 
tenants, and that 
the character of the 
population in which 
its buildings are lo- 
cated is notably a 
shifting one, this 
showing is remark- 



CAPITAL EXECUTED IN TERRA-COTTA. 
St. Louis Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



the point of view of comfort, 
but notably from that of sani- 
tation and morals. Undoubt- 
edly a need exists for the in- 
auguration of similar enter- 
prises in other of our large 
cities. Every great center of 
population has .some kind of a 
tenement or .slum district 
where model tenements would 
be a public benefit. American 
men of wealth could invest 
their s])arc capital in no 
better way than in provid- 
ing for the erection and man- 
agement on honest and com- 
mon-sense lines of model 
tenements for the wage-earn- 
ing classes. — f>?/-/><v//;-j' and 
Ihii Id i !!'•■. 




PANEL FOR OFFICE OF BRICK I'KKKA-C(J'l 

Louis Urich, 




BANK BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Terra-Cotta by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Co. 



ably satisfac- 
tory. So suc- 
cessful has 
the company 
been in man- 
aging its own 
properties that 
it has recently 
taken over the 
management 
of six hundred 
and nint\--nine 
apartments 
which belong 
to other per- 
sons or com- 
panies. It has 
a trained corps 
(;f workers, 
sufficient to 
enable the con- 
cern to be an 
efficient oper- 
ating landlord. 
The benefits 
conferred by 
the class of 
housing pro- 
vided by the 
company are 
incalculable, 
not only from 



TA AND SUPPLV CO., CORNINO, N. V. 
Sculptor. 

DEFECTIVE FIRE 
PLACES. 

Mr. Max Clarke, A. R. I. 
B. A., in an address made at 
the fire congress recently held 
in London, referred to some 
of the defects in fireplaces and 
flues which are being rejieated 
every day in modern building 
work. "Few," hesaid, "know 





SELL, ARCHITECTS. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 





-^^ 


Nap 


ff, *^ 



HOUSE, CHICAGO, ILL. 
Jenny & Mundie, Architects. Roofed with Ludowici Roofing Tile. 



T H K B R I C K lU' I I. n 1- R 



239 




ff^f^' 



I 






< 



; ; '■ I ii 



111 



f 



ri 



Is; 



3^ 



C,^ u 









-, " --r:^ 



1 



-■,^- 



' .1 






i 



kA^>^^.^- 



/ 







.^' 



:^ 



—1' 

r 




TOWN ilAI.I,, VIACKNZA, ITALY. 
Measured and Drawn by William L. Welton, Rotch Traveling ilcholar. 



240 



r li E B R I C K B U I L D E R 




STEVENS lU II dim;, DETROIT, MICH. 

Donaldson & Meier, Architects. 

Built of " Ironclay " Brick. 

the number of fires caused by defects in and about the 
fireplace. Personally I am disposed to think that most 
of the causes are brought about by careless workman- 
ship and a few perhaps by the use of 'methods which 
were qiiite adecjuate in former times, before the inven- 
tion of what are now called slow-combustion stoves, close 
ranges, boilers and the like. I place first in point of 
danger the practice of building half-brick trimmer 
arches to carry hearths in wooden floors, the arches 
having the centering left in and forming an open space 
under the brickwork. The underside of this space is 




sV'^r-^^ 





lathed with wood laths and plastered in the same plane, 
as a rule, as the rest of the ceiling This form of hearth 
should give place, in my opinion, to a concrete or other 
self-supporting hearth the full depth of the floor joists, 
having a flat soffit on which the plaster could be applied 
direct. Next I should like to advocate the use of fireclay 
linings to all flues, a common practice in many districts, 
but not in use as a rule in London. Improperly bonded 
and badly built flues, the brickwork of which is only four 
and one-half inches thick and in which bad mortar forms 
a considerable component part and which after a time 
drops out, 
leaving the 
joints open. 
This is often 
assisted or 
caused by the 
nails, spikes or 
plugs, driven 
in for the pur- 
po.se of fixing 
inflammable 
finishings. All 
these defects 
lead to a con- 
siderable num- 
ber of fires an- 
nually, the de- 
tails of which 
I am sure my 
insurance 
friends know a 
great deal 
more about 
than I do. 
Wood finish- 
ings should not 
be fixed with 
iron spikes in 
front of flues 
unless the 
brickwork is of 
a greater thick- 
ness than four 

and one-half inches; in fact it is probable that a great safe- 
guard against fire would be eff^ected if woodwork in such 
proximity to flues was abandoned altogether. It seems 
to me a cause of danger that flues built with only half- 
brick surroundings are at times used for high-pressure 
boilers, kitcheners and the like, the brickwork being quite 
hot when work is in progress and in many cases much too 
hot for safety. New types of stoves of either the ' slow- 
combustion ' or ' well-fire ' classes should not be fixed in 
old houses unless a thorough examination of the hearth 
and its surroundings is made, numerous fires having been 
caused from timbers being in close proximity to chimney 
breasts, quite unknown to the people who fixed new and 
powerful stoves in old openings." 



DETAIL BY KEES * COLIiURN, ARCHITECTS. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Co., Makers. 



INTERIOR EDISON POWER HOUSE, NEW VORK CITY. 

J. Van Vleck, Architect. 

For which 50,000 second quality enameled brick were supplied by 

American Enamel Brick and Tile Co. 



IN GENERAL. 

The outlook in New York City at this writing can 
scarcely be called encouraging, but the chances are that 



T HE B R I C K B II I L D E R . 



241 




GRAND STAIRCASE, GUASTAVINO CONSTRUCTION. 
DEPARTMENT STORE, PATERSON, N. J. 
Treads and risers ready to receive finish. 

the spring will see the relations between employers and 

their men on a firmer basis, 

prices of materials will be 

lower, and building' will 

boom. 



Probabl}- ^IcKim, Mead 
& White have more new 
work in prospect than an}- 
other large firm of archi- 
tects. They are making pre- 
liminary plans for a new 
building for the Harmonic 

Club, to be built on Sixtieth Street, near P'ifth Avenue 
It will be a seven-story building and will 
be a combination clubhouse and apartment 
house. They are at work on final plans for 
the new building for the Lambs' Club to 
be built on vSeventy-sixth Street. Plans 
for the new Madison vSquare Presbyterian 
Church are also being prepared in this 
office. The plans for the Pennsylvania 
Railroad's terminal are completed. Prelimi- 
nary plans are being made for the School 
of Journalism for Columbia University, the 
gift of Joseph Pulitzer. 



During the past two months four new 
theaters have been opened in New York 
Citv. There has been considerable doubt 
as to whether New York can support so 
many, and it may mean a financial loss to 
some one. These new theaters have char- 
acteristics which put them in a different 
class from the old ones. Their location is 
exceptional, their excellent planning and 
ventilation mean a great deal for the public 
comfort, and they .show an ^enormous ad- 




DETAIL BY J. E. ALLISON, ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co.. Makers. 



vance over the earlier New York thea- 
ters in good looks. 

Chester H. Aldrich and Carrbre & 
Hastings, a.ssociate architects, should 
have been given credit for the house 
at Providence, R. I., illustrated in The 
Hrickhuii.der for October, instead of 
Carrerc & Hastings, as stated. 

The Hoston Society of Architects 
and the Roston Architectural Club 
dined together on the evening of 
November 5 and entertained as special 
guests Mr. Albert Kelsey of Philadel- 
phia, Rev. Charles Fleischer of Cam- 
bridge, Mr. Meyer Bloomfield of the 
Civic Service House, Mr. Leslie C. 
Wead and Professor Hugo Meyer of 
the committee appointed by the gov- 
ernor on the investigation of the wider 
use of the right of eminent domain, 
and Mr. ]. Randolph Coolidge, Jr., 
secretary of the legislative committee 
of the vSociety of Architects, who dis- 
cussed "Tiie Artistic Development of the City." 

The happenings at the 
Boston Architectural Club 
indicate a season of unusual 
activity. Already there have 
been exhibitions of water 
colors and sketches by well- 
known men, and many of 
the members have visited in 
a body places of unusual in- 
terest about the city. 

The Washington Archi- 
tectural Club, too, is engaged in carrying out a program 




IPPER PORTION 01 TWELVE-STORV BUILDING, BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY. 

Robert Maynicke, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta furnished by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 



24- 



THK B R I C K BU I LDER 




CIIAMIIKK (11 (OMMERCE, M I N i\E A I'O I. IS, MINX. 

Kees & Colburn. Architects. 

Built of gray speckled Norman brick, made by Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Co 
Terra-Cotta by American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Co. 



The Celadon Rooting Tile Company has 
recently added two new kilns and exten- 
sions to both press and dry rooms, also a 
number of additional workmen, to its Al- 
fred, N. Y., works, thereby increasing its 
capacity by abcnit forty thousand tile annu- 
ally. The company has completed a large 
number of contracts the past season and has 
on hand the largest amount of orders in its 
history for the present season of the year. 

R. (iuastavino Company announce that 
they have removed their Boston office to Old 
South Building, corner of Washington and 
Milk streets. 

Herbert C. Chivers, architect, St. Louis, 
would like new catalogues of companies 
manufacturing architectural and engineer- 
ing lines. 

The Atlanta Terra-Cotta Company, of 
Atlanta, (ia., is now building in that city an 
entirely new plant, which when finished will 
he one of the most up-to-date plants in 
this country, — probably the largest in the 
South. From a very small beginning some 
seven or eight years ago, they have out- 
grown their present qtutrters, and have 
found it necessary to make a more substan- 
tial increase in their equipment. About one 
hundred and fifty men will be em])loyed 
when the new plant is finished. 



which keeps its members biisy. It includes lectures or 
talks on interesting subjects by prominent men and a 
series of club competitions, with criticisms, awards, etc. 
This is all good work along the right lines. It brings 
the younger men into a closer relationship and encour- 
ages a unity of pi:rpose which is bound to be beneficial 
to the profession as a whole. Let us have real, live 
architectural clubs in all the cities, clubs which shall be 
a benefit, not only to its members, but to the community 
in which it lives. 

Robert C. Sweatt, architect, has opened an office at 
vSault Ste. Marie, Mich., and desires manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 




Robert C. Martin & Son, 156 Fifth Avenue, New 
York, have been appointed local agents for the Ironclay 
Brick Company of Columbus, Ohio. 

Harlan 1*. Kel.sey and Irving T. Guild (formerly of 
Bates & (iuild Co., architectural publishers) announce 
that they have entered into a partnership for the practice 
of landsca])e architecture, with offices at 6 Beacon Street, 
Boston. 

FOR SALE OR LEASE. 

A fully equipped Brick and Terra-Cotta Works, situated in 
Southern New Jersey, together with about no '4 acres of excep- 
tionally fine quality of clay. 

Now making conduits for underground electric wires. 

Address communications to CLAY WORKS, care of Master 
Builders' Exchange, 24 South 7th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



c. N. & c. li(;ht and tkaciion co. 011 uk i;rii.i)iN(;, 

COVINGTON, KV. 

Dittoe & Wisenall, Architects. 

Roofed with American S Tile, made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile 
and Terra-Cotta Co. 



DRAWING 



A. u a H T 



B Y 



W A 



U 



.4RCHITECTIRAL 



PERSPECTIVE 



MECHANICAL 



Text-books have been prepared by i^rofessor VV. H. Lawrence, M. IT.; 
K. A. Hmirne, Arch. ; 1). A Oregg. M. IV. : H K. Kverett. L". of P. ; I'rofe.ssor 
II. \V, (;ardin.'r. M. I. T, ; and others equally well known 

COURSES OF ESPECIAL INTEREST TO ARCHITECTS AND DRAUGHTS- 
MEN. IN ELECTRICAL. STEAM AND CIVIL ENGINEERING. HEATING. VEN- 
TILATION AND PLUMBING. ARCHITECTURE. CARPENTRY AND BUILDING. 
AND A FULL CURRICULUM OF OTHER ENGINEERING SUBJECTS 

'\ specimen instruction jiaper in I'erspective Drawing by I'rof. W. \l Lawrence 
will be sent upon receipt of Cc. in stamps to cover ct)st of postage, etc. 

Illustrated i8o-page Catalogue seat FREE upon request. 
AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 

at Armour Institute of Technolog;y, Koum 16 B, Chicago. III. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

DECEMBER, 

1903. 




HOSPITAL OF SANTA CRUZ, TOLEDO, SPAIN. 



1% 



:>:i 



THE BRICKBVILDER^ 

DEVOTED -TO-THE- INTERESTS -OFO December ioos ^ 
ARCHITECrVRE-INMATEFUALSOFCLAYI^ uc^civibck lyu^ ^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY HV 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893. BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 56. 00 per year 

Subscriptions p.ayable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
Ate American News Company and its branches. 



THE LIBRARY COMPETITION. 

ANNOUNCEMENT. 

THE work of the Jury of Award for the Library Com- 
petition was not completed (nearly three hundred 
designs were submitted) in season to permit of the results 
being published in The Brickbuilder for this month. 
The prize winners will, however, receive due notification 
about the first of the year. 

The prize-winning designs, with the criticism of the 
Jury of Award, also some twenty-two other designs 
which are considered especially interesting, will be pub- 
lished in a special number, which will be issued during 
the month of January. 



THE ARCHITECT'S FEE. 

The portion of Mr. Waid's paper published in the 
current issue which deals with the subject of architects' 
compensation touches a very tender spot in the profes- 
sional feelings. As will be seen by reference to this 
article, there is a considerable difference in actual prac- 
tice. If all could take the frank, out.spoken position 
assumed by Mr. Flagg, who claims that everything going 
to produce a building should be under his direction, we 
imagine there would not be much difficulty in .speedily 
establishing a uniform rate of considerably more than 
five per cent for the architect's work, including expert 
advice. But architects are by no means of accord in 
claiming as one of their functions the supervision of 
expert work, and some even maintain that the electrical, 
.structural and heating and ventilating work are such 
matters of pure engineering that, in consideration for the 
client's best interests, the architects should let them alone 



entirely. With .siich diversity of opinion there is natu- 
rally a corresponding difference in practice. It is, how- 
ever, a pretty well established custom among the archi- 
tects having a large practice to charge more than five per 
cent for work involving technical difficulties. It is inter- 
esting to compare this condition with that which existed 
not so very long ago in this country, when the majority 
of even the best architects thought they were doing well 
if they received an unchallenged five per cent, and meas- 
iired in the light of what is now expected of them 
professionally they were indeed highly paid for their 
services. It must not be supposed, however, that the con- 
clusions stated in Mr. Waid's article represent the custom 
of the average modest practitioner. There is a theory 
that the very best ai'chitect costs no more than the poor- 
est ; that since the rate is five per cent the client is .sure 
in advance of exactly what his architect will charge. 
This is true only of those who are not blessed with a 
large business, or whose prominence would not rank them 
among the recognized leaders in the profession. It is 
one of the prerogatives, if we may so term it, of the suc- 
cessful architect that clients want him and are willing to 
pay his price. So that when a client carries a ten or fif- 
teen thousand dollar dwelling to such an architect he may 
be called upon to pay ten per cent rather than five. If 
he feels he must have the best architectural advice the 
country affords he must pay an additional five per cent 
on his expert work ; and if, having selected his architect 
from the top of the list, he desires that architect's opinion 
on such vital matters as decoration and furniture, these 
items do not go into the bill on the five per cent basis, 
but he is charged at least ten ; when, if his architect had 
been more dependent upon small j(jbs and was a rela- 
tively unknown factor in national affairs, five per cent 
would probably have covered the whole. In other words, 
a high professional ability brings a distinct reward if in 
no more than that the architect who has won such posi- 
tion is free from any necessity of contesting his terms 
with a penurious client and does not have to do certain 
portions of the work at an actual loss to himself. We 
do not believe that under any circumstances can altera- 
tions or interior work of any magnitude l)e attended to 
by the architect with any profit to himself at less than 
seven and a half ])er cent, and ten is surely none too 
much for the varied responsiljilities which he has to 
undertake. It has been churned as one of the reproaches 
of the architectural profession that no matter how experi- 
enced a man might be or no matter how great his artistic 
ability, his fees would remain the same, but as we have 
just cxjilained, tliis is only partially true. 



244 



r H K B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



The Planning of Apartment Houses. 

III. 

BY WALTER H. KII.HAM. 

AN inspection of the appended plans of New York 
apartments, which may be taken as fairly typical 
of those lately erected, appears to show that the French 
idea of a large enclosed court fails of appreciation in 
the United States. In spite of the architectural advan- 
tage afforded by the enclosed court plan, it cannot be dis- 
puted that an apartment which possesses an outlook on 
the street and possibly has a bay window is far more 
attractive to the prospective American tenant than one 
giving only on a court, no matter how well designed may 
be the opposite wall, or how well the rooms may come 
"on axe." Unfortimately for Art, apartment houses 



crevasses, marked alluringly " light and air " on the plans, 
while affording really neither illumination nor ventila- 
tion, involve the construction of a large amount of costly 
exterior wall with angles and curves, and fail of their 
purpose both in utility and cost. The indentations of 
the plans of many new houses are almost incredible. 

It may be remarked that apartments badly lighted and 
ventilated, with long corridors and tasteless decoration, 
will never hold permanent tenants, but will steadily fall 
through the scale of social as well as physical deteriora- 
tion, while one planned on sound architectural lines will 
often be as popular, if well located and managed, at the 
end of its thirtieth year as when first occupied. 

In general, common defects in the present-day apart- 
ment houses of the middle class in New York are, long- 
corridors to reach the living rooms caused by the attempt 
to make one elevator do the work for an entire large build- 



a 
a 

w 

I 

H 
CO 




U 

on 

H 

0) 

s 

QO 



B>>^S.E.T^ El rsl -r Pi_ ^ Pvl 

"euci.id hai.l," newTvork city. 



are rarely regarded by their owners as anything but in- 
vestments, and the tenant must be attracted by features 
to which he is accustomed and which he has, perhaps, 
long desired. No one wishes more heartily than the 
writer that for the good of our artistic well-being the 
long straight facades and charming interiors of Paris 
might be substituted for the restless and indented fronts 
of many American buildings; but as a matter of imme- 
diate return on the investment the implanted tastes of 
the public must be met, even if these tastes happen to 
be astray. In the matter of interior courts the writer 
does not believe these tastes to be astray. The courts 
of most French apartment houses arc certainly dismal 
enough from the point of view of sunlight, and on ac- 
count of their greater height, those of our buildings would 
be worse. 

When the lot is sufficiently large, however, the courts 
should by all means be massed. The narrow and dark 



ing; small size of rooms and insufficient means of egress, 
one interior stairway only being provided, which is fre- 
quently poorly lighted. No matter how fire-resisting 
the building, stairways and elevator shafts maybe choked 
by the smoke from a slight blaze with disastrous results, 
and an exterior iron flight leading to the street through 
a basement i)assage is a poor substitute. At the same 
time it must be borne in mind that in many cases the 
reciuirements of the tenement house and other acts, how- 
ever wisely framed for the protection of the poor, result 
in certain arrangements which are peculiar to New York, 
and the annexed plans of apartments in that city should 
be considered in relation to the ordinances governing 
areas and minimum dimensions for courts and air shafts. 
The "dumb-bell" plan, previously referred to, ajjpears 
to be a direct outgrowth of these conditions. 

The plans of "Euclid Hall" are good examples of 
present-day planning on a large scale. The suites are 



THE B R I C K B U I L I) 1{ R 



245 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN 



exceptionally good in providing facilities for entertain- 
ing, the reception halls being almost large enough for 
dancing. 

In the city of Bostfjn comparatively few large house- 
keeping apartment buildings have been erected. A large 
number of blocks were built, most of the later ones on 
lines similar to Figure i. Four stories was regarded as 
the limit at which they would rent readily without an 



elevator. The single or double unit plan was considered 
desirable from the owner's point of view, on account of 
the fact that when all the suites were once taken in a 
house it could be sold more readily than a larger building. 
As the chief end in the erection of many of these build- 
ings was a quick sale, this was considered more impor- 
tant than either architectural effect or the comfort of the 
tenants. Moreover, the smaller the number of families 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
Key to plans: H., bath. C. cliainber. I). K., dinitiK room, !I . hall K,, kiulun I' . iiailor. 



EUCLID HALL, NKW YORK CITV. 



246 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 




FI(;URE I. 

occtipyin<i the same building- the smaller would be the 
chance of mutiial disagreements and complaints. In 
some of these houses the kitchen is moved up near the 
center of the apartment, giving the rear outlook to the 
chambers. The newer apartments have, by force of the 
city ordinance, a well-lighted rear staircase (two stair- 
cases being obligatory), and the living rooms are almost 



always conveniently near the 
front entrance. " Real " 
fireplaces are generally pro- 
vided for the living rooms 
and dining rooms, and the 
dumb-waiter runs in the rear 
stair well, which is built 
of brick, unfinished. The 
" fake" fireplace, which has 
no flue nor vent pipe, is not 
common. 

In some the dining rooms 
extend clear across the apart- 
ment, thus saving the space 
occupied by the corridor, but 
obliging the servant to jDass 
through it in going to the 
front of the house. 

The equipments present 
little of interest and are gen- 
erally far behind those in 
New York. 

The annexed plans of 
apartment buildings in Chi- 
cago show interesting local 
variations in treatment. 
That of the "Raymond" is 
worthy of study, and that of 
the " Lessing " is novel in 
many ways, though the ser- 
vice entrances to the suites 
seem to be somewhat con- 
fused with the main corri- 
dors and passages to the 

bedrooms. As the building is only five stories in height, 
the apartments on the court would seem to be well 
lighted. The building contains a " banquet hall." The 
other plans show various treatments. Stress is laid by 
the managements of these houses on Flemish or "weath- 
ered" oak trim, burlap wall hangings (Lincrusta Walton 
in some) and fountains lighted through stained glass, 
and some advertise to keep the street in front swept at 
the expense of the house. 

Another phase of the apartment-house problem is that 
of the studio apartments, which meet with a ready rental 
in large cities. The plans of the upper story of Trinity 
Court (sec The Bkkkhuildkk for December, 1902) show 




TYPICAL rLOOR PLAN 

THE " RAYMOND,' 
CHICAOO. 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



FIFTH AND SEVENTH FLOOR PLANS (WITH MEZZANINES.) 
liRVANT PARK STUDIOS, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




247 

It 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN, THE "LESSINCi," CHICA(;0. 

one arrangement in connection with a house devoted to a high sloping roof in whieli the studios are built, with 

regular non-housekeeping apartments. This house has large dormers for admitting the north light. 





EIGHTH FLOOR PLAN. 



MEZZANINE SIDE STUDIOS FOR EIGHTH FLOOR. 



BRYANT PARK STUDIOS, NEW YORK dTV. 



248 



THE r^ RICK B II I L D E R . 



The Bryant Park Studios, CharlesJA. Rich, archi- 
tect, in Fortieth Street, New York, is a good example of 
a building devoted to studio apartment purposes alone. 
A restaurant, called, appropriately enough, Cafe des 
Beaux Arts, occupies a portion of the ground floor and 
basement. Above the ^ground floor^the stories are vari- 
ously divided, with and without mezzanines, into suites 
of studios with bedrooms, baths and kitchens. The height 
of the studios runs from twelve feet and six inches to nine- 
teen feet, but the first height is sufficient. The baths arc 



THE SUBURBAN TYPE. 

In the suburbs of large cities, where lower land values 
allow freedom from party walls, with possibility of ad- 
mitting light on all sides of the building, another type of 
a house is being developed with much greater possibili- 
ties. These houses are generally three or four stories 
high and lend themselves to a more or less picturesque 
treatment, often with courtyards and gardens where the 
investment will allow it. 

Richmond Court in Brcjokline, Mass., Cram, (xoc^diiue 




rLOOn PLAN 

HAMPTON COURT, BROOKI.INE, .MASS. 



ventilated by shafts. There are two passenger elevatbrs 
and a large frame lift outside operated by hand power. 
A good-sized freight elevator is desirable in a studio 
building, and as much room as is possible in the base- 
ment should be allowed the tenants for storage of large 
frames and other bvilky effects likely to be possessed by 
artists. Some of the apartments in the Bryant Park 
Studios are designed for light housekeeping and have 
small but convenient kitchens and pantries. A north 
light is much desired by many, though not all, artists, 
and a top light, which can be obtained in the upper story, 
will also be acceptable to some. 



& Ferguson, architects (see The Brickbuilder for May, 
1900), architecturally is one of the best pieces of work 
that has been done in this line. The suites are mostly of 
five rooms and bath, cosily arranged about a reception 
hall. The arrangement of bedrooms and baths is espe- 
cially good. A charming garden with a fountain is 
arranged in the court. The plan of Hampton Court, 
adjoining, Charles E. Park, architect, shows a good 
arrangement of non-housekeeping suites, with quite spa- 
cious rooms, but with the bathrooms relegated to the 
dark interior portions of the plan. 

Figure 2 is a type of house of which a very large num- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



249 



ber lia\-e been built in and around l^rookline, Mass., 
usually on side streets. These houses are three stories 
in height and are wider than usual, allowing three good 




house planning at the present time. The fact of publica- 
tion is not necessarily to be taken as a recommendation. 
It must be acknowledged that the bulk of apartment 
houses are not planned by architects at all, but are the 
work of speculative builders. The i)Ians herewith shown, 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

Key to plans; B , bath. C, chamber D., dining. H., hall. K., kitchen. P., parlor. 

THE "VONNOH," CHICAGO. 



r<.)oms to front on the street. The j^lan is worth studying, 
for it has proved very popular at low rentals. 

Figure 3, Kilham & Hopkins, architects, is another 
type of small house, standing free, w^hich rents readily at 

somewhat higher 
prices. 

One more plan 
is si:bjoined, that 
of the Vonnoh 
A])artments, Chi- 
cago, James Gam- 
ble Rogers, archi- 
tect, showing a 
good arrange- 
ment. 

The planspub- 
lished with these 
articles will serve 
to show in a gen- 
eral way the 
trend of Ameri- 
Pie 2. can ai)artment- 




most of which are by architects of recognized standing, 
will serve to indicate to the prospective investor the de- 
.sirability of intrusting his capital to trained and experi- 
enced hands, for, as was remarked above, a hou.se planned 
on architectural lines will retain its standing long after the 
crude design of the contractor has fallen into disrepute. 
{7o be coiitinitid.) 




FIG. 3. 



250 



THE BRICK BUILDER 







Hospital Planning. I. 

Suburban Hospitals, showing the Development from 
THE \'ili,a(;e or Cottage Hospital. 

BY BERTRAND K. TAYLOR. 

^yHE hospital idea is literally almost "as 
/I**] old as the hills" and is the 

product of no clime and no 
sect. Many imagine that 
so-called Christian 
philanthropy is re- 
sponsible to a great 
extent for the inau 
giiration and growth 
of this most benefi- 
cent and praise- 
worthy movement ; but although the greatest portion of 
the world's work in this direction is traceable to the 
"(iood Samaritan " principle, the followers of Buddha 
and Mohammed, the ancient Greek, the Aztec and the 
Hindoo have all had their hospitals and their free dis- 
pensaries or medical service for the poor. 

According to Kurdett, the earliest known hospitals 
were those in Greece in the fifth century before Christ, 
although there were shrines in Egpyt some fifteen cen- 
turies before Christ that from their inscriptions were evi- 
dently used for hospital purposes. Dispensaries also were 
probably commenced at this time. 

The mediaeval hospitals were always administered by 
the church and were very broad in their scope. Even 
the " Hotel Dieu," founded in Paris in 600 A. D., was an 
inn, a workhou.se and an asylum as well as a hospital or 
infirmary. 

The church hospitals of to-day, with their central and 
dominant idea in the church or chapel, are along the same 
lines as the ancient prehistoric hospitals in which the 
temple was the hosjiital and the priests the medical ad- 
visers. Thus through all ages the church and the care 
of the sick have gone together, and complete separation 
is of quite recent date. 

The village or small hospital movement seems to have 
been inaugurated about the year 1855 by Mr. Albert 
Napper, a surgeon in Cranleigh, England, under the 
name of a "village hospital." 

It was a small affair of six beds installed in a cottage 
given by the rector and adapted, in a simple way, for its 
proposed use at a cost of fifty pounds. 

The surgeon, in his practice, felt the great need of a 
specially arranged building for locally treating severe 
medical and surgical cases. The general management 
was placed in the hands of a committee and an active 
manager was appointed, who, with the medical officer, 
should be responsible for the details and report to the 
committee. An efficient nurse was ])laced in charge of 
the patients, and subsequently this branch of the hos- 
pital work was supervised by a ladies' committee. This 
general scheme of management is still followed by practi- 
cally all small hospitals. 

During the next seven years some fifteen village hos- 
pitals were established in England, all but two of which 
still survive, and one of these has been superseded by a 
larger hospital. 



The fact that all these hospitals were established in 
cottages caused all small hospitals to be called cottage 
hospitals ; and this name has been used until quite recently 
to designate a small hospital, whether installed in a cot- 
tage, a mansion or in a specially designed plant of several 
buildings. Many hospitals in America have been incor- 
porated under the name "cottage hospital," causing 
much annoyance and complication later when the scope 
has broadened, as has almost invariably been the case in 
this country. 

In England the village or so-called cottage hospital 
idea spread to all parts of the country, starting with the 
opening of one, and reaching in 1867 thirteen a year. 
The rapid growth after 1866 is accounted for in part by 
the ])ublication at this time of a work on this subject by 
a Mr. Harris and Dr. Waring, a pamphlet by Mr. Napper 
and a " Handy Book of Cottage Hospitals," published in 
1869 and 1870 by Dr. Swete. 

The demand for more information on the subject be- 
came so great that Sir H. C. Burdett, the eminent hos- 
pital specialist, was induced to publish a small volume on 
Cottage Hospitals in 1877, in which he gives a list of 
about two hundred and eight cottage hospitals in opera- 
tion in England. 

The reported cost of some of these hospitals is of 
interest. The Bourton Hospital of eight beds, built of 
brick and tiles, but probably deficient in what we 
would consider necessary conveniences, cost ^1,200, or 
$6,000. 

One of the best and most complete English cottage 
hospitals of this period is that at Grantham, Lincolnshire, 
erected in 1876, at a cost of ^!^5,344. It is of stone, has 
two wards for male and two for female patients of seven 
or eight beds each, in wings projecting from each side of 
the administration block. A small isolation pavilion, or, 
as they term it, a " fever hospital," of four beds in two 
wards, is on the same lot, also a separate laundry and 
mortuary. (Figs. 2 and 3.) 

Although interesting as l)eing at that time the best, 
it is severely criticised by Mr. Burdett and is manifestly 
inferior to his own model plan of 1877. The faults and 
deficiencies are so evident it is scarcely worth while to 
call attention to them ; but the special points of interest 
are the block plan, showing a fairly extensive lot and the 
isolation of laundry and contagious hospital. This isola- 
tion department or, as they term it, the "fever block," 
is much better in 
plan than the ho.spital 
proper, and could 
scarcely be improved. 
This hospital cost 
^5,364, or $26,820. 
This Burdett model 
plan is exceedingly 
interesting in many 
ways. It is the typi- 
cal i)lan still recog- 
nized as the most 
ideal, and that upon 
which i)ractically all 
the best small hos- 
pitals of the United 
States have directly 







THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



251 



A 
D 



^ 



or indirectly been based, as the relative ])<)sition of the 
various departments cannot be improved. 

The great size of the administration, compared with 
the pavilions and small bed capacity, is interesting to nv)te, 
also the fact that the committee room is nearly as large 
as a ward. It is interesting also to note that the operat- 
ing room has no accessories, and is itself onl\' a lobby, or 
vestibiile, to the surgical ward. 

The location of the only bathroom, next to the kitchen, 
clearly suggests the crude ideas in pluml)ing possibilities 
of the da)'. The complete isolation of the sanitary 
necessities, the lavatory, the slop hopper and the water- 
closet are in line with the almost universal custom in 
Great Britain, a necessity in the early days of crude 
plumbing and no adeepiate ventila- 
tion. 

It will be noted that there are no 
isolating or private rooms, no diet 
kitchens, no clothing or linen rooms, 
no nurses' room, no medicine closet 
or storeroom. Biit there is one 
feature that many fine hospitals lack, 
which is of the greatest importance, 
and that is an open-air veranda 
facing south, flooded with sunshine 
and protected from all cold winds. 

Here, then, we find earliest types 
of the present-day suburban hospital 
containing the embryo operating de- 
partment, simply a room, and the 
embryo pavilion, an open ward; no 
classification except the most gen- 
eral, viz., male, female and surgical, 
yet all that is possible in a very 
small hospital. 

Mouat & Snell, in their work on 
Hospitals, publish designs of the 
Blackburn and East Lancashire In- 
firmary and an article in which. they 
claim that this was the first hospital 
erected in England planned upon 
the pavilion jDrinciple. 

Much has been written about it 
on this account, and also because of 

the location of the pavilions; but although interesting as 
the first of a type, it has been very severely criticised. 

It was planned evidently about 1857, as the founda- 
tion stone was laid in 1858. The general block plan 
shows a very ambitious scheme for the day, but only a 
portion of it had been carried out up to 1882. The plan 
of the general pavilion .shown herewith is princii)ally 
interesting because it shows how very inadequate the 
general scheme as compared with the requirements of 
the i^resent day. (Fig. 5.) 

A very interesting plan of an early pavilion, consist- 
ing of a surgical ward with operating rooms, is that of 
the Nativity Hospital, St. Petersburg, Russia, built in 
1877. (Fig. 6.) 

It is constructed of log.s, finished with tongued and 
grooved boards inside. The floors are generally of as- 
phalt on a concrete base. 

The operating rooms were designed to be used for 
separation wards for patients before and after operations. 



CTenee-Ai_ H.3Spi~rA.i_ 
F"e.ve:c^ Block-. 



E> 




fco 



3a 



Sc/ 



This building is a special pax'ilion in a grou]) of four- 
teen, the others having been erected i^reviously. 

The first cottage ho.spital specially designed on the 
pavilion principle is Allhallows Hospital, Ditchingham, 
Norfolk. It has twenty beds and cost /,3,ooo, and was 
completed in 1873. 

An English authority on hospitals says that "the 
small hos])ital should have at least two wards for patients, 
a matron's room, sitting room, a medical officer's room or 
operating room, two bedrooms, a kitchen, a .sciillery and 
wash-house, larder, storeroom, bathroom, two water- 
closets, fuel house and mortuary external to ho.spital 
building." This certainly is a very modest schedule of 
retiuirements, and must apply only to the embrj'O hos- 
pital in its preparatory stage, in a 
cottage or small house. This same 
authority also remarks that "this 
adapted cottage, though in some dis- 
tricts all that is possible to obtain, 
is never wholly satisfactory, and in 
fact although good work is done it 
is always under great difficulties. " 

In England these little institu- 
tions have continued in active opera- 
tion all these years, and, probably 
on account of the stationary charac- 
ter of the population, have seldom 
been replaced by larger, specially de- 
signed buildings. 

( )ur experience in America is 
that the demonstration of the great 
value of service rendered by a hos- 
pital in a specially fitted private 
house results, in a few years, in a 
substantial sum being raised by vol- 
untary subscription and a new, spe- 
cially designed hospital of several 
buildings on as ideal and ample a lot 
as is obtainable. 

In my rambles about the old 
country I have found many so-called 
hos]ntals of very early foundation 
that were extremely interesting artis- 
tically, but of little vah:e as hospitals, 
for on investigation they generally proved to be homes for 
old people or orphans ; and although sometimes having 
an infirmary, embody otherwise none of the special fea- 
tures 6r accessories of a ho.spital, as we understand the 
term to-day. These beautiful old hosjjitals serve to illus- 
trate the fact that the word " hospital " has come to mean 
an entirely different institiition, performing a very differ- 
ent mission, than was expected in the early days. 

In many of these most interesting old structures the 
great size and relative importance of the chapel or church, 
and the small size and retired character of the infirmary, 
lead one to think that the chief aim of the founders was 
ministering to the soul rather than to the infirmities of 
the body. The name "hospital " is, however, amply justi- 
fied by the hospitality dispensed daily both to native and 
to stranger; so that even to-day, after centuries of gener- 
ous giving, the pilgrim, though he be from over the sea, 
can get his " horn of ale and dole of bread " as of yore, 
long before the day of i)uhlic houses. 



P-RET. 



GRANTHAM HOSPITAL, EN(;LANU. 
R. A. Came, Arcliitect. 



252 



THE B R ICK BU I L DER 



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Pl_/>^M OI^ »^<L.ST Pl.«»o«>_- 



FK;. 3. GRANTHAM HOSPITAL. WARDS ARK ONE STORY 

ONLY. CONVALESCENT ROOM, FOUR CHAMBERS 

AND STORAGE IN SECOND STORY. 



The Leycester Hospital, Warwick, established by Lord 
Dudley in 1571, is a most beautiful cjuaint old half-tim- 
bered building of great antiquity. Bablake Hospital and 
Ford's Ho.spital in Coventry are delightful bits of six- 
teenth-century work and most interesting types of the so- 
called hospitals of early times. The most interesting and 
beautiful country hospital of this class I ever visited is 
the Hospital of vSt. Cross, situated a mile or .so outside 
the ancient city of Winchester, England. This " hospi- 
tal " was founded away back in 1136 by Bishop Henry 
DeBlois, and consists of a number of buildings of great 
interest. The infirm- 
ary is not now in use, 
but the other portions 
are still occupied evi- 
dently as intended by 
the founder. 

The lessons these 
ancient buildings teach 
are many, even if their 
utility as twentieth- 
century hospitals 
might be ciuestioned. 
They suggest that a 
well-built, beautiful 
building will some- 
times be allowed to 
endure for ages, and 
in order to insure this 
the founders in many 
cases took good care 

to liberally endow the institution. The pre.sent-day ten- 
dency is for a rich man to furnish the money for a fine 
building or institution, giving it his name, and then to 
leave it to take care of itself, totally ignoring the fact 
that quite frequently the burden of the maintenance is 
wholly beyond the resources of those in charge. 

The old builders " builded better than they knew " in 
many ways. 

The desii'ability of local hospitals in the smaller cities 
and towns in America was evident very soon after their 
demonstration in England, but there were very few or 
none built before 1870. In the year 1878 there were, as 
nearly as can be ascertained, some four hundred and 
fifty hospitals all told in America, and this figure will un- 
dotibtedly cover all institutions of an analogous nature. 
These were almost all, except the asylums and insane hos- 




FIG. 4. SIR H. C. BURDETT's MODEL PAVILION OF 1877. 



pitals, in the cities and large towns and were at the time 
considered large hospitals. 

Between iSSo and 1890 a large number of hospitals 
were incorporated and started, most of them in a small 
way, but all of them inaugurating a most noble and 
greatly needed work, calling for a development of the 
highest and most humanitarian qualities of citizenship. 

According to Burdett's "Cottage Hospitals," edition 
of 1880, there were at that time in Boston some fifteen 
hospitals with accommodations for about one thousand 
patients, and in the rest of the state, exclusive of those 
for the insane and those belonging to the naval and marine 
services, but eleven hospitals, aggregating about two 
hundred and forty beds. All of the ho.spitals were in 
cities of from twelve thousand to fifty thousand inhabit- 
ants, therefore there were none of a distinctly rural or 
subiirban character. Of the eleven Massachusetts hos- 
pitals there were — 

6 in remodeled dwellings, 

2 in dwellings not remodeled, 

2 in specially designed brick biiildings, 

I in a specially designed wood building. 

This latter, the first American cottage hospital, was 
the " House of Mercy " at Pittsfield, Mass. It was 
opened in a frame dwelling, January i, 1875, and was the 
direct result of visits to England and a careful study 

of the successful work 
then well under way. 

The capacity was 
eight beds, and it was 
used for three years. 
In 1877, being con- 
vinced of the unsuit- 
able character of the 
building, location and 
soil, a lot of three- 
quarters of an acre was 
purchased and a new 
specially designed hos- 
pital of thirteen beds, 
arranged for extension, 
was built and opened 
to the public January 
15, 1878. This new 
structure consisted of 
two small two-story 
wooden buildings connected by a corridor. There were 
no open wards, each patient having a separate room. 
The smaller building contained the administration and 
service, also an anomaly in the shape of an isolated ward 
for contagious cases. The entire cost is given as $ej,5oo, 
one thou.sand dollars of which was for the lot. (Figs. 7 
and 8. ) 

This, in brief, is the small and humble beginning of 
a great movement that has spread to all parts of the land 
until now there are very few towns of any size that have 
not abetter hospital than the only one of its class twenty- 
five years ago. 

The vital principles of small hospital construction 
were well imderstood a quarter of a century ago, as we 
see in Dr. W. Gill Wylie's very comprehensive essay in 
competition for the Boylston prize, published in 1876. 



THE B R I C K HUI L I)H R 



253 



Dr. Wylie advises the absolute isolation of the ward unit 
to a degree not adopted, as far as I know, in any modern 
hospital. This comprehension is al.so shown in H. C. 
Burdett's schediile of desirable points, which have evi- 
dent reference to fever or isolation hospitals, but which 



<Z ST«»ie^>.<a-E-. 




PLAN OF PAVILION (1858). 
FIG. 5. BLACKBURN AND EAST LANCASHIRE INFIRMARY. 

are well up to the ideal practice of to-day and are, I think, 
well worth copying: as a very short and consequently very 
general schedule of recjuirements, namely: 

" I. Accessibility of situation, so that the sick may 
not be exhausted by lon^- journeys; wholesomeness of 
situation; and, as far as consists with these conditions, 
an open, uncrowded neighborhood. 

" 2. Adequate ward space for each patient, approach- 
ing as nearly as circumstances allow to 2,000 cubic feet, 
with a floor space of not less than 144 square feet. 

" 3. Thoroughly good provision for ward ventilation 
{i. c\, for sufficient i;nceasing entrance of pure air and of 
exit of ward air), with 
arrangements also for 
immediate change of 
air in the whole ward 
when necessary. 

"4. Perfect secu- 
rity against the possi- 
bility of any foul air (as 
from privies or sinks) 
entering any ward. 

"5. Means of 
warming each ward in 
winter to a temperature 
of 60 degrees Fahren- 
heit and of keeping it 
cool in summer. 

" 6. Safe means (.safe both for the hospital and for the 
neighborhood) for disposing of excremental matters and 
of slops and for cleansing and disinfecting infected linen 
and bedding. 

" 7. Facilities for obtaining in the use of the hos])ital 
the very strictest cleanliness in every part." 

The causes leading to the establishment of hospitals 
in the towns and villages of America are the same as 
those dominant in England, and are suggested very 
clearly in No. i of the schedule above. The rich could 
be sent to the cities to the great general hospitals or to 



OPeB>Tiuc- ILoor^i 




I I I I I 

FIG. 6. THE NATIVITY IIOSIMTAL, ST. PETFRSBUR(; (1878). 



the private hospital of some renowned specialist; or, in 
many cases, the specialist visited the wealthy patient in 
the home of comfort if not of luxury, and a portion of 
the residence was for the time transformed into a fairly 
successful hos])ital ward. The mass of the people were, 
however, debarred from either of these possibilities, in- 
voh^ing the expenditure of hundreds and sometimes 
thousands of dollars, and the result was surfering and 
death and needless spread of disease. 

Humanitarians, professional and non-professional, the 
family physician and the family minister or priest wel- 
comed the news that small hospitals were i)ossible, and 
here and there set to work to interest good men and 
women in the new work for humanity. » 

The history of all such movements is very similar. 
In very rare cases money was furnivShed by some philan- 
thropist and a complete new ho.spital built, but this was 
very unusual. In i)ractically all cases a very small 
beginning was made by a few; an organization effected 
resulting in an incorporation, a little money raised or 
pledged, and a start made in a small house hired for the 
purpose. The scheme was usually regarded as an experi- 
ment, and the people had to be slowly educated up to the 
hospital idea by practical demonstration. 

A few years ago the people generally regarded the 
hospital as a last resort, a place in which to die, a ])lace 
of suffering, and not to be thought of except of neces- 
sity ; and there was good reason in many cases for this 
feeling. All this had to be changed and it has been 
changed, but it has taken a great deal of hard work and 
much time to effect this change. 

The cottage or the mansion first devoted to the hos- 
pital use, however crudely adapted to its new mission, 
has been invariably successful in demonstrating the great 
value of the hosjntal service to the community. This 

house, large or small as 
may be, has soon be- 
come inadec|uate to the 
demands made upon it, 
and additions and im- 
provements are made 
from time to time. 

In many cases a few 
years' demonstration 
has resulted in dona- 
tion s of V a r i o u s 
amounts, aggregating 
generally many thou- 
sand dollars, enabling 
the cor])oration to buy a 
large lot as idealh" lo- 
cated as possible, and to start the nucleus, at least, of a 
new hospital plant of several buildings, providing for the 
most ])erfect classification j^ossiblc in a small institution. 
Dr. Alfred Worcester of Walthani, Mass., published 
in 1894 an admirable little treati.se on vSmall Hospitals, a 
valuable work for all interested in the organizing of a small 
hospital. In it he em])hasizes the great need for hospitals 
in all small towns and villages, and shows that the isola- 
tion of the sick, the special advantages of a local training 
school for nurses, which ev'ery hospital, however small, 
should have, and the great advantages to the local medi- 



254 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



cal practitioners in being able to place their patients where 
they can be treated under the most ideal conditions, are 
of vital importance to the community. 
( To he continued.) 




KIi;. 7. KIRST FLOOR I'I,AN, THE HOUSE OF MERCV. 

THERE is one point which Mr.Waid brings out which 
ought to be insisted upon. The general custom has 
been for the architect to receive his first payment of one- 
half of his total commission when the contract is signed. 
The plan adopted by the United vStates Government and 
by the trustees of the Carnegie Libraries in New York 
and Brooklyn, of paying one per cent when the perlim- 
inar)' studies are completed, ought to be insisted upon b}- 




FlO. 8. THE HOUSE OF MERCV, BOSTON, MASS. (1874). 

every architect. Furthermore, as recommended at the 
last convention of the American Institute of Architects, 
an additional two-fifths of the whole commission ought 
to be paid when the drawings are ready for a contract or 
within thirty days therefrom. The architect is now prac- 
tically called upon to advance a large sum of money for 
the preparation of the drawings, and this constitutes a 
very heavy load from which he ought to be relieved. 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. VII. 

BY D. EVERETT WAIU. 

ARCHITECTvS' CONTRACTS AND FEES. 

IN reference to ([uestion nine. "On the desirability of 
charging clients, in addition to the regular fee, five 
per cent on sanitary, heating and electric work to cover 
expert service as recommended by the American Institute 
of Architects," Ernest Flagg has stated to the writer that 
he never charges less than five per cent for his work, 
whatever its character or magnitude. On the contrary, 
he regards five per cent as too low compensation, and be- 
lieves verj' strongly that the profession should endeavor 
to increase the fee to seven and one-half per cent. Mr. 
Flagg opposes emphatically the employment by the client 
of engineers or other experts; everything that goes to 
produce a building should be under the direction of the 
architect. Moreover, all experts and engineers should be 
employed and paid by the architect. A client does not 
want to be annoyed with charges for extra items like blue 
prints, five per cent additional on the heating contract, an- 
other five per cent for electrical engineering, etc., but 
would rather pay a fixed rate on the total cost of a build- 
ing. Mr. Flagg believes in this position so firmly that even 
when he is getting no more than five per cent on a piece 
of work he pays his own experts and under ordinary con- 
ditions does not even ask his client to pay traveling ex- 
penses. He stated that during one series of four years 
when his executed work exceeded a million dollars per 
year, his actual office expenses had amounted to three and 
eight-tenths per cent. 

Mr. Post takes a somewhat similar stand in the matter 
of charging for experts' services. He has a sanitary engi- 
neer in his office, has a standing contract with a firm of 
electrical engineers to do all his work in that line for a 
fixed percentage, and employs special engineers who come 
into his office and work with his own draughtsmen, de- 
signing the heating and ventilating apparatus so that it 
may become an intimate and harmonious part of the 
structure of the building. On the great Stock Exchange 
building, recently finished, in which the heating and 
ventilating apparatus cost an unusually large amoimt, 
he paid the heating engineer five per cent on that 
amount and himself received ten per cent plus five 
per cent on the engineer's fee. In other words, the 
engineer is paid by the owner on the architect's cer- 
tificate in the .same manner in which contractors are paid. 
But under ordinary conditions Mr. Post considers that 
the architect should furnish at his own cost all skill 
needed in designing, heating, phimbing and electrical 
equipment. 

McKim, Mead & White, on the other hand, strongly 
oppose this attitude and make it their practice to charge 
an additional five per cent on heating and electrical work 
(if not always on plumbing) for all buildings of impor- 
tance, and they cite a long list of structures, including the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Columbia Uni- 
versity buildings, etc., etc., on which the clients have paid 
ten per cent. 

It is the custom of the office of Carr^re & Hastings to 
charge to cover expert fees in like manner. 



THE BR ICK BU I L np:R 



^55 



Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge write: "The majority of 
our clients pay ten per cent for expert work, others seven 
and one-half per cent." 

One well-known firm writes in res^ard to char<iin_ij for 
expert fees: "This depends on circumstances, but it 
should be onl}' in exceptional cases." 

Holabird & Roche say: "We have our own dei)art- 
ments to cover the sanitary, heating- and electrical work, 
and expert services in these lines is included in our regu- 
lar fee." 

A Pittsburg firm of high standing remarks regarding 
this ninth question: "Very desirable, but difhcult." 

Cass Gilbert writes: "I believe the architect is en- 
titled to such additional fee." 

A Cincinnati firm replies thus: "We believe here, as a 
rule, the architect's commission covers expert service for 
special lines, though the American Institute of Archi- 
tects' recommendation will in time prevail as the value of 
expert service becomes more recognized." 

A Chicago architect of long experience discusses the 
matter as follows: "In regard to charging clients five 
per cent extra on sanitary, heating and electrical work, 
we have recently added this provision to our schedule of 
charges, but have not had time to get it in working order. 
We consider that the five per cent is too small a charge 
for the average run of work. Buildings have increased 
greatly in complexity since the schedule of the Institute 
was adopted, and the cost of making plans is thereby 
greatly increased. Such a relief as would be gained by 
an additional percentage on these items is needed by the 
profession, and if it cannot be secured from the public, 
then the percentage of charge on the building as a whole 
should be increased." 

A number of Boston architects whose attention has 
been drawn to this matter of expert service agreed 
that Mr. Wheelwright has stated the case fairly in his 
book on School Architecture, in which he treats it as 
follows : 

"An architect should be expected to so plan a build- 
ing that radical changes in construction are not required 
to admit the satisfactory installation of a system for heat- 
ing and ventilation, but few architects have had the tech- 
nical training coupled with the experience which warrants 
them in designing such a system without consultation 
with an engineer whose interest in the work is not com- 
mercial. Where a system has been almost paralleled in 
a former building constructed with such exjjert assistance, 
an experienced architect, if he has an honest and compe- 
tent contractor, may accc^mplish a fairly good result, but 
even under such condition the work would generally be 
brought to a nicer conclusion if an expert were em- 
ployed. 

" Where a competent expert makes the ])lans and spe- 
cifications and supervises the construction of such a sys- 
tem, all competitors for the work are put upon an equal 
footing, and the expert's compen.sation will be offset to 
the owner,if not by the first cost, certainly by the greater 
economy in running aiid maintaining the plant and its 
greater efficiency above that of a sy.stem in.stalled by the 
lowest commercial bidder who uses his own plans and 
specifications. Expert service is rendered primarily for 
the client's benefit, and if a client is unwilling to ])ay for 
such service, the choice of a system based upon commer- 



cial competition is all that he can fairly expect his archi- 
tect to furnish." 

Turning now to (juestions 

"6. Observations as to the practice of submitting 
drawings without compensation in the hope of securing 
work ; 

"7. ( )n entering comi)etitions without compensation ; 
"8. On entering competitions in which prizes are 
offered." 

One answer from a firm of long experience in the 
West is this: "We never enter a competition unless guar- 
anteed pay for our designs. We do not con.sider a prize 
as any inducement. We refuse every competition, unless 
we are guaranteed a definite cash payment for our plans, 
whether used or not." 

Another writes: "We seldom go into competition 
any way, and where for .special reason we do enter 
them, we always insist that some kind of prize shall be 
offered and that .some com])etent judge shall decide the 
question." 

( )ne of the best-known firms in the country takes this 
attitude : " We submit drawings when requested, without 
compen-sation when not in competition. We do not enter 
competitions unless ])aid for our service." 

A New England architect writes on submitting draw- 
ings without compensation : "It depends on what the ser- 
vice is, and should never be done for the sake of getting 
work away from another." 

Holabird & Roche say: "We do not enter competi- 
tions without compensation." 

A St. Louis firm, Mauran, Russell & Garden, states: 
" We have not entered competitions of any sort during 
the last few years, previously having confined ourselves 
to those offering compensation. We consider competi- 
tions, broadly speaking, of little if any value to the client 
and a waste of time and money to the architect." 

C. F. Schweinfurth expresses his belief that "sub- 
mitting drawings without compensation is common prac- 
tice, but it should be di.scouraged in every honorable 
way. It is what some people call 'business,' so also is 
entering competitions without compensation, or where 
prizes are offered called ' business, ' but both methods 
are entirely foreign to the honorable practice of a pro- 
fession. " 

Babb, Cook (t Willard answer the (juestions thus: 
" We do not enter competitions without compensation 
except in the case of work for the Treasury Department, 
and we trust this exception will not long exist. We do 
not enter competitions in whicli prizes are offered unless 
there is also compensation." 

Cass Gilbert says: " I do not enter competitions with- 
out fixed compensation, nor unless the organizer of the 
competition is advised by an expert architect. . . . The 
practice of submitting drawings without compensation, 
in the hope of securing work, should be discounte- 
nanced." 

Eames & Young answer (juestion 6, "-no, no, no; 
(piestion 7, "never; " and (juestion 8, " never." 

Another architect writes: "The practice of submit- 
ting sketches without com])ensation is demoralizing, to 
say the least, though (|uite common." 

Let us close this chapter of various con.siderations on 
architects' fees by reverting to the matter of architects' 



256 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



supervision. Important precedents are now making in 
this connection which demand the attention of the pro- 
fession. The United States government .seems inclined 
to take the ground that it is proper to allow an architect 
three and a half per cent for his services exclusive of 
supervision, and to turn that important function over to 
government engineers. Thus would architects find them- 
selves in the humiliating position of being held responsi- 
ble for good buildings while without authority in the exe- 
cnition of their designs. The (question came to issue in 
connection with the Agricultural Building, for the gov- 
ernment at Washington. Lord & Hewlett won the 
commission through a competition, but when a con- 
tract for partial services was submitted for their signa- 
ture they declined to sign except on the following con- 
ditions: 

" I. That it shall provide that we shall certify to the 
proi)er performance of the work in accordance with our 
plans and specifications. 

" 2. That we shall provide such superintendence as 
is necessary to such certification. 

",3. That our remuneration shall be a sum eeiuivalent 
to five per cent on the total cost of the work." 

Lord & Hewlett may suffer for taking such a stand, 
but they realized that a vital principle is at stake and that 
not a mere loss of a few dollars was in question, but a 
precedent which may become of far-reaching importance 
to the profession. If the government chooses to sublet 
contracts and places the army engineers in charge, they 
can do the superintendence which belongs to general con- 
tractors most effectively; but they must work under the 
direction of the designer of the building or an elemental 
mistake will have been made. The above-noted instance 
and others of recent date have called the attention of the 
l)rofession to the misapprehension of the Institute sched- 
ule in its old form, and hence the adoption of a new phrase- 
ology at the convention in Cleveland lately. 

Every architect has occasionally to make a special 
contract for partial services, leaving supervision to others ; 
but his schedule should give rates for partial .services, 
only for the purpose of fixing time of payments due 
himself or to cover the contingency of abandonment of 
work. He should guard carefully against giving his 
client the option of dismissing him after drawings are 
made and at will, assuming to himself the sujiervision of 
execution, or placing it in the hands of outsiders. 
( 7'o he continued.) 



Fireproofing. 



PHCKNIX HOLLOW TILE WALL 
CONSTRUCTION. 

A CORRECTION. 

IN our last number, describing the Ph(jLnix Hollow Tile 
Wall Construction as used in the construction of the 
tank house for the American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany, by an oversight the vertical I beams were stated to 
be sixteen inches on centers. This should have been six- 
teen feet apart. Henry Maurer & Son write us that such 
large beams are not necessary for walls of only four inches 
thickness, and as we stated in the summary of cost, for a 
four-inch wall the uprights need be no heavier than six- 
inch I beams every fifteen feet, as in the building for the 
Barber Company illustrated. 



"NEW YORK" REINFORCED TERRA COTTA 
FLOOR ARCH. 

ALTHOUGH terra-cotta arches have been in use many 
years and numerous patents taken out on so-called 
improvements, there have been few departures in practice 
from the ordinary flat, side or end construction and seg- 
mental types. 

The segmental arch is the strongest and cheapest for 
a given weight, but it cannot be used under conditions 
where a flat ceiling is indispensable. 

For a number of years the New York Building Depart- 
ment has limited the width between "I " beams in fire- 
l^roof floors to about six feet. The Building Law required 
the depth of all hollow-tile floor arches to be one and one- 
quarter inches for each foot of span, and not including the 





iELX=^Hk. 


\\ 




\ 


xJTiS T-,; ff . a li : 


S«-- 


'' -*} 







" np:w vork reinforced terra-cotta arch, showing 

PILE OF brick equal TO SIX HUNDRED POUNDS PER 

SQUARE FOOT OVER ARCH SIX FEET BY FOURTEEN 

FEET, CARRIED BY THE ARCH AFTER THE 

FIRE AND WATER TEST. NOTE CRACK IN 

TEST HOUSE WHICH CAUSED THE 

SPREADIN(; OK THE BEAMS. 

projection below the flange of the beams. This allowed 
the use of an eight-inch arch in a six-foot span. Such an 
arch of light section, side construction, is good for a live 
load of one hundred pounds per scjuare foot with a factor 
of safety of .seven, or one hundred and seventy pounds if 
of end construction. There never was a failure of such an 
arch if properly set, so that theoretically and practically 
nothing more was required; but when the General Build- 
ing Law was revised a few years ago, the law was changed 
to read one and three-quarters inches instead of one and 
one-cpiarter inches, making the conditions more favorable 
to reinforced concrete construction than to terra-cotta. 
This change necessitated the use of a twelve-inch terra- 
cotta arch in a six-foot span, even though only seventy 
pounds per square foot live load would be carried in a 
dwelling or hotel. This meant a loss of about four inches 
of ceiling height on each story, besides greater weight of 
steel to carry the unnecessary dead weight in the floors. 



r H H H R I C K B i; I L I) K R. 



257 



5£C7-/£>A' 




ABOVE ARCH ACCEPTED BY NEW YORK BUILDING DEPARTMENT FOR LIVE 
LOAD OF' ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT. 



DDD I 



.xDDDyDQQnOD 



To overcome these disadvantages in the use of terra-cotta 
arches and to meet the competition of cheap and lij^ht so- 
called fireproof floor constructions, and at the same time 
to give a floor that is fireproof, P. H. Bevier, an engineer, 
has designed a new type of arch, which the National Fire- 
proofing Company has recently put upon the market. 

On the twenty-third of November the representatives 
of the various bureaus of buildings of the boroughs of 
Greater New York met at the Perth Amboy factory of the 
company to make the official fire and water test of the 
six-inch flat arch which had been erected twenty-eight 
days previously un- 
der the direction of 
the representative 
of the Department of 
Buildings. The test 
house was built of 
twelve-inch brick 
walls fourteen feet 
by fourteen feet by 
nine feet six inches 
high from the grate 
bars to the underside 
of the arch. The 
arch to be tested was 
six feet wide by four- 
teen feet long, built 
in the center of the 
house, with a nar- 
rower arch on each 
side, and loaded with 
one hundred and fifty 
pounds of brick built 
in detached piers. At 
twelve o'clock noon 
the fire was started, 
using pitch pine and 
hard cord wood, and 
an average tempera- 
ture of 1730 degrees 
Fahrenheit main- 
tained until four p. m. 
At the end of the 
four hours of fire a 
stream of water un- 
der sixty pounds' 
pressure at the pump 
and thrown from a 
one and one-eighth 

inch nozzle was directed against the red-hot underside of 
the arch for five minutes. The top of the arch was then 
flooded for five minutes and the drenching from beneath 
repeated for another five minutes. The arch was then 
allowed to stand over night. 

The next morning the load on the arch was increased 
to six hundred pounds per square foot over the entire 
surface, using hard brick built in isolated piers one 
foot by two feet, so that they did not l)ond, and carried 
thirty-four courses high, or to a height of six feet eight 
inches. The twelve-inch " I " beams deflected about three- 
fourths of an inch under the heat and load, while the 
center of the arch deflected about one inch. The deflec- 
tion of the arch was largely caused l)y the cracking and 



S-O SPAN 



w/tP£ rftuss 



VilRE. TKUSS 



SECTIOrVS 




HALF SECTION THROUGH WIDE SPAN ARCH, SHOWING USE OF MORE THAN 

ONE PIECE OF WIRE TRUSS TO GIVE GREATER STRENGTH IN CENTER 

AND PREVENT SHEARING OF BLOCKS AT ENDS OF ARCH. DEPTH 

OF BLOCKS, NUMBER OF TRUSSES AND SIZE OF WIRES ARK 

PROPORTIONED TO LOAD AND SPAN. 




NEW YORK REINFORCED TERRA-COTTA 'ARCH (HE\IKR PATENT' 



spreading of the top of the fire liouse, allowing the beams 
to spread and the arch to sag. This cracking is clearly 
shown in the illustration. The underside of the arch 
blocks was somewhat checked by the sudden contraction 
caused by the stream of cold water, but the strength of 
the arch was not seriously afl^ected by the ordeal through 
which it had passed, as was shown next day when the six 
hundred pound per scjuare foot load was carried without 
further deflection. 

The arch as tested by the Building Department con- 
sists of six-inch flat terra-cotta end construction blocks 

weighing twenty-two 
pounds per square 
foot, with no middle 
horizontal cross web, 
each block having 
four cells. 

The metal rein- 
forcement is in the 
f(n-m of a wire truss, 
the upper and lower 
chords being com- 
po.sed of two No. 13 
galvanized twisted 
wires and the diago- 
nal members being 
single No. 14 wires. 

Being embedded 
in Portland cement 
mortar the wires are 
preserved from rust, 
and being enclosed in 
terra-cotta they are 
protected from the 
heat. The lower 
chord is about one- 
half inch above the 
bottom of the arch. 
The advantages of 
this style of tension 
member are: 

First. It can be 
made cheaply by ma- 
chiner}- now in use. 

Second. It gives 

a perfect mechanical 

grip to the mortar as 

well as the adhesion 

of cement to the wire. 

1 Itird. When the wires are bedded in the mortar the 

compression members are kept from deflecting under 

pressure, so that it becomes a true truss and acts as a 

beam in itself as well as a tension member in the arch. 

Fourth. It is conveniently shipped on reels, and when 
unrolled the spring of the wire causes it to straighten out, 
its rigidity being equal to that of a piece of band iron of 
ecjual .section. This feature will appeal to any one who 
has ever tried to use ordinary twisted wire in any form of 
arch construction. 

h'iftli. It can be cut to proper lengths on the job by 
hand shears to fit the varying spans between the beams. 

St.vtii. On account of tlie metal being used in two 
cables and connecting wires, it occui)ies less horizontal 



258 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



space than if all the wires were twisted into one cable, 
thi:s permittino' the use of a narrower vertical mortar 
joint than would be possible with one cable. 

Seventh. On account of its peculiar construction, and 
by exposing a large amount of surface to the mortar, the 
bond between the cement and the wire cannot readily be 
broken by sudden jars or vibrations in the arch, as is the 
case where any form of smooth bars is used. 

Eighth. On account of the openwork construction of 
the metal, soft mortar readily flows around all the wires, 
thoroughly embedding them and also forming a continu- 
ous mortar joint through the truss connecting the terra- 
cotta blocks on either side. Where flat band irons are 
used, it being very difficult to keej) the bar exactly in the 
center of the joint, it is impossible in setting to get the 
mortar between the bar and the block, where one side of 
the bar is in contact with it, thus getting only one-half 
the efiiciencv of the metal construction. 




"NEW YORK" KEINKOKCEU TEKK.\-COTTA ARCH. SIX-INCH 

END CONSTRUCTION BLOCKS DOUBLE TRUSS, CARRYING 

SIXTEEN HUNDRED POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT ON 
SIX-FOOT SPAN BY FIVE FEET WIDE. 

Ninth. It is a well-known fact that Portland cement 
is the best preservative of steel known. For this reason 
the wire will last indefinitely to its full efficiency, which 
is not the case where light sections of steel are used in 
cinder concrete, plaster Paris or similar compositions. 

The arch which was tested was six inches deep and 
for a span of six feet between beams, but the same prin- 
ciple can be applied to wider spans by increasing the 
depth of the arch blocks and increasing the thickness of 
wires, or by increasing the number of them in each joint. 

Where the span between beams would be so great that 
the blocks wovild tend to shear off near the beams, this 
tendency is overcome by turning up the ends of some of 
the trusses, as shown in the drawings, while keeping the 
center down to the bottom of the arch, where the greatest 
tensile strength is required. Various methods are shown 
in the drawings for supporting the ends of the arches, 
but these are not peculiar to this arch. 

The cost of this arch is but slightly more than the 



ordinary six-inch end construction arch. The permit 
issued by the New York Bureau of Buildings allows it to 
be used for a live load of one hundred and fifty pounds 
per square foot. The photographs show the test house 
required by the New York regulations and the weight 
carried after the test. The drawings show, more clearly 
than any description, the form of the wire truss used 
and the method of its application. 

The truss is placed on edge and runs from beam to 
beam in the vertical joint between adjoining blocks, the 
joint being about one-half inch wide and the mortar well 
grouted around the wires. 

The experimental development of this construction to 
wide spans is being carried on, but the results are not yet 
ready for publication. There seems to be no question as 
to the possibility of using it up to about sixteen feet be- 
tween supports for light loads. Made of porous terra- 
cotta, it would make an ideal roof construction. 



THE CONCRETE DANGER. 

IN justice to the community there ought to be a decided 
stand taken by every one who is interested in security 
of construction, in permanence of building, against such 
concrete work as we are hearing so much of nowadays. 
A short time since the floors of a courthouse in eastern 
Illinois collapsed almost without warning. Concrete. A 
flooring which was being installed in a large manufactur- 
ing plant at Trenton, N. J., collapsed on December 8 
under a test, and a big .section of it fell from the third story 
through the second and third floors to the basement, kill- 
ing two men, narrowly missing forty others and doing 
twenty thousand dollars' worth of damage. Concrete. A 
few days before, in a large new apartment in Pittsburg, 
sections of each of the floors were totally destroyed by 
the giving way of a section of the fal.se work on the roof. 
One man was killed, two hundred and fifty men were in 
peril of their lives and many thousand dollars' worth of 
damage resulted. The roof fell, taking with it all the 
lower floors through to the basement. Some of the floors 
had been in place about five months. The construction 
consisted of expanded metal and cinders ccmcrete in bays 
of about 16 X 20 feet between beams. Concrete again. 
And so the tale might be extended. The number of con- 
crete constructions which have absolutely collapsed within 
a single year is certainly appalling. Of course their 
failure was due to poor workmanship or poor design. So 
is everything untoward which happens, but that consti- 
tutes a very poor defense of a weak system. The fact 
that other systems fail occasionally is no excuse for the 
use of a concrete which not merely has failed under 
greatly varying circumstances, but has been shown again 
and again to be lacking in the very quality for which it is 
chiefly designed. Why a construction which is imsafe, 
which does not guard against fire, which has killed scores 
of unsuspecting workmen, should be used by an}' intelli- 
gent architect or builder who can read and use his senses 
is one of the mysteries which is by no means fully 
explained by any statement that it is cheap. We do not 
condemn concrete altogether. In its way and in its place, 
for some purpo.ses, it is the most admirable material 
which the builder has at command, but we have yet to 
see any system of concrete floor or column construction 
which in our judgment is fit to be trusted in any building. 



THE B R I C K B U I L U E R 



259 



Selected Miscellany. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE. 

ON the twenty-eighth of November a dinner was 
given to Professor William R. Ware at the Tavern 
Club, Boston, by a number of his former students in 
Boston and New York. The occasion was a most en- 
joyable one in every respect. Professor Ware has been 
before the architectural profession as its foremost teacher 
for thirty-five years, and during that time he has sent out 
to practise architecture something over six hundred 
pupils, without counting those whom he could fairly 



-Xi^v 






DETAIL BY HERTS & 
TALLANT, ARCHITECTS. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta 
Co., Makers. 



STRATFORD APARTMENT, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
William R. Watterson, Architect. 



Style his architectural grand- 
children to even the second and 
third generations. Shortly be- 
fore the war Professor Ware 
in company with Mr. Gambrell 
Mr. Post and a few others, 
studied in the New York studio 
of the late R. M. Hunt. Im- 
mediately after the war he 
opened an office in Boston and 
gathered around him a few 
earnest young men, of whom 
we only mention such names 
as John G. Stearns, Professor 
F. W. Chandler and Robert S. 
Peabody, to show the character 
of those who were attracted by 
Professor Ware's personality 
and his ability to inspire all 
who came in contact with him. 
The Institute of Technology 
was started in the late sixties, 
and owes its present high char- 
acter almost entirely to the 
foundations Professor Ware laid 
so well, and when later he was 
called to Columbia his influence 



PANEL BY BEEZER BROTHERS, ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

Speedily brought the New York school to a 
very high rank. He has practically set the 
standard throughout the country for archi- 
tectural education. John A. Mitchell, of 
/,//<', was one of Professor Ware's earliest 
students who has abandoned architecture. 
Another has made a fortune in running mod- 
erate-priced lunch-rooms in Boston and New 
York. There were others still who for various 
reasons did not pursue architecture as a pro- 
fession, but the greater portion of those who 
once came under Professor Ware's influence 
have held fast to the mother art and have 
risen to some of the highest positions in their 
profession. 

TESTS OF ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA. 

Unquestionably a series of tests which 
would determine the bearing capacity of 
architectural terra-cotta would meet a long- 
felt want among architects. Such tests should begin 
with the crushing weight of solid and cellular blocks of 
various sizes, the latter being submitted to separate tests 
as to their relative strength when filled and when left 




VIEW OF MASONRY ROOF GIRDERS AND ROOF AND K],()OR 

CONSTRUCTION OF STABLE FOR HOWARD GOULD, ESQ. 

BUILDING ABOUT FOUR HUNDRED FEET LONG. 

GUASTAVINO CONSTRUCTION THROUGHOUT. 



26o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



unfilled. Following these should be a test of self-sup- 
porting arch lintels, spanning apertures of var5'ing 
widths, with voussoirs of different depths and with re- 
veals of from four to twelve inches. After this might 
come sections of columns of widely different diameters 
up to the limit allowable in single drums and then iip to 
say three feet diameter, made in sections and filled with 
the customary brick backing. Such tests, to be conchi- 




DETAIL BY \V. K. TUBKV & BROTHER, ARCHITKCTS. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 

sive, should be thorough in character, comprehensive in 
scope and exhaustive in point of tabulated analysis. 

The practical results of such a series of tests would be 
of unquestionable benefit alike to purchaser and producer, 
or — to bring it more directly under the eyes of those im- 
mediately concerned — let us say the architect and terra- 
cotta maker. The former is often in doubt as to what 
would be a safe load, from which he takes refuge in one 




DETAIL BY CLINTON & RUSSELL, ARCHITECIS. 
ICxcelsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

of two alternatives. He introduces iron support, .some- 
times where it is not really wanted or necessary, so as to 
be "on the safe side," or he abandons his previous inten- 
tion of using terra-cotta, substituting stone lintels, and in 
the case of columns uses granite or cast iron. 

The data resulting from such tests would be highly 
reassuring to a man otherwise favorably disposed towards 




LIGHT SHAFT, METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 

BUIL1)IN(;, NEW YORK. 

Lined with BliR' Ridge White Knamel Brick. 

the tise of terra-cotta, and in this category most of our 
best architects may be included. Thus would arise an 
increasing demand for terra-cotta to be placed in situa- 
tions formerly reserved for other materials. Those who 
had not used it before would feel warranted in doing so 
after its strength had been demonstrated, while those 
who had always used it would continue to do so more 
extensivelv than before. 



Rol^ert W. De F(jrcst, the Tenement Hou.se Commis- 
sioner of Xew York Citv, has transmitted to Mavor Low- 




lower I'ART ok WYLLYS BUIL1)IN<;, PI.ATT and WILLIAM 

STREETS, NEW YORK. 

Front brick made by Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Co. 

the first rei^ort of New York's new Tenement House 
Department. In it he says: 



THE HR I C K li V 1 L I)H R 



261 



"On January i, 1902, a new department of the citv 
government, known as the/renement House Deixirtment, 
was created. Since that time all tenement houses in New 
York have been examined and their condition ascertained. 

"Tenement conditions in manv instances have been 



bakeries without proper protection in case of fire; pigs, 
Ljoats, horses and other animals kept in cellars; dan- 
gerous old fire traps without fire escapes; disease-breed- 
ing rags and junk stored in tenement houses; halls kept 
dark at night, endangering the lives and safety of the 




LOGGIA, HOUSE AT THOMPSON, CONN. 







iiMMMM 



■t,_.-> ■-^- 



STAHI.K OF HOUSE AI' THOMPSON, CONN. 
Shfjiley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



found to be so bad as to be indescribable in i)rint: vile 
privies and privy sinks; foul cellars full of rubl)ish, in 
many cases of garbage and decomposing fecal matter; 
dilapidated and dangerous stairs; plumbing pipes con- 
taining large holes emitting sewer gas throughout the 
houses; rooms so dark that one cannot see the people in 
them; cellars occiipied as .sleeping i)laces; dangerous 



occupants; l)uildings without adecjuatc water supply; the 
list might be added to almost indefinitely. 

"The cleansing of the Augean stal)les was a small 
task compared to the cleansing of New York's 82,000 
tenement houses, occupied by nearly three millions of 
peoi)le rei)resenting every nationality and every degree 
in the social .scale. 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL BV V. HUGO KOEIILER, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

"The task that confronted the department was not, 
however, limited to thi.s. Without organization, without 
employees, with all its problems before it, it was on the 
very day that it came into existence confronted with an 
organized and vigorous attack in the Legislature upon 
the fundamental principles of the law for whose enforce- 
ment it was created. 

" Without previous records, with almost no informa- 
tion in regard to the condition of the existing tenement 




DETAIL BY HOWELLS *■ STOKES, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

houses, it was called upon to carry out an important and 
far-reaching scheme for their improvement, involving 
the structural alteration of over 40,000 buildings. 

"In the period under consideration in this report a 
new branch of the city government has been organized, 
its machinery created and a force of about four hundred 
employees trained, disciplined and educated ; far-reach- 
ing and important advances in legislation have been 
secured as a result of the department's action, and radi- 
cal and vicious attempts to break down the tenement 
laws defeated. 

"Living accommodations for 16,768 families, or 



83,840 persons, have been provided in .sanitary, comfort- 
able and decent houses, each one of which has been 
built according to law ; notorious evasion of and non-com- 
pliance with the laws have given place to their complete, 
uniform and impartial enforcement; the evil of prostitu- 
tion has been practically aliolished in the tenement houses; 








DETAIL BV BORING & TILTON, ARCHITECTS. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

337,246 inspections have been made; 55,055 violations 
filed; 21,584 repairs made to plumbing; 13,617 water- 
closets cleaned; ii,6ii accumulations of filth removed 
from cellars and other parts of such buildings; 13,732 
ceilings cleaned; 15,364 walls cleaned; 10,060 unsafe 
wooden floors removed from iron fire escapes, and new 
iron floors substituted ; 1,701 fire escapes erected on build- 
ings that before were without this protection. 

"The registration of 44,500 owners' names has been 




HIGH SCHOOL, TROV, N. Y. 

M. F. Cummings & Son, Architects. 

Terra-Cotta furnished by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D K R 



263 




ST. MARGARETS HOSPITAL, I'lTTSKURG, PA. 

Krnest Flagg, Architect. 

Roofed with eight-inch Conosera Tile made by Celadon Roofing Tile Co. 



secured, thus fixing the re- 
sponsibility for bad condi- 
tions in the tenements; con- 
tagious disease has been 
checked and prevented ; 32,- 
825 citizens' complaints have 
been investigated and the 
conditions complained of 
remedied; and an important 
tabulation and presentation 
of the population in every 
tenement house block in the 
Borough of Manhattan has 
been prepared that will be 
of incalculable value to the 
city. 

"The existing tenement 
houses have been frequently 
and systematically insjjected ; 
foul cellars have had the 
accumulated filth of years 
removed; defective and un- 
sanitary plumbing, which 
has apparently existed for 
long periods, has been reme- 
edied ; houses unfit for hu- 
man habitation vacated ; 
hundreds of houses have 
been radically reconstructed 
and improved ; light has been 
let into dark rooms ; vile yard 




privies and privy sinks have 
been remov'cd, and the whole 
sanitary condition of tlic city 
raised to a higher standard. 
The results of this work are 
clearly reflected in the re- 
duced death rate, which in 
1902 was 18.7 as compared 
with 20 in 1 90 1, and in the 
first eight months of 1903 
has been reduced to icS." 



HOUSE, CO.MMONWKAI.TH AVENUE, KOSTON. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

Built of Sayre & Kisher Co. Brick. 



roofinct tiles. 

Many years ago we had 
the interesting experience of 
measuring the central tower 
of the Cathedral at Toro, 
Spain. Our only means of 
access to llic tower was by 
climbing ladders set against 
the walls of the nave and 
thence walking across the 
low pitch roof, which was 
covered with the light i"ed 
scnii-cylindrical roofing tiles 
which are so interesting a 
feature of vSpanish architec- 
ture. We would not dare to 
say how many of these frail 
coverings were broken be- 
neath our rougli American 



•64 



THK B R I C K BU I L I)H R 



shoes, but we heard them cracking at every step. When 
tiles were first introduced to this country they were un- 
fortunately many of them quite as friable as the soft 



interesting, particularly, because of the work of the local 
men which is illustrated, and further as indicating that the 
club seems to be in a healthy and prosi)erous condition. 
About three hundred drawings were exhibited. 





RED CLAY ROOFING TILES WITH INTERCH ANCJEA HI.K KEI) CI.AV ROOKINc; TILES WITH INTERCHANGEABLE 

GLASS TILES ON WOODEN CONSTRUCTION. (iLASS TILES ON IRON CONSTRUCTION. 

Henrv Maurer & Son, Mamifaclurers. 



Spanish tiles, and a considerable prejudice existed against 
them for a long time. But the construction of roofing 
tiles has been brought to a very high state of perfection 
of late years, until now the market affords most excellent 
tiles which compare very favorably with those which are 
manufactured abroad as to color and texture, and are at 
the same time extremely durable, so that if properly ap- 
plied a tile roof need cause very little trouble from re- 
pairs. One of the most annoying sources of trouble in a 
tile roof is the joints about the skylight and the difficulty 
of making the glass tight without building an unpleasing 
frame to project from the surface of the tiling. This diffi- 
culty, however, is obviated by the use of clear glass tile.s, 
which can be had of shapes and sizes identical with the red 
tiles, through which light is admitted to any required ex- 
tent. F"or factories, stations and railroad sheds these 
tiles, with the glass set in, give a very handsome roof, re- 
quiring the minimum of repair. 



Mr. F. W. Fitzjiatrick has opened offices as con- 
sulting architect in Washington, New York, and Chi- 
cago. He stands ready to supply a long-felt need on 
the part of many architects who will be glad to know 
of some one to whom they can turn when the office force 
is inadequate and there are not enough hands to do the 
work, or when special emergencies call for a kind of 
experience entirely outside of ordinary practice. Mr. 
Fitzpatrick has associated with him a corps of most 
eminent specialists. 

WANTED. HV AN EXPERIENCED DESIGNER' 
AND DRAUGHTSMAN, A POSITION WITH RE 
SPONSIBLE ARCHITECTURAL FIRM HAVIN(i 
PLENTY OF WORK. ADDRESS DRAUGHTSMAN, 
CARE OF THE BRICKBUILDER. 



NOTES. 
The Boston Architectural Club held during this month 
an exhibition and sale of sketches and water colors which 
were donated to the club by members and friends. 
Among them were drawings by C. Howard Walker, R. 
Clipston Sturgis, R. S. Peabody, Dwight Blaney, W. G. 
Preston, H. B. Pennell, William R. Emerson, R. D. 
Andrews, George F. Newton, S. W. Mead, E. F. Maher, 
H. P. White and others. The proceeds of this sale will 
be devoted to the benefit of the class and scholarship 
funds of the club. 

We have received the catalogue of the second annual 
exhibition of the San Francisco Architectural Club. It is 




RCMITECTURAU 

PERSPECTIVE and MECHANICAL 

D RAW I IN O 

TAUOHX BY MAIL 



COURSES OF ESPECIAL INTEREST TO ARCHITECTS AND 
DRAUGHTSMEN. IN ELECTRICAL, STEAM AND CIVIL ENGI- 
NEERING. HEATING, VENTILATION AND PLUMBING, AR- 
CHITECTURE, CARPENTRY AND BUILDING, AND A FULL 
CURRICULUM OF OTHER ENGINEERING SUBJECTS 

SPECIAL. .\ spetiinen instruction paper cm Perspective 
Drawing, IJodIc in K. prepared by Prof. W. H. Lawrence, 
.\rchitectural Dept.. Mass. Inst, of Tech,, will be sent upon 
receipt of Kl VH -c. stamps to cover cost of postage. 

Illustrated 200-page Bulletin sent FREE upon request. 
AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 



it Armour Institute of Technolovry 



CMICAOO, ILL 




COXE MEMORIAL HALL, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, HOBART COLLEGE, GENEVA, N- Y. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 




MEDBURY HALL, DORMITORY, HOBART COLLEGE. GENEVA, N. Y. 
Clinton & Russell, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JANUARY, 

1903. 



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HuNj &. Hunt, Architects. 



THC BRICKBUILOCR, 

JANUARY, 

1903. 







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FRONT ELEVATION. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR BUILDING FOR THE FOUNDRY M. E. CHURCH. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Warren, Smith &. Biscoe, Architects. 

(ftjicto riRtT tr 1HC riiori»Moii«L aoviaeh. ) 

THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

JANUARY, 

1903. 




NEW BUILDING FOR THE NEW ENGLAND CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC, BOSTON, MASS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

FEBRUARY, 

1903. 



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RECITATION HALL, VASSAR COLLEGE, POUGHKEEPSI E, N. Y. 

York & Sawyer, Architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
FEBRUARY, 

1903. 



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ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

FAULKNER HOSPITAL, WEST ROXBURY, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

FEBRUARY, 

1903. 




VIEW OF THE AISLES. 




VIEW GIVING DETAILS OF APSES AND CHOIR. 

CHURCH OF SAINT-SERNIN, TOULOUSE, FRANCE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

MARCH, 

1903. 



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LECTURE HALL, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

Guy Lowell, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

MARCH, 

1903. 




GKNEHAL Vlb.W SHOWING Ai^Sh-o, CH U HGH OK SAI Nl-SiiHN 1 N, TOULOUSE, FRANCE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

MARCH, 

1903. 




HOUSE AT PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
Stone Carpcnter & Willson. Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 

MARCH, 

1903. 











ENTRANCE VESTIBULE. 

OFFICE BUILDING, 457 AND 463 EAST lOTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY 

Wilkinson & Magonigle, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

MARCH, 

1903. 



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DETAIL or ■,■/. ;, . I .„. 
BUILDING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY, PHILLIPS ACADEMY, ANDOVER, MASS. 

Guy Lowell, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1903. 



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bO/iHU UF 'i'KADE BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS, 

WiNSLOW & BiGELOW, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1903. 



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HOTEL TOURAINE, BOSTON, MASS. 

WiNSLOW & WETHERELL, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 
1903. 



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DETAIL OF FACADE, THE ROCHESTER ATHLETIC CLUB, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
Leon Stern and Bragdon & Hillman, Associate Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1903. 



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THE ROCHESTER ATHLETIC CLUB, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 
Leon Stern and Bragdon & Hillman, Associate Architects, 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1903. 



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REAR ELEVATION. 




I-UOUJ ELEVATION. 

GYMNASIUM, GROTON SCHOOL, GROTON, MASS. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1903. 




HOUSE AT I'ENLLYN, PA. 
A. W. LoMgfellow Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1003. 




HOUSE AT LARCHMONT MANOR, N. Y. 

Ward W. Ward, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1903- 





HOUSE AND STABLE RADNOR, PA. 
Peabody & Stearns Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1903. 



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HOUSE AT WAHREN, R. I. 
Charles A. Platt, Architect 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JULY, 
1903. 




HOUSE AT LLOYD'S NECK, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Boring & Tilton, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1903. 



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HOUSE AT SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
Benson & Brockway, Architects. 



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AUGUST, 

1903. 



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HOUSE AT LLOYD'S NECK, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 
Boring & Tilton, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1903. 



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HOUSE, BUENA PARK, ILL. 
George W. Maher, Architect. 




HOUSE AT OAK PARK, ILL. 
George w. Maher Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1 903. 



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HOUSE, BUENA PARK, ILL. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1903. 



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HOUSE AT OVERSTRAND, NEAR CRAMER, ENGLAND. 

E. L. LuTYENS, Architect. 




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HOUSE AT HUNTLY, CAMBRIDGESHIRE, ENGLAND. 
Horace Field, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1903. 




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HOUSE AT PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1903. 




HOUSE, 5220 EAST END AVENUE CHICAGO. Pond & Pond, Architects. 




HOUSE, 5749 WOODLAWN AVENUE CHICAGO. Pond & Pond Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1903. 




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DINING HALL, PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY EXETER N. H. 

Edward Pearce Casey, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1903. 




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APARTMENT HOUSE, CHICAGO. James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 




APARTMENT HOUSE, CLARK STREET, EVANSTON. Myron Hunt Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

NOVEMBER, 

1003. 



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HOUSE AT THOMPSON, CONN. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



THE BRICK8UILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1903. 



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TOWN HALL, NEEDHAM, MASS. WmsLow & Bigelow, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1903. 



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PUBLIC LIBRARY, MONTCLAIR, N. J. 
John Galen Howard and D. Everett Waid, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 

DECEMBER, 

1903. 




CITY CLUB 55 AND 57 WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 
DECEMBER, 

1903. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 1. PLATE 1. 





SIXTH FLOOR. 



SEVENTH f;_oor. 





FOURTH FLOOR. 



FIFTH FLOOR. 





SECOND FLOOR. 



THIRD FLOOR. 




BASEMENT. 




FIRST FLOOR. 



(■UlLOIflQ ILLUSTRATCO ON PAOC 1>.) 

FLOOR PLANS, THE BABIES' HOSPITAL OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 

LEXINGTON AVENUE AND 50TH STREET. 

York & Sawyer, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. I. PLATE 2. 



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SIDE ELEVATIONS. 

COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR BUILDING FOR THE FOUNDRY M. E. CHURCH, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Edgar V. Seeler, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 1. 



PLATE 7. 





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VOL. 12. NO. 1. 






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BUILDER. 

PLATES 3 and 6. 





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VOL. 12. NO. 2. PLATE 9. 




afe:'.?y;w ."'-- '>~"---"'.i xxii^'.-iv.''-^:::i? ■ ■■ «*»■ 



aeiisslfcife^ 



SECTION. DWELLING FOR NURSES, BOSTON CITY HOSPITAL, BOSTON, MASS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 12. NO. 2. 



PLATE 10. 



i-9# •■»*»*-»■*-♦ 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLAN.S, RECITATION HALL, VASSAR COLLEGE. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 2. PLATE 12. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 2. PLATE 13. 





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WARD BUILDING. 




FIRST FLOOR, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



FAULKNER HOSPITAL, WEST ROXBURY, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



* 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 12. NO. 2. 



PLATE 14. 





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VOL. 12. NO. 2. PLATE 15. 






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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL. 12. NO. 2. 



PLATE 16. 




U--&':.:.ia:a_....'i!^3L..J 



FOURTH FLOOR PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 

PLANS, DWELLING FOR NURSES, BOSTON CITY HOSPITAL, BOSTON, MASS. 



•lL^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 3. PLATE 17. 




REcePTioiii: Room 
33 xiV» 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



PLANS, Y. M. C. A. BUILDING, AKRON, OHIO 
Bunts & Bliss, Architects. 



ir 



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THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 12. NO. 3. PLATE 18. 



JBCTICffVS-S- 



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V£iV77CAL SGCTJC27V 



DETAILS, OFFICE BUILDING 457 AND 463 EAST iOTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

Wilkinson & Magonigle, Architects. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 12. NO. 3. PLATE 19. 




-A/K J - t XVXAiaU 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH CORRIDOR. 




COMPETITIVE DE.SIGN FOR ONEIDA COUNTY COURTHOUSE, UTICA, N. Y. 

Green & Wicks, Architects. 



t 





THE BRICK; 

VOL. 12. NO. 3. 






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VOL. 12. NO. 3. PLATE 22. 







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VOL. 12. NO. 3. . PLATE 23. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 3. PLATE 24. 








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VOL. 12. NO. 4. 




28 



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PLATES 28 and 29. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 4. 



PLATE 25. 




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THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 5. PLATE 32. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, BUILDING FOR DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY, PHILLIPS ACADEMY, ANDOVER, MASS. 

Guy Lowell, Architect. 



r H E B R I C 

VOL. 12. NO. 4. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 5. PLATE 33. 



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MAIN FLOOR. SECOND FLOOR. 

PLANS, MORGAN PARK GYMNASIUM, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, CHICAGO. 

DwiGHT H. Perkins, Architect. 




BoiueH 



BASEMENT FLOOR. 



MAIN FLOOR. 



PLANS, GYMNASIUM AND AUDITORIUM FOR UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO SETTLEMENT, CHICAGO. 

DwiGHT H. Perkins, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 5. PLATE 40. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, GROTON SCHOOL. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN, GROTON SCHOOL. 




BASEMENT PLAN, GROTON SCHOOL. 





GALLERY FLOOR PLAN, PHILLIPS ACADEMY. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, PHILLIPS ACADEMY. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN, PHILLIPS ACADEMY. 



THE BRIC ^ 

VOL. 12. NO. 5. 





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VOL. 12. NO. 5. 







DESIGN FOR A CHURCH 
Shepley, Rutan & 



BUILDER 



PLATES 35 and 38 







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THE BRIC 

VOL. 12. NO. 5. 



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THE B R I C 

VOL. 12. NO. 6. 



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VOL. 12. NO. 6. 





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PLATES 42 and 47. 



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VOL. 12. NO. 6. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 6. 





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PLATES 44 and 45. 




COURTYARD ~ 




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THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 7. PLATE 49. 





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BASEMENT PLAN. 

PLANS, HOUSE, BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON, MASS. 
Peters & Rice, Architects. 



L'apciAT2'--)or 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 7. PLATE 56. 



Po R T rc''-> T-?f ^'r= 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, HOUSE AT WARREN, R. L 
Charles A. Platt, Architect. 



THE BRI Pv 

VOL. 12. NO. 7. 



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VOL. 12. NO. 7. 





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VOL. 12. NO. 7. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 

CHAPEL, UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS, MD 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



BUILDER. 

PLATES 52 and 53. 




CrLA- i..."l •/ A"-j 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 

CHAPEL, UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY, ANNAPOLIS. MD. 

Ernest Flagg, Architect. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 8. PLATE 57. 



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GYMNASIUM FLOOR. 




RUNNING TRACK LEVEL. 



PLANS. 

CINCINNATI GYMNASIUM AND ATHLETIC CLUB, 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Werner & Adkins, Architects. 




PLAN, HOUSE, LLOYDS NECK, L. I. Boring & Tilton, Architects. 



VOL. 



THE 

12. NO. 8. 



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BASEMENT PLAN. 

CINCINNATI GYMNASIUM AND ATHLETIC CLUB, CINCINNATI. OHIO. 



THE BRI CKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 8. PLATE 59. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 8. 





UILDER. 

PLATES 60 and 61. 




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FOURTH FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



EGE HOSPITAL, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
r Waid, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 8. PLATE 62. 




CHAPEL IN PALAZZO DEL TYRCO, SIENA, ITALY. 
Measured and Drawn by William L. Welton, Rotch Traveling Scholar. 



LDER. 

PLATES 58 and 63. 




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VOL. 12. NO 



PLATE 64. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 9. PLATE 66. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 



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FRONT ELEVATION. 

HOSPITAL AT PLYMOUTH. MASS. 
William Atkinson, Architect. 



THE B R I C K BIM L D F R . 

VOL. 12. NO. 9. PLATE 67. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




FRONT ELEVATION, HOUSE, OAK PARK, ILL. 
George w. Maher, Architect. 



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VOL. 12. NO. 9. 





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PLATES 68 and 69. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 9. PLATE 70. 





SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



THIf^D FlOC R PL^r . 




EAVE^flEaMT 





GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



PLANS, HOUSE FOR DR. GEORGE S. ISHAM, CHICAGO, ILL. 
James Gamble Rogers, Architect, 



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thp: brickbuilder. 

VOL. 12. NO. 9. PLATE 7L 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

HOSPITAL AT PLYMOUTH, MASS. 
William Atkinson, Architect. 






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THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 10. PLATE 73. 



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SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. L_: 




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BASEMENT PLAN. 

PLANS, EDWARD WYMAN SCHOOL, 
William B. Ittner, Architect. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



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THE B1 

VOL. 12. NO. 10. 





ST. JOHNS HALL (FOR EDUCATION 

JOHNak 



IlLI I L D E R . 

! ■ PLATES 74 and 79. 



St Johns Hall. 




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.RCHITECT. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 12. NO. 10. PLATE 80. 




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FOURTH FLOOR PLAN. 



THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



PLANS, HOME FOR THE FRIENDLESS AND FEMALE GUARDIAN SOCIETY, NEW YORK CITY. 

William Burnet Tuthill, Architect. 



THE B R I dl 

VOL. 12. NO. 10. 




BUILDER. 

PLATES 75 and 78. 



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PLATES 76 and 77. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 

^TION, ECSTON. J. A. Schweinfurth, Architect. 



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THE BRIC 

VOL. 12. NO. 11. 







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VOL. 12. NO. 11. 





FIRST FLOC Im 



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PLATES 82 and 87. 





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FRONT lV'i\ 

JAMES E YEATMAN SCHOOL, ST. OJl: 





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BUILDER. 

PLATES 84 and 85 




,;»/ATION. 

OUIS, MO. William B. ITTNER, Architect. 





IGH SCHOOLS, ST, LOUIS, MO. William B. Ittner, Architect. 



THE BRICHU 



VOL. 12. NO. 12. 




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PLATES 89 and 96. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 12. 





THIRD PLOC 




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PLATES 91 and 94. 



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FRONT ELEVATION. 



■IMEW YORK CITY. Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BR IC 

VOL. 12. NO. 12. 




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PLATES 92 and 93. 




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VOL. 12. NO. 12. 






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PLATES 90 and 95. 




^^ HOUSE AT THOMPSON, CONN. 
; JLiDGE, Architects. 



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